Skip to main content

Full text of "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society"

See other formats


% 4 




/ xm / x 

\ 4^ M^m, \ J? 







Wv 







Wu 









\ tef^ % lip # \ « - v| 

II! '>f, >K , II I O. -iX /KfeTISS-iSiA Ta rV , J !« II' 1 I ;; ! 'VC 











*r5{l v> r 

' rv ^" "'^ — 'Xs ^^^^ <£"* 

4 







■£ ^ 



A, 






%::.:. 




',"^r b '^% ^fiif ^\ -^s v c^\ 

W '«5 'k, ,i|| lil £i * Alil^lill , ^ -/v fell ^ 4^ 




:<, 



^ . ■•.''^■.■f-T;;- 



■t I 



'l- i; .■■■.-. 



H> ^ 







; - 



<\ v 




^ 






^1 









----- 



r'r 



^ 



~ —;_ # % I - \ i #' \ SB 11113 * \# x V 






IS; 






J" ** 







I I s^ 



Sir G F.HAMPSON, Journ.BomL.Nat.Hist. Soc. 



Plate F 




Horace Knight del.et lith. 



West", Newman chromo. 



INDIAN MOTHS. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA- 



This Plate (Plate F.) and the explanation of the plate should 
face page 1046 of this Volume. 

Plate (x. will appear in a subsequent number. 

Eds. 



• 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA 



Explanation of Plate F. 



I 



1. 
2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



mustilia phieopeka. 
Andeaca albilunata. 
Leucoma thyridoptera. 
Parasa metathermes. 

MlRESA PHOCEA. 
MlRESA METATHERMISTIS. 
Arbela CAMPBELLI. 
PHALERA OCHROP1S. 
Natada FULVIDORSIA. 
Tetraphleps FERROGRISEA. 
Marumba microta. 
Fpipyrops poliographa. 
Ampelophaga obliqujfascia. 
Sphecosesia pedunculata. 

LEPIDOPODA ANDREP1CLERA tf 
OXYPLAX FULVATA. 

Hypolamprus LEPRAOTA. 
Pentateucha curiosa. 



19. KhODONEURA DI8COPIS. 

20. ^Egeria cyanopasta. 

21. Natada fulvimixta. 

22. MlRESA PYRONOTA. 

23. Marumba poliotis. 

24. Arbela minima. 

25. Rhagastis leucocraspis. 

26. ^Egeria pyrodisca. 

27. Lepidopoda andrepiclera $ 

28. Phalacra rufa. 

29. l^lia fulvata. 

30. Sangatissa arctiades. 

31. euproctis xanthocep8. 

32. mlltochrista ocellata. 

33. Phalacra tenera. 

34. Preparctja hannygntoni. 

35. Chadiska semiferrea. 



THE BHARAL (OVIS NAHURA.) 



This Plate should face page 1030 of this Volume. 

Eds. 



Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 




The Bharal (Ovis naliura). 

Top : Young male, 16 months old. Middle : Male, 3 years old. 

Bottom : Female, 2 years old, with kid. 



The Editors regret the delay in issuing this number of the 
Journal, but it was unavoidable owing to pressure of work at the 
printers'. 

1 Hh December 1911. 



,<il2> 



THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 




Bombay Natural History Society, 



EDITED BY 

W. S. MILLARD, 
R. A. SPENCE and N. B. KINNEAR. 



VOL. XX. 

Consisting of Five Parts and containing Eleven Coloured 
Plates, Forty-one Lithographed Plates, Diagrams 
and Maps and Twenty-eight Blocks. 



Dates of Publication. 

Patt 1 (Pages 1 to 257) Uth Jum, VjIQ. 

„ IICFages 259 to 545) 12th Oct., 1910. 

„ III (Pages Ul to %W) 31st Jan., 1911. 

„ IV.QPages QOlto 1185) 20th May, 1911. 

„ V (Index, <£*.) 30ih Oob 1911 



M o m b a j} : 

PRINTED AT THE TIMES PRESS. 



296311 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XX. 

No. 1. 

Page 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Intro- 
duction and Part I. The Woodcock. (With Plate 
I.) By E. 0. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u. ... 1 

The Palms of British India and Ceylon, Indigenous and 
Introduced. Introduction. (With Plate I and Map 
A.) By E. Blatter, s.j 33 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. 
Part XIII. Ancistrodon himalayanus and Psammody- 
nastes pulverulentus. (With Plate XIII, Diagram and 
Map.) By Major F. Wall, i.m.s., C.m.z.s. (Continued 
from page 792 of Vol. XIX) 65 

On the Nomenclature of the Indian Hedgehogs. By K. 

C. Wroughton, f.z.s 80 

The Moths of India. Supplementary paper to the Volumes 
in the " Fauna of British India." Series IV, Part I. 
By Sir George F.Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s 83 

Orchids of the Bombay Presidency. Part X. (With 
Plate X.) By G. A. Gammie, F.L.S. (Continued from 
page 626 of Vol. XIX) .". 126 

The Butterflies of Kumaun. Part I. (With a Map.) 

By F. Hannyngton, i.c.s 130 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. XL By E. 

Meyrick, b.a., f.e.s. , f.z.s 143 

On the Birds of Kohat and the Kurram Valley, 
Northern India. Part I. By Capt. C. H. T. 
Whitehead 169 

A Tamarix Association. By William Burns, b. sc. (Edin.) Jj* 198 

Note on the Circulation of Galijcopteris floribunda. By 

John Wallace, C.E 201 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

Reviews. — " The Fauna of India," (Dermaptera). By 

M. Burr 203 

;t Indian Insect Life," a Mammal of the 

Insects of the Plains (Tropical India) 205 

" Insect Intruders in Indian Homes." By E. 

P. Stebbing 207 

" Transactions of the Bombay Medical Con- 
gress, 1909" 209 

Miscellaneous Notes. — 

I. The call of the Sloth-Bear. By F. Dewar, 

i.c.s 213 

II. Distribution of the Sloth-Bear or Indian Bear 
(Melursus ursinus). T>y Lt.-Col. L. L. 
Fenton 213 

III. The Baluchistan Bear. By Lt.-Col. L. L. 

Fenton 214 

IV. A Record Panther. By N. B. Kinnear 214 

V. Jackal hunting with Wild Dogs. By Major 

H. W. Berthon 215 

VI. The Rudimentary Clavicles of a Panther. By 

Major H. W. Berthon 216 

VII. Sloth-Bear calling her young when attacked. 

By W. Gaye 217 

VIII. Birds feeding their Young. By G. S. P. 

Percival '. 218 

IX. Nidification of the Saras Crane. By Capt. 

A. H. Mosse 218 

X. The Food of the Rufous-backed Shrike (Lanius 

erythronotus) . By Major H. A. F. Magrath. 218 
XL Occurrence of the Bronze-capped Teal 
(Eunetta falcata) near Roorkee. By Lieut. 

E. H. Kelly, r.e 219 

XII. Woodcock (Scolopajx rusticola) in Kanara. By 

T. R. Bell 219 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

XIII. Occurrence of the Eastern Solitary Snipe 

(G. solitaria) at Haka, Chin Hills. By 

F. E. W. Venning 219 

XIV. Doves nesting on the ground. By Lt.-Col. 

L. L. Fenton 220 

XV. Occurrence of the Lesser Flamingo (Phoeni- 
conaias minor) in Kathiawar. By Lt.-Col. 
L, L. Fenton 221 

XVI. Breeding of the Great Stone Plover (Esacus 

recurvirostris) . By H. R. S. Hasted 221 

XVII. Two Birds' Nests from Tibet. By Capt. F. M. 

Bailey 221 

XVIII. Bird Notes from a homeward bound steamer in 

November. By Major H. A. F. Magrath. 222 

XIX. The Smew (Mergus albellus). By Lieut. R. 

Francis 224 

XX. Boiler catching its prey in the water. By 

Major H. Delme Radcliffe 225 

XXI. Shrikes' Larders. By Capt. J. R. J. Tyrrell, 

i.m.s '. 226 

XXII. Occurrence of the Lesser Florican or Likh 
(Sypheotis aurita) out of season. By Capt. 
J. B. J. Tyrrell, i.m.s 227 

XXIII. Shrikes' Larders. By Major H. A. F. Magrath 227 
XXIV. A Snake flirtation. By Coleridge Beadon... 228 

XXV. The Food of Crocodiles. By Capt. H. W. 

Forsyth, e.e 228 

XXVI. Remarks on the Varieties and Distribution of 
the Common Green Whipsnake (Dryophis 
mycterizans). By Major F. Wall, I.M.S., 
c.m.z.s 229 



CONTENTS 



Page 



XXV [I. Note on the Breeding of Echis carinata. 
By Lt.-Col. W. B. Bannerman, i.m.s., m.d., 
d.sc 230 

XXVIII. Notes on the viviparus habit of Jerdon's Pit 
Viper (Lachesis jerdoni) and observations 
on the foetal tooth in the unborn embryo. 
By Major F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 231 

XXIX. Large Mahseer. By N. B. Kinnear 234 

XXX. Entomological Notes : — 

By H. Maxwell-Lefroy, T. V. Ram Krishna 

Aiyar and H. H. Mann 235 

XXXI. The Distinctions between Terias silhetana 
and Terias hecabe. By Lt.-Col. N. Manders, 
r. a.m.c 245 

XXXII. A Giant Sunflower (Helianthus annmis, 

Linn.). By S. V. Shevade 246 

XXXIII. Scientific Nomenclature. By F. E. W. 

Venning 248 

XXXIV. The preservation of Natural History Speci- 

mens. By Gordon Dalgleish 249 

Proceedings of the Meeting of Members of the Bombay 

Natural History Society held on 3rd February 1910... 251 

Proceedings of the Meeting of Members of the Bombay 

Natural History Society held on 7th April 1910 255 



No. 2. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part II. 
The Eastern Solitary Snipe and the Wood Snipe. 
(With Plates II and III.) By E. C. Stuart Baker, 

F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.E.O.U 259 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part 

VIII. By T. B. Bell, i.f.s 279 



CONTENTS. vii 

Page 

A Collection of the Ophiadia from the Chin Hills. 
(With notes on the same by Major F. Wall, I.M.S., 
C.m.z.s.) By F. E. W. Venning 331 

A new Tropidonotus from the Chin Hills. (Tropidonotus 

venningi, sp. n.) By Major F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s. ... 345 

The Palms of British India and Ceylon, Indigenous 
and Introduced. Part II. (With Plates II, III, IV 
anclV.) By E. Blatter, s. J 347 

The Butterflies of Kumaun. Part II. By F. Hannyng- 

ton, i.c.s 361 

A Further List of Birds on the Bhamo District, 
Upper Burma. By Major H. H. Harington (92nd 
Punjabis) 373 

A List of the Butterflies of the Palni Hills. By 
Capt. W. H. Evans, R. E. (With a Note on Migration, 
by J. Evershed) 380 

The Natural History of Bombay Malaria. (With Plates 
I and II) By Charles A. Bentley, m.b., cm. (Edin.), 
d.h.p., d.t.m. & h. (Camb.) 392 

Additions and Corrections to certain Local Butterfly 

Lists. By Captain W. H. Evans, r. e 423 

A Preliminary List of the Fishes of Tirhoot, Bengal. 

By Gordon Dalgliesh 428 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. Part XII. 

By E. Meyrick, b.a., f.r.s., f.z.s 435 

Notes relating to the Distribution, Habits and Nidifica- 
tion of Gerthia himalayana, Vigors (The Himalayan 
Tree-Creeper), in and around Simla and the adja- 
cent Banges. By P. T. L. Dodsworth, f.z.s 463 

Plants of the Punjab. A Brief Descriptive Key to the 
Flora of the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province 
and Kashmir. Part VI. By Colonel C. J. Bamber, 
i.m.s. , f.l.s 



viii CONTENTS. 

Page 

Eeview — Catalogue of the Lepidoptera PhalgenaB in the 

British Museum. Vol. IX 503 

The Shooting Season, 1908-1909. By N. B. Kinnear ... 508 
Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. Pood of the Hoolock or White-browed Gib- 
bon. By J. C. H. Mitchell 512 

II. Vitality of a Tiger. By W. J. H. Ballantine. 512 

III. Panther found away from its usual haunts. 

By R. H. Heath 513 

IV. The Call of the Sloth Bear. By Captain R. 

T. Foster 513 

V. Occurrence of the Ermine (Putorius erminea) 
in Chitral. By Major F. Wall, i.m.s., 
c.m.z.s 514 

VI. Tapir (Tapirus inclicus) near houses. By J. B. 

Mercer Adam, f.c.h 515 

VII. Notes on Tigers. By J. B. Mercer Adam, 

f.c.h 515 

VIII. Intelligence displayed by Short-billed Mini- 
vets (Pericrocotus brevi rosins') when their 
nests are in danger. By P. T. L. Dods- 
worth, f.z.s 516 

IX. The Himalayan Greenfinch. By P. T. L. 

Dodsworth, f.z.s 517 

X. Note on the Spotted Munia (JJrolonclia 
punctulata) and the Indian Red Munia 
(Sporceginthus amandava). By C. M. Inglis. 517 
XL Note on Blyth's Baza (Baza jerdoni). By E. 

A. D'Abreu, f.z.s. 518 

XII. Occurrence of the Lesser Flamingo (Phoeni- 
conaias minor) in Kathiawar. By Captain 
A. H. E. Mosse, i.a 518 



CONTENTS. ix 

Page 

XIII. Pied Imperial Pigeon and Sheldrake in Arra- 

can. By N. B. Kinnear 518 

XIV. A Breeding Ground of the Ibis-Bill (IUcloryn- 

clms struthersi). By S. L. Wlrymper 519 

XV. A variety of the Pea-Fowl. By J. B. Mercer 

Adam, f.C.h 520 

XVI. The Indian White-Eye (Zoster ops palpe- 
brosa). By Major H. H. Harington (92nd 

Punjabis) 520 

XVII. The importance of correctly identifying 
Poisonous Snakes. By Major F. Wall, 

I. M.S., c.m.z.s 521 

XVIII. A fatal case of Viperine Poisoning. By 

Major F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 522 

XIX. Food of Crocodiles. By P. T. L. Dodsworth, 

f.z.s 52? 

XX. Another fatal instance of Viperine Poisoning. 

By Captain C. H. Eeinhold, i.m.s 524 

XXI. Varieties of the Common Green Whipsnake 
(Dryophismycterizans'). By Major F. Wall, 
i.m.s 524 

XXII. Fishing in Burma. By J. B. Mercer Adam, 

f.C.h 525 

XXIII. Note on Dr. Bentley's Paper " The Natural 

History of Malaria." By Lt.-Col. W. B. 
Bannerman, i.m.s 525 

XXIV. Pairing of the Spider Nephila maculata, Fabr. 

By C. E. C. Fischer 526 

XXV. Further Note on the Spider Nephila maculata. 

By C. E. C. Fischer 528 

XXVI. Biological Note on Aphnceus hypargyrus. 
(With a Plate.) By Captain F. C, Fraser, 
i.m.s 528 



x CON TENTH 

Page 

XXVII. fmtomological Notes — Croce filipenrAs, West. 
{With a Plate.) By C. C. Ghosh, Assist, to 
Imp. Entomologist 530 

XXVIII. The Food of Dragon-Flies. By F. J. 

Mitchell 533 

XXIX. New Volumes of the " Fauna." By Dr. N. 

Annandale 533 

XXX. Scientific Nomenclature. By E. Meyrick, 

B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S 534 

Proceedings of the Meeting of Members held on 23rd 

June 1910 535 

Proceedings of the Meeting of Members held on 25th 

August 1910 538 

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Baluchistan 

Natural History Society 541 

No. 3. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part III. 
The Common or Fantail Snipe, Radde's Snipe, the 
Great Snipe, the Pintail Snipe and Swinhoe's Snipe. 
(With Plates A, B and G and Maps A andB.) By E. 
C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 547 

Orchids of the Bombay Presidency. Part XL By G. A. 

Gammie, f.l.s ■ 597 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part 
XIV. Tropidonohis stolatus and Psammophis condana- 
rus. (With Plate XIV, Diagrams I and II and Map.) 
By Major F. Wall, i. M.S., cm. z.s 603 

The Moths of India. Series IV, Part I. By Sir George 

F. Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s 634 

The Palms of British India and Ceylon, Indigenous 
and Introduced. Part III. {With Plates VI, VII, 
VIII, IX, X and XI and Map B.) By E. Blatter, s.j. 675 



CONTENTS. xi 

Page 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. XIII. By 

E. Meyrick, b.a., f.r.s., f.z.s 706 

The Kathiawar Lion. (With an Illustration.) By Lt.- 

Col. L. L. Fenton 737 

Notes on some Butterflies from the Indian Region. By 

G. W. V. De Rhe-Philipe, f.e.s 753 

Further Notes on Snakes from the Chin Hills. By 
Capt. F. B. W. Venning. (With Notes by Major F. 
Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s.) 770 

On the Birds of Kohat and the Kurram Valley, North- 
ern India. Part II. By Lieut. C. BL T. Whitehead. 776 

Plants of the Punjab. Part VII. By Lieut.-Col. 0. J. 

Bamber, F.L.S., i.m.s 800 

A Note on the Structure of the Giant Creeper (Calycop- 
teris Jloribunda) . (With a Plate.) By Professor V. N. 
Hate, b. sc 837 

Reviews. — Fauna of India. Coleoptera Lamellicorina, I ; 
Catalogue of Orthoptera, Part III. Acridudse ; Indian 
Birds. Records of the Indian Museum 841 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. Hyaena with deformed feet. (With an Illus- 
tration.) By Capt. R. E. Lloyd, i.m.s. ... 847 

II. Porcupines (Hystrix leucura) found in the 

hills. By C. E. Fendall 848 

III. An abnormal Chinkara head. (With an 

Illustration.) By R. K , 849 

IV. Hardwicke's Hedgehog (Erinaceus collaris) at 

Fatehgarh. By Major H. Fulton 849 

V. King Crows and Butterflies. By H. Leslie 

Andrewes 850 

VI. The Spotted Wing (Psaroglossa spiloptera). 

By Major H. Fulton 851 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

VII. The Himalayan Greenfinch (HypacantJius 

spinoides) . By B . B . Osmaston 852 

VIII. Roller catching its prey in the water. By 

Gordon Dalgliesh 853 

IX. An Albino Hoopoe (TJpupa indica). By 

A. T. Brooke, r.h.a 853 

X. Nesting habits of the Common Pariah Kite 
(Milvus govinda). By E. A. D'Abreu, 
f.z.s 854 

XI. Modification of the Sarus Crane (Grus 

antic/one) . By Stanley Pershouse 854 

XII. Woodcock shooting in the Nilgiris. By 

Capt. G. C. Lambton 854 

XIII. The Lesser White-fronted or Dwarf Goose on 

Kabul River. By Lt. J. D. G. Wignall 855 

XIV. Ducks in Okhamandal. By Capt. A. H. E. 

Mosse, i. a 856 

XV. Do Smews (Merc/us albellus) go in pairs ? 

By C. E. Fendall 857 

XVI. The Bronze-backed Tree Snake (Bendre- 
laphis tristis) at Bina, C. P. By E. 
Bernard Cooke 857 

XVII. Extension of the habitat of Lycodon fasciatus. 

By E. A. D'Abreu, f.z.s 857 

XVIII. Notes on a brood of young Sea-Snakes 
(Bistira spiralis, Shaw). By Major F. 

Wall, i.m.s., g.m.z.s 858 

XIX. Krait and Landria (D. trigonatus). By J. 

H.Smith 863 

XX. Case of Snakebite from Himalayan Viper. 

By Capt. J. E. M. Boyd, r.a.m.c 864 

XXI. The food of a Bull-frog. By H. M. Chibber. 865 



CONTENTS. xiii 

Page 

XXII. Fishing in Burma. By Major J. H. White- 
head 865 

XXIII. Argynnis hyperbius, var. castetsi .• an appeal. 

By Lt.-Col. N. Manders, f.z.s 866 

XXIV. Notes on Colotis in Sind. By Capt. F. C. 

Fraser, i.M.S 867 

XXV. The occurrence of Atella alcippe, Cramer, in 
North Malabar. By P. M. Lushington, 
i.f.s 869 

XXVI. Food-plants (Atella phalanthd). By H. Leslie 

Andrewes 870 

XXVII. Larva of Vanessa indica. TZy E. Ernest Green. 870 

XXVIII. Butterflies of the Konkan. By E. Comber. 871 

XXIX. Butterflies of Kumaun. Addendum. By F. 

Hannyngton 871 

XXX. Notes on life history of Vanessa indica and 

Kashmirensis. By F. Hannyngton 872 

XXXI. Some Butterflies taken at Fatehgarh. By 

Capt. H. D.Peile 873 

XXXII. Notes on life history of Papilio ravana, 

Moore. By F. Hannyngton 875 

XXXIII. Hawk-Moth and Spider. By C. G. C. Trench, 

i.c.s 876 

XXXIV. The food of Dragon-flies. By Major H. 

Fulton 876 

XXXV. An ant granary. By Capt. F. C. Fraser, 

i.m.s 877 

XXXVI. The food of a Mantis. By Capt. A. H. 

Mosse, i.a 878 

XXXVII. A new Indian Grass-hopper injurious to 
Agriculture (JJolemania sphenarioides, 
Bol.). By Leslie C. Coleman, M.A., ph.d. 879 



xiv CONTENTS. 

Page 

XXXVIII. Remarkable mimetic resemblance between 
a cicadid and an arctiid Moth. Br E. 
Ernest Green 882 

XXXIX. The occurrence of the giant Water-bug 
(Belostoma indka) in the Eastern Himala- 
yas. By E. A. D'Abreu, f.z.s 883 

XL. A new method of making permanent prepa- 
rations of Mosquitos. By Chas. A. 
Bentley. m.b.,d.ph., and Capt. J. Taylor, 

i.m.s 883 

XLI. Observations on the Spider (Galeodes indicus). 

By C. E. C. Fischer 886 

XLII. Further note on the Spider (N&phUa macidata, 

Fabr.) By C. E. C. Fischer 887 

XLIII. The courtship of Whip-scorpions. By C. 

E. C.Fischer 888 

XLIV. Curious growth of the Palmyra Palm (Boras- 
sus flabeMifer, Linn.). By G. M. Ryan, 

f.z.s 889 

XLV. The varieties of Hibiscus cultivated in 

gardens. By W. S. Millard 892 

XL VI. Xote on submerged tree-stumps discovered 
in Bombay harbour. {With an Illustra 

Hon.) By L. H, Savile 894 

Proceedings of the Meeting held on 29th September 

1910 896 

No. 4. 

The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. Part IV. 
{With Plate IF.) By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.S., 
f.z.s. . m.b.o.f 901 

" The Pale weasel" of Blanfoed*s '-'Mammalia" and a 

new Himalayan Vole. Bv R. C. Wroughton 930 



CO* TENTS. xv 

P.AQE 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. 
Part XV. Bungarus fasciculus and Lycod.on fascial"?. 
(With Plate XV, 2 Diagrams arid Map.} By Major 
F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 933 

On the Birds of Kohat and the Kurram Valley. 

Northern India. By Lieut. C. H. T. Whitehead ... 954 

The Palms of British India and Ceylon,. Indigenous and 
Introduced. Part IV. (With Plates, XII, XIII, XTV, 
XV, XVI and XVII.) By E. Blatter, S..J 981 

A new Murine Genus and Species from Send, with 
Diagnosis of the three other new Genera based on 

PREVIOUSLY" KNOWN SPECIES of " Mus." By Oldfield 
Thomas, f.r.s.. British Museum 996 

On a Small Collection of Bodents from Lower Send. 

By E. C. Wroughton 1000 

Some Maymyo Birds. By Major H. H. Harington 1002 

Oriental Flying Squirrels of the -Pteromys" Group. 

By R. C. Wroughton 1012 

A Study* of Sea-shore Vegetation. By W. Burns, b. 

SC (Edin.) 1024 

Notes on Game Animals from near Gy*antse and in the 

Chumbi Valley. (With a Plate.) By Capt. F.M.Bailey. 1028 

Remarks on the Snake Collection in the Quetta Museum. 

By Major F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 1033 

A Second list of Mosses from Western India. By L. J. 

Sedgwick, i.c.s 1 043 

The Moths of India. Series IV, Part II. (With Plate F.) 

By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., f.z.s.. f.e.s 1046 

Plants of the Punjab. Part VI. By Lieut. -Colonel C. J. 

Bamber, f.l.s., i.m.s 1084 

Protection of wild Birds in India and Traffic en Plu- 
mage. By P. T. L. Dodsworth, f.z.s 1103 



xvi CONTENTS. 

Page 

Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part IX. 

(With Plates D 1 and B>\) By T. R. Bell, i.f.s 1115 

A Survey of the Mammalian Fauna of India, Burma and 

Ceylon 1137 

Review. — An Introduction to Biology for students in 
India. By Capt. R. E. Lloyd, i.m.s. — Indian Earth- 
worms and their Distribution 1 144 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. Vitality of a wounded Tiger. By W. Forsyth 1147 

II. Old wounds in Tiger and Panther. By 

Lieut-Col. L. L. Fenton 1148 

III. The number of Cubs in a Tiger's litter. By 

W.Forsyth 1148 

IV. Sambur and Tiger. ByH. W. Seton-Karr.. 1149 
V. Food of Sambur. By Chas. Gray 1149 

VI. Abnormal number of young in a Markhor. 

By J. A. Pottinger 1150 

VII. New Indian Bats 1150 

VIII. Great Indian Fin Whale near Ratnagiri. 

By N. B. Kinnear 1151 

IX. The Rufous-backed Sparrow (Passer pyrrJio- 

notus, Bly th) . ByH. Whistler 1151 

X. The Himalayan Greenfinch (Hypacanthis 

spinoides). By E. A. D'Abreu, f.z.s 1152 

XI. Blyth's Baza (Baza Jerdoni). By Alex. M. 

Primrose 1152 

XII. Second occurrence of the European Great 
Bustard (Otis tarda) in India. By Capt. M. 

H. Simonds 1152 

XIII. The European Bustard (Otis tarda) in North- 
ern India. By Lieut.-Col. H. Fooks, i.m.s. 1153 



CONTENTS. xvii 

Page 

XIV. Little Bustard (Otis tetrax) in Kashmir. 

By F. J. Mitchell 1154 

XV. Weights of Nilgiri Woodcock. By Major 

H. R.Baker t 1154 

XVI. Occurrence of the Great Snipe (Gallinago 
major) near Bangalore. By E. C. Stuart 
Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u 1155 

XVII. Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) on the Mekran 

Coast. By F. G. Steinhoft 1155 

XVIII. The Dwarf Goose (Anser erytliropus) near 

Fyzabad. By G. H. Plinston 1156 

XIX. Notes on Ducks at Kohat. By W. M. 

Logan Home 1156 

XX. Birds nesting in the Nila Valley (Garhwal). 

By S. L. Whymper : 1157 

XXI. The broad snouted Mugger in the Indus. By 

Lieut. R. Francis 1160 

XXII. A new Snake (Simotes jtiglandifer) hitherto 
unrecognised as a distinct species. By 
Major F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 1162 

XXIII. Notes on the Colour of the Common Keelback. 

By T.M.Evans 1164 

XXIV. Mosquitos and Fish. By C apt. R. E. Lloyd, 

i.m.s 1165 

XXV. Note on the Bugs (Aspong opus j anus.) By 

Harold H. Mann 1166 

XXA 7 I. Ferocity of female Mantis. By Leslie C. 

Coleman 1167 

XXVII. A Common Blister Beetle (Cantharis rouxi, 
cast.) as a nuisance to man. By Leslie C. 
Coleman 1168 



xviii CONTENTS. 

Page 

XX VIII. Galls of Paracopium cingalense, Walk., on 
Clerodendron phlomidis, Linn. f. By C. E. 

C. Fischer , 1169 

XXIX. Note on the rate of growth of Barnacles in 

Indian Seas. By N. Annandale 1170 

Proceedings of the meeting held on 19th January 1911, 
2nd February 1911, 9th March 1911, and 11th April 
1911 H73 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



"VOX.XTTKEX3 

Page 



Adam, J. B. Merger, F.C.H. ; 
Tapir {Tapirus indicus) near 
houses . . . . . . 515 



Notes on Tigers 



515 



A variety of the Pea-Fowl . . 520 

Fishing in Burma . . . . 525 

Aiyar, T. V. Ramakrsihna ; 
Life History of a Lymantrid 
on Castor (Orgyia postica, 
Wlk.) ; Breeding notes on 
Eumenes conica . . . . 243 

Anderson, Dr. Knud ; New 
Indian Bats . . . . . . 1150 

Andrewes, H. Leslie ; King- 
Crows and Butterflies . . 850 

; Food- 
plants of Atella phalantha . . 870 
Annandale, Dr. N. ; New 
Volumes of the Fauna . . 533 

; Note 

, on the rate of growth of 
Barnacles in Indian Seas . . 1170 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; The 
Game Birds of India, Burma 
and Ceylon . . . . . . 1 

. 
The Game Birds of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. Part II. 
( With Plates II and III J . . 259 

The Game Birds of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. Part III. 
The Common or Fantail 
Snipe, Radde's Snipe, the 



Page 



Great Snipe, the Pintail 
Snipe and Swinhoe's Snipe. 
( With Plates A, B, C and 
Maps A,B) 547 

The Game Birds of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. (With 
Plate IV) 901 

, . . 

Occurrence of the Great 
Snipe (Gallinago major) near 
Bangalore . . . . . . 1155 

Baker, Major H. R. ; Weights 
of Nilgiri Woodcock . . 1154 

Bailey, Capt. F.M.; Two Birds' 
Nests from Tibet . . . . 221 

; Notes on 

Game Animals from near 
Gyantze and in the Chumbi 
Valley. ( With a Plate) . . 1028 

Ballantine, W. J. H. ; Vita- 
lity of a Tiger . . . . 512 

Bamber, Lt.-Col. C. J., F.L.S., 
I.M.S. ; Plants of the Pun- 
jab. A brief Descriptive Key 
to the Flora of the Punjab, 
North- West Frontier Pro- 
vince and Kashmir. Part VI. 468 



Plants of the Punjab 



800 



Plants of the Punjab . . 1084 
Bannerman, Lt.-Col. W.B., 
M.D., D.Sc. ; Note on the 
Breeding of Echis carinata . . 230 
■ j 

Note on Dr. Bentley's paper 
"The Natural History of 
Malaria " 525 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 



Beadon, Coleridge ; A Snake 
Flirtation 

Bell, T.R., I.F.S. ; Woodcock 
{Scolopa.v rusticola) i n 
Kanara 

; The Com- 
mon Butterflies of the Plains 
of India 

. ; The Com- 
mon Butterflies of the Plains 
of India. Part IX {With 
Plates D 1 and D 5 ) . . 

Bentley, Chas. A., M.B.C.M. 
(Edinb.),D.H.P., D.T.M.&H. 
(Camb.) ; The Natural His- 
tory of Bombay Malaria. 
( With Plates 1 8? II) 



228 



219 



1115 



392 



and Capt. J. Taylor, I. M.S.; 
A new method of making 
permanent preparations of 

Mosquitoes 883 

Berthon, Major H. W. ; 
Jackal hunting with Wild 
Dogs 215 



The Rudimentary Clavicles 

of a Panther 216 

Blatter, E., S. J.; The Palms 
of Birtish India and Ceylon, 
indigenous and introduced. 33 

; The Palms 

of British India and Ceylon, 
indigenous and introduced. 
Part II. With Plates II, 
HI, IV and V) . . . . 347 

— • ■; The Palms 

of British India and Ceylon, 
indigenous and introduced. 
Part III. ( With Plates VI, 
VII, VIII, IX, X and XI 
and Map B) . . . . . . 675 

; The Palms 



of British India and Ceylon, 
indigenous and introduced. 



Page 

Part IV. With Plates XII, 
XIII, XIV, XV, XVI and 

XVII) 981 

Boyd, J. E. M., R.A.M.C. ; 

Case of Snake-bite from 

Himalayan Viper . . . . 864 

Brooke, A. T. ; An Albino 

Hoope ( TJpupa indica) . . 853 

Burns, William, B.Sc; A. 

Tamarix Association . . 193 
; A Study 

of Seashore Vegetation . . 1024 



Chibber, H. M. ; The Food of 
a Bull-Frog 

Coleman, Leslie C, M.A.,Ph. 
D. ; A new Indian Grass- 
hopper injurious to Agricul- 
ture {Colemania sphenarioides 
Bol.) 

■ ; Ferocity of 



865 



879 



1167 



Female Mantis 

; A Common Blis- 
ter Beetle (Cantharis rouxi, 
Cart.) as a Nuisance to man. 1168 

Comber, E. ; Butterflies of the 
Konkan 871 

Cooke, E. Bernard ; The 
Bronze-backed Tree-snake 
(Dendrelaphis tristis) at Bina, 
C. P 857 

D'Abreit, E. A., F.Z.S. ; Note 
on Blyth's Baza {Baza 

jerdoni) . . . . . . 518 

; Nest- 
ing habits of the Common 
Pariah Kite {Milvus govinda). 854 
: Ex- 



tention of the habitat of 
Lycodon fasciatus . . . . 857 

; The 

occurrence of the Giant 
Water-Bug {Belostoma indica) 
in the Eastern Himalayas . . 883 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 



D Abbeu, E. A., F.Z.S. ; The 
Himalayan Greenfinch (Hy- 
pacanthis spinoides) . . 

Dalgleish, Gordon ; The Pre- 
servation of Natural History- 
Specimens 

; A prelimi- 
nary list of the Fishes of 
Tirhoot, Bengal 

; Roller cat- 



ching its prey in the water. 
Dewar, F., I.C.S. ; The Call of 

the Sloth-Be ar 
Dodsworth, P. T. L., F.Z.S. ; 

Notes relating to the Distri- 
bution, Habits and Nidifica- 
tion of Certhia himalayana, 
Vigors, in and around Simla 
and the adjacent Ranges . . 



1152 



249 



428 



85? 



213 



463 



Intelligence displayed by 
Short-billed Minivets (Peri- 
crocotus brevi'rostris) when 
their nests are in danger . . 516 



The Himalayan Greenfinch. 517 



Food of Crocodiles 



523 



Protection of Wild Birds m 
India and traffic in Plumage. 1103 

Editors ; A Survey of the 
Mammalian Fauna of India, 
Burma and Ceylon . . . . 1137 

Evans, Capt. W.H., R.E. ; A 
list of the Butterflies of the 
Palni Hills with a note on 
Migration by J. Evershed. 380 



Additions and corrections to 
certain local Butterfly Lists. 423 
Evans, T. M. ; Notes on the 
colour of the Common Keel- 
back 1164 



Page 

Evershed, J. ; Note on the 
Migration of Butterflies . . 380 

Fendall, C. E. ; Porcupines 
(Hystriv leucura) found in 
the hills 848 

; Do Smews 

(Mergus albellus) go in pairs ?^857 

Fenton, L. L., Lt.-Col. ; Dis- 
tribution of the Sloth-Bear 
or Indian Bear (Melursus 
ursinus) 

: The 



Baluchistan Bear . . 
; Doves 

nesting on the ground 
; Occur- 



213 
214 

220 

221 

737 



rence of the Lesser Flamingo 
(Phceniconais minor) in 
Kathiawar 

; The 

Kathiawar Lion . ( With an 
Illustration) . . 

■ ; Old 

wounds in Tiger and Pan- 
ther 1148 

Fischer, C. E. C. ; Pairing of 
the Spider (Nephile macu- 
lata) 526 

; Further 

Note on the Spider (Nephile 
maculata) 

; Observa- 



tions on the Spider (Galeodes 
indicus) 
— ■ ; Further 



note on the Spider (Nephile 
maculata, Fabr.) 
; The Court- 



887 



ship of Whip Scorpions 
; Galls of 



Paracopium cingalense, Walk, 
on Clerodendron phlomidis, 
Linn. . . . . . . . . 1169 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 

Fooks, Lieut.-Col. H., I.M.S. ; 
European Bustard (Otis 
tarda) in Northern India . . 1153 

Forsyth, Captain H.W., E.E.; 
The food of Crocodiles . . 228 

— , W. ; Vitality of a 

Wounded Tiger . . . . 1147 

; The number of 

Cubs in a Tiger's litter . . 1148 

Foster, Capt. R. T. ; The Call 
of the Sloth-Bear . . . . 513 

Francis, Lieut. R. ; The Smew 224 

• ; The Broad- 
snouted Mugger in the Indus 1160 

Fraser, Capt. F. C, I.M.S. ; 
Biological note on Apknceus 
hypargyrus. (With a Plate) . 528 

. j 

Notes on Calotis in Sind . . 867 

. . . _ j 

An Ant-granary , . . . 877 
Fulton, Major H.; Hard- 
wicke's Hedgehog (Erinaceus 
collaris) at Fatehgarh . . 849 
■ ■ ; The Spot- 
ted wing (Psaroglossa spilop- 
tera) . . . . . . . . 851 

- ; The Food 
of Dragon-flies . . . . 876 

Gammie, G. A., F.L.S.; Orchids 
of the Bombay Presidency. 
Part X. ( With Plate X) . . 126. 

; Orchids 

of the Bombay Presidency. 
Part XI 597 

Gaye, W. ; Sloth Bear calling 
her young when attacked . . 217 

Ghosh, C. C. ; Entomological 
notes (C r oce filipennis) . 
( With a Plate) . . . . 530 

Gray, Chas. ; Food of Sam- 
bur 1149 

Green, J. Ernest ; Larva of 

Vanessa indica . . . . 870 



Page 

Green, E. Ernest ; Remark- 
able mimitic resemblance 
between a Cicadid and an 
Arctiid Moth . . . . 882 

Hampson, Sir Geo. F., Bart., 
F.Z.S., F.E.S ; The Moths of 
India. Series IV, Part 1. 83 



The Moths of India. Series 

IV, Part II 634 



The Moths of India. Series 

IV, Part III . . . . 1046 

Hannyngton, F., I.C.S. ; The 

Butterflies of K u m a o n. 

( With a Map) 
; The 



130 



Butterflies of Kumaon. Part 

II 

; The 



Butterflies of Kumaon. Ad- 
dendum notes on life-history 
of Vanessa indica and V. Jcash- 
mirensis 

■ ■ ; Notes 



on life-history of Papilio 
ravana, Moore 
Harington, Major H. H. ; A 
further List of Birds of the 
Bhamo District, Upper 
Burma 

Indian White-eye (Zosterops 
palpebrosa) 

; Some 

Maymyo Birds 

Hasted, H. R. S. ; Breeding of 
the great Stone-plover 
(JEsacus recurvirostris) . . 221 

Hate, Professor V. N. ; A 
note on the Structure of 
the Giant Creeper (Calycop- 
teris fioribunda) . ( With a 
Plate). 837 



361 

872 
875 

373 

520 

1002- 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 

Heath, R. H. ; Panther found 
away from its usual haunts. 513 

Home, W. M. Logan ; Notes 

on Ducks at Kohat . . . . 1156 

Inglis, 0. M. ; Notes on the 
Spotted Munia ( Uroloncha 
punctulata) and the Indian 
Red Munia (Sporceginthus 
amandava) . . . . . . 517 

K., R. ; An abnormal Chinkara 
head. (With cm illustration). 849 

Kelly, Lieut. E. H., R.E. ; 
Occurrence of the Bronze- 
capped Teal (Eunetta fctl- 
cata) near Roorkee . . 

Kinnear, N. B. ; A Record 
Panther 

>■ ; Large 

Mahseer 

; The Shoot- 



ing Season, 1908-1909 
; Pied Im- 



219 
214 
234 

508 



perial Pigeon and Sheldrake 
in Arracan . . 
; Great 



518 



Indian Fin- Whale near Rat- 
nagiri . . . . . . 1151 



Lambton, Capt. G. C. ; Wood- 
cock shooting in the 
Nilghiris 

Lloyd, Capt. R. E., I.M.S. ; 
Hyaena with deformed feet. . 

» ; Mosqui- 



toes and Fish 
Lushington, P. M., I.F.S. ; The 
occurrence of Atella aleippe, 
Cramer, in North Malabar. . 

Mag rath, Major H. A. F. ; In- 
troduction to Lieut. C.H.I. 
Whitehead on the birds of 
Kohat and the Kurruru 
Valley, Northern India 



854 



847 



1165 



169 



Page 



Magrath, Major H.A.F. ; The 
food of the Rufous-backed 
Shrike (Lanius erythronotus) 

; Bird 

notes from a homeward 
bound steamer in November. 

■■ ; Shri- 



kes Larders . . 
Manders, Lt.-Col. N., F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. ; The distinctions 
between Terias silhetana and 
T. hecabe 



218 



•?9-2 



227 



245 



1 

Argynnis hyperbius v a r. 




castetsi 


, an appeal . . 


866 


Mann, H. H. ; Entomological 




notes from a recent tour . . 


244 




Note on the 




Bugs (. 


dspongojms janus) 


1166 


Maxwell-Lefroy, H. ; Ento- 




mological Notes : — 




(a). 


What is a Cuckoo- 






Spit ? 


235 


(b). 


Idiocerus and its 






broods 


235 


(c). 


The eggs of Jettigo- 






niella 


236 


(d). 


What do Dragon-flies 






eat ? 


236 


(«)• 


What is a species ? . . 


238 


(/)■ 


" Indian Insect Life." 


239 


(ff). 


The '' Coleopterorum 






Catalogus" 


239 


(A). 


Genera Insectorum. . 


241 


Meyrick 


E., B.A., F.R.S., 




F. Z. S 


. ; Descriptions of 




Indian 


Micro-Lepidoptera. 




XI . 




143 



Descriptions of Indian 
Micro-Lepidoptera. Part 
XII 435 



Scientific Nomenclature 



534 



LIST 01 CONTRIBUTORS. 



Meyrick, E., B.A., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S. ; Descriptions of 
Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. 
Part XIII 

Millard, W. S. ; The varieties 
of Hibiscus cultivated in 
gardens 

Mitchell, F. J. ; The food of 
Dragon-flies . . 

; Little Bus- 
tard (Otis tetrax) in Kashmir 

, J. C. H. ; Food of 

the Hoolock or White-browed 
Gibbon 

Mosse, Capt. A. H., I.A. ; Nidi- 
fication of the Sarus Crane.. 

A. W. ; Occur- 
rence of the Lesser Flamingo 
(Phoeniconaias minor) in Ka- 
thiawar 

A. H. ; Ducks in 

Okhamandal 

; The Food 



Page 

706 

892 

533 

1151 



of a Mantis 



Osmaston, B. B. ; The Himala- 
yan Greenfinch (Hypacanthis 
spinoides) 

Peile, Capt. H. D. ; Some 

Butterflies taken at Fateh- 

garh 
Percival, G. S. P., A.S.P. ; 

Birds feeding their young . . 
Pershouse, Stanley ; Nidi- 

fication of the Sarus Crane 

(Grus antiyone) 
Plinston, G. H. • The Dwarf 

Goose (Anser erythropus) near 

Fyzabad 
Pottinger, J. A. ; Abnormal 

number of young in a Mar- 

khor 
Primrose, Alex. M.; Blyth 

Baza (Baza jerdoni) 



512 

218 

518 
856 

878 

852 

873 
218 

854 

1156 

1150 
1152 



Page 

PtADCLIFFE, H. DeLME', Pi.W.F.; 

Roller catching its prey in 

the water . . . . . . 225 

Reinhold, Capt. C.H., I.M.S.; 
Another fatal case of Vipe- 
rine Poisoning . . . . 524 

Rhe'-Philipe, G. W. V. de, 
F.E.S. ; Notes on some 
Butterflies from the Indian 
Region 753 

Ryan, G. M., F.Z.S. ; Curious 
growth of the Palmyra Palm 
(Borassus fiabellifer Linn.) . . 889 

Savile, L. H. ; Note on sub- 
merged Tree-stumps dis- 
covered in Bombay Harbour 
( With an illustration) . . 894 

Sedgwick, L. J., I.C.S. ; A 
second List of Mosses from 
Western India . . . . 1043 

Seton-Karr, H. W. ; Sambur 
and Tiger 1149 

Shevade, S. V. ; A giant Sun- 
flower (Helianthus annuus) . . 246 

Simonds, Capt. M. H. ; Second 
occurrence of the European 
Great Bustard (Otis tarda) 
in India . . . . . . 1152 

Smith, J. H. ; Krait and 
Landria (D. triyonatus) . . 863 

Steinhoff, F. G. ; Mute Swan 
(Cyynus olor) on the Mekran 
Coast 1155 

Thomas, Oldfield, F.R.S. ; A 
new Murine Genus and Spe- 
cies from Sind, with diag- 
noses of three other new 
genera based on previously 
known species of Mus . . 996 

Trench, C.G.C., I.C.S. ; Hawk- 
Moth and Spider . . . . 876 

Tyrrell, Captain J. R. J., 
I.M.S., Shrikes Larders .. 226 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 

Tyrrell, Captain J. R. J., 
I. M.S., Occurrence of the 
Lesser Florican or Likh (Sy- 
pheotis aurita) out of season. 227 

Venning, Capt. F. E. W. ; 
Occurrence of the Eastern 
Solitary Snipe (Gallinago soli- 
taria) at Haka, Chin Hills . . 219 



Scientific nomenclature 



Notes on a collection of the 
Ophidia from the Chin Hills. 

A new species of Tropidono- 



248 



A collection of the Ophidia 
from the Chin Hills, with 
notes by Major F. Wall, 
I.M.S., C.M.Z.S 331 

Further notes on Snakes 
from the Chin Hills, with 
note by Major F. Wall, 
I.M.S., C.M.Z.S 770 

Wall, Major F., I.M.S., CM. 
Z.S. ; A popular treatise on 
the common Indian Snakes. 
Part XIII. (With Plate 
XIII* and Diagram) . . 65 

Notes on the Viviparous 
habit of Jerdon's Pit-Viper 
(Lachesis jerdoni) and obser- 
vations on the foetal tooth in 
the unborn embryo . . 231 

Remarks on the varieties and 
distribution of the Common 
Green Whipsnake (Dryophis 
mycterizans) . . . . . . 229 



331 



Page 

tus (Tropidonotus venningi) 
from the Chin Hills . . . . 345 

j 
Occurrence of the Ermine 
(Putorius erminea) in Chitral. 514 

" ~ ■ 5 

The importance of correctly 
identifying Poisonous Snakes 521 

A fatal case of Viperine 
Poisoning . . . . . . 522 



Varieties of common green 
Whipsnake (DryopMs mycte- 
rizans) . . . . . . 524 

. _ ^ 

A popular treatise on the 
common Indian Snakes. Part 
XIV. (Plate XIV. Dia- 
grams I and II and Map) . . 603 

Notes on Snakes from the 
Chin Hills 770 

Notes on a brood of young- 
Sea-snake (Distera spiralis, 
Shaw) 858 

A popular treatise on the 
Common Indian Snakes. 
Part XV . ( With Plate XV. 
2 Diagrams and Map) . . 933 

Remarks on the Snake Col- 
lection in the Quetta Mu- 
seum 1033 

A new Snake (Simotes jug- 
landifer) hitherto unrecog- 
nised as a distinct species. . 1162 
Whistler, H. ; The Rufous- 
backed Sparrow (Passer pyr- 
rhonotus, Blyth) . . . . 1151 



(Wall) Plate XIII, issued in Part II. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Page 



Whitehead, Capt. C. H. T. ; 
On the Birds of Kohat and 
the Kurram Valley,Northern 
India. With an Introduction 
by Major H. A. F. Mag- 
rath 



169 



On the Birds of Kohat and 
the Kurram Valley, Nor- 
thern India. Part II . . 776 

On the Birds of Kohat and 
Kurram Valley, Northern 
India . . . . . . 954 

Major J. H. ; 

Fishing in Burma . . . . 865 

Whymper, S. L. ; A breeding- 
ground of the Ibis-Bill (Ibi- 
dorhynchus struthersi) . . 519 



Page 



; Birds nest- 
ing in the Nila Valley 
(Garhwal) 

Wignall, Lt. J. D. G. ; The 
Lesser White-fronted or 
Dwarf Goose on Kabul River 

Wroughton, R.C., F.Z.S. ; On 
the nomenclature of the 
Indian Hedgehogs . . 

; "The 

Pale Weasel " of Blanford's 
"Mammalia" and a new 
Himalayan Vole 

• On a 



small collection of Rodents 
from Lower Sind 
: Ori- 



ental Flying Squirrels of the 
"Pteromys" group.. 



1157 



855 



80 



930 



1000 



1012 



LIST OF PLATES 

"tTOXiTTIUEES 3C3E. 



To face 
page 



No. 1. 



The Woodcock (Scolopax rusticula). Plate I . . . . . . 1 ■ 

Group of Palms in Peradeniya Gardens, Ceylon. Plate I . . . . 34 

Map showing the limits of the Region of Palms. Map A . . . . 44 

The Common Indian Snakes (Psammodynastes pulverulentus, Ancistro- 

don himalayanus). Plate XIII . . . . . . ■ . . 65 

The Common Snakes of India. Diagrams and Map . . . . 71 

Distribution of Psammodynastes pulverulentus within Indian limits. 

Map . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 

Orchids of the Bombay Presidency (Sacco labium iviglitianum) . Plate X. 126 

The Butterflies of Kumaon. Map . . . . . . . . 130 

No. 2. 

The Wood-snipe (Gallinago nemoricola). Plate II . . . . . . 270 

The Eastern Solitary Snipe (Gallinago solitaria). Plate III . . 260 

The Palms of British India and Ceylon (Phoenix sylvestris.) Plate II. . 350 

Group of Wild Date Palms.— jr 2 - 

(P. sylvestris). Plate III . . 352 

„ „ „ (P. zeylanica). Plate IV . . 356 

„ „ „ (P. rupicola). Plate V . . 356 

The Natural History of Bombay Malaria — 

Heads and legs of Bombay Anopheles Mosquitoes. Plate I . . 400 

Larvae of Bombay Anopheles Mosquitoes. Plate II . . 406 

Life History of Aphnceus hypargyrus. Plate . . . . . . 528 

Croce Jilipennis. Plate . . . . . . . . . . 530 

No. 3. 

Map of the Migration Routes of the Fantail Snipe (Gallinago ccelestis). 

Map A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 

Heads of Snipe for comparison of bills ( Gallinago stenura, G. ccelestis, 

G. nemoricola, G. solitaria). Plate A . . . . ■ . . 566 
Under Wings of Fantail Snipe, Pintail Snipe, Wood Snipe, 

Eastern Solitary Snipe. Plate B . . . . . . . . 572 

Map of the Migration Routes of the Pintail Snipe (Gallinago stenura). 

Map B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 

Tails of Snipe (Gallinago megala, G. stenura, G. ccelestis, G. nemoricola, 

G. solitaria, G. gallinula). Plate C . . . . . . . . 594 



LIST OF PL ATI'S. 



To face- 
page 



excelsa. Plate XI 



The Common Indian Snakes (Tropidonotus stolatus, Psammophis con 

danarus). Plate XIV 
„ „ Diagram 1 . . 

9, 

n ii » r • • 

Map showing Distribution of Psammophis condanarus 
The Palms of British India and Ceylon : — 

Phoenix humilis : P. h. var. peduncidata. Plate VI 

Phoenix paludosa. Plate VII 

Phoenix daetylifera. Plate VIII 

Phoenix veclinata. Plate IX 

Chamcerops humilis. Plate X 

A — Trachycaipus martiana. B — T. 

Map of the Distribution of Chamcerops humilis and Hyphome 

thebaica 

The Kathiawar Lion (Felis leo). Plate 

The Structure of the Giant Creeper {Calycopteris fioribunda) 

Plate 
An abnormal Chinkara head (Gazella bennetti). Text figure 

No. 4, 

The Painted Snipe {Rostratula capensis). Plate IV 
Common Indian Snakes {Bung arm fasciatus). Diagram 1 . . 
a i, „ „ Maps 

a a Dinodon rufozonatus and Lycodon fasciatus 

Diagram II 
The Bharal (Ovis nahura) 
Moths of India. Plate F 

Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Plates Dl . . 
» a .,, ,, D5 



603- 
622 
624 
631 

675 

678' 
680 
694 
699 
702 



73-7 

837 
849 - 

915 

949 
950 

952 

1030 S 
1046^ 
1115 

1117 



ERRATA AND ADDENDA. 
Volume XIX. 

Page 30, line 34, for Loranthacece read Laurineoe. 
,, 34, ,, 6, for it read this butterfly. 

Coloured Plate F, Fig. 39. The butterfly figured is YptJviyna 
baldus, Fabricus, and not Y. philomela, Johannsen, as stated. 
Y. baldus is said to be found in the Himalayas from Chumba 
to Sikhim and Bhutan ; Bengal ; Central, Western and 
{Southern India ; Assam ; Cachar, Burma and Tenasserim. 
Y. philomela has no sub-basal transverse fascia on the under- 
side of the forewing and the striae are not as coarse as in 
Y. baldus. 

Volume XX. 

Page 74, line 8, for 19 read 17. 

105, ,, 20, for Cochracea read Ochracea. 
131, ,, 13, ,, lencocyma read leucocyma. 

134, No. 21, ,, L. ishana read L. isana. 

135, ,, 31, ,, coalpara read goalpara. 
137, ,, 70, ,, arpisatis read parisatis. 
137, ,, 73, ,, ' Parhestina persinilis Zella's' read 'P. 

piersimilis zella.' 

139, line 1, ,, yerburii read yerburyi. 

140, ,, 13, for October read September. 
142, ,, 11, ,, Abissara read Abisara. 
194, ., 41, for phoenicureides read pha-.nicuroides. 
249, ., 6, for medicine read medium. 
24Q 1 1 

~^ Lt/ J J! x *- 5 55 55 55 55 

252, ,, 38, for Qunnomys read Gunomys. 

253, ,, 11, ,, Paloearnis read Palceornis. 
256, ,, 19, ,, sueicica read suecica. 
256, ,, 35, ,, coramandus read coromandus. 
286, ,, 32, ,, sparser sides read sparveroides. 
292, ,, 35, for belonging in India read it is the 

" Common Purslane " of England and 
is often cultivated as a vegetable in 
Europe and Asia. 



ERRATA. 



Page 321, line 4, from the bottom add 74 before Telcliinia. 
,, 321, ,, 4, from the bottom for TelcMnis read Telcliinia, 
,, 324, ,, 30, adA 75 before Libythea. 
„ 327, „ 25, „ 76 „ Abisara. 

,, 329, last line, add " The food plants of the larva are 

PJmbelia robusta, Roxh., a large clim- 
ber in the moist forests of the 
Western ghats in Bombay, and Ar- 
disia solanacea, Roxb., a shrub grow- 
ing in similar situations throughout 
India, in China and Malay. The 
two plants both belong to the bota- 
nical family Myrsineoe." 
Plate XIV, after Psammophis condanarus for poisonous read 

harmless. 
Page 487, line 5, for Mcyeri read Meyeri. 
,, 519, ,, 22, ,, Ibidorynchus read Ibidorhynchus. 

K1 q OA 

,, OlJ, ,, ijb, ,, ,, j, ,, 

,, 520, ,, 2, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Cover of part II, line 3, for Ibidorynchus read Ibidorhynchus. 
Page 531, line 30, for viscivarus read viscivorus. 

spehie read spekei. 
orix read oryx. 
Cerivoula read Kerivoula. 
hyperthia read hyperythra. 
hymalayan read hymalayana. 
Gooey stes read Coccystes. 
glandarious read glandarvus . 
Gyon read Cuon. 
Pterocercus read Pherocercus. 
Pages 625, & 633, the descriptions of the plate should be re- 
versed, the one on page 625 being intend- 
ed for P. condanarus and that on page 633' 
being that of T. stolatus. 
Page 752, line 6, for name read mane. 



536, , 


, 12, „ 


536, , 


, 20, „ 


536, , 


, 27, „ 


,, 536, , 


, 28, „ 


536, , 


, 34, „ 


„ 537, , 


, 26, „ 


„ 538, , 


, 5, „ 


539, , 


, 18, „ 


„ 623, , 


- 6, „ 



ERRATA. xxx { 

Page 707. liae 31, for clakistone read blakistoni. 
., 845, ,, 28. ,, vindhina read vindhiana. 
., 883, ., 19, ,, Perierotus read Pericrocotus. 
,, 889, title of Miscellaneous Note No. XLIV for " Curious 
Growth of the Palmyra Palm, Borassus flabelliTer. 
Linn, read Palmyra Palm (Borassus flabellifer, 
Linn) Curiosities of Growth. '.' 
, 890, line 6, for Achridotheres read Acridotheres . 
,, 890. .. 7, ,, orithrorhyiiehus read erythrorhynchus. 

892. .. LO, /or G.M. Ryan, F.z.S.,read G.M. Ryan, f.l.S. 
,, 896, .. 23, for Gortunix read Gotumix. 

896. ., 24. .. Goromandelisa read eoromandeUea. 
,, 896, ,, 25, ,, Gortunix read Coturnix. 
Cover of part IV, line IS, for Blandford read Blanford. 

,, „ ,, ., Miscellaneous Note No. XXII, for juglandip&r 
read juglandifer. 
Page 938, line 11, for in the day time read at night. 
955, ,, 31, for gomda read garrida. 

smymesis read smyrnensis. 
Peophron read Neophron. 
Gypcetus read Gypaetus. 
ehryscetus read chrysaetus. 
coramandelica read eoromandeUea. 
Porazana read Porzana. 
Temelia read Timelia. 
perigrinus read peregrinus. 
Gecinius read Gecinus. 
Franhalina read Franklinia. 
Paloeornis read Palceornis. 
Hierwtus read Hieraetus. 
Milvous read Milvus. 
apicaudus read apieieaudus 
Pages 1012 & 1013, for '•' cindrella' 1 ' read "Cinderella. 
Page 1015, line 6, for Pataurista read Petaurista. 
1019, ,,' 4, ,, Birrel read Birrell. 
1023, ,, 4, /or (noneneed) read (nom : nud : ) 



957, 


JJ 


1, 


jj 


960, 


,, 


42, 


jj 


961. 




9. 


•5 


961, 


,, 


16, 


)J 


968, 




41 , 


J 5 


970, 


J J 


14, 


J J 


1005, 


J.J 


38, 


JJ 


1007, 


J) 


13, 


J J 


1008, 


) J 


34, 


J J 


1009, 


,, 


30, 


J J 


1010, 


J J 


9, 


J J 


1010, 


5 J 


12, 


J J 


1010, 


J J 


25, 


) J 


1010, 


JJ 


29, 


J J 



ERRATA. 



Paoe 



1023, 
1023, 
1029, 
1029, 
1031. 
1031. 
1046. 
1052, 
1065. 
1115. 
1155, 
1160. 
1174, 
1174, 
1175, 
1175. 
1175, 
1175. 
1184, 
1184, 
1184, 
1184, 
1 1 84. 



31 



last, 
33, 
§8, 

9, 



line 10, for nitidakis read nitidulus. 

5) i^5 JJ >1 J3 3) 

1, ,, Fells unica read Felis imcia. 

,, Wooly l ' ea, d woolly. 
3, ,, Gazelle read Oazella. 
21, ,, Gervis read Gervus. 

stoliezcoe read stoUozcce. 
melanosplia read melanospila. 
gaucostigma read glaucostigma. 
Papillionidce read Papilionidce. 
10, /or a read or. 
27, for pros us read porosus. 
30, ,, humioe read humiae. 
34, ,, whitheadi read whiteheadi. 

3, ,, unicoler read unicolor. 
10, ,, memoncola read uemoncola. 
13, ,, Pomatorkinus read Pomatorhinus. 
40, ,, Gaccomantis read Gacomantis . 
5, ,, faleon&pi read falcoiieri. 
9, „ fiimbriatus read fimbriatus . 
21. ,, scutulatus read scutulata. 

24, ,, Galinago read Qallinago. 

25, ,, solitaria read soliiarius. 



BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 



BUSTARDS. 

Will members try and send the undersigned any notes on the 
shooting and breeding of Bustards in India to help in the compilation 
of the manuscript for the series of " Game Birds of India " for the 
Journal? 

It appears that in places in which Hume recorded Bustards as 
plentiful they are now very rare and full information as to the 
diminution in numbers of these beautiful birds in India is badly 
wanted. 

I shall be glad to purchase or exchange for Skins and Eggs and 
would hand them over to the Society's Museum when my articles are 
completed. 

E. C. STUART BAKER. 
Ramna, P.O., 
Dacca, May 1910. 



BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 



AN APPEAL. 



The undersigned would be very grateful to any member of our 
Society who would assist him to procure python's eggs for scientific 
investigation. Should an opportunity present itself — the incubating 
season is I believe in June and July — what I would request is that 
the female be left incubating, and that an egg be withdrawn from 
her every second day with as little disturbance as possible, and that 
the eggs be labelled showing date, and then transferred to spirit. 
As pythons are very prolific it might be possible if the dam were 
discovered early in incubation to obtain a complete series of eggs 
showing the gradual development of the embryo up to the stage of 
hatching. 

I am prepared to pay up to Rs. 30 for spirit and as a reward to the 
native who can be prevailed upon to carry out the above suggestion, 
if any member will act on my behalf. 

F. WALL, Majoe, i.m.s. 
Chitbal, 
12th March 1910. 



STOTICH 



" THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON," 

BY 

E. C. Stuart Baker, 

AND 

" THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON," 

BY 

E. Blatter, S.J. 
The attention of members is drawn to the above series, the first parts 
of which commence in this number of the Journal. They will be 
accompanied by the best coloured and black and white illustrations. 
The articles on the game birds of india will deal with the Snipes, 
Bustards, Sandgrouse, Quails, Partridges and Pheasants. 

It is hoped that members will continue to try and obtain fresh 
members for the Society. The Entrance Fee is only Rs. 10 and the 
Annual Subscription is a very small one, being only Rs. 15, and in 
return for this all members receive copies of the Journal free of cost 
and postage. 

W. S. Millard, 

Honorary Secretary, 



6, Apollo Street, 
Bombay, May 1910. 



Bombay Natural History Society. 



BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 



APPLICATION FOR IVSEIV1BERSHIP. 

Ladies and gentlemen desirous of joining the Society are request- 
ed to fill in and sign this form, and to forward it to the address of 
" The Honorary Secretary, Bombay Natural History Society, 
6, Apollo Street, Bombay." 



Name. 



Addsess. 



Name of Proposer. 



N.B. — The Entrance Fee is Rs. 10, and the Annual Subscription Rs. 15, which entitles 
the member to a copy of the Journal and all the privileges of the Society. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 

Plate I. — The Woodcock ( Scolapax rusticola ) not having 
arrived from England will appear in a subsequent number. 

Editors. 



JOURNAL 

OP THE 

BOMBAY 

Statural Jfotorjj Sjomijr, 

Vol. XX. BOMBAY. No. 1. 

THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 

BY 

E. 0. Stuart Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
INTRODUCTION. 

It is now nearly 8 years since the conclusion of " Indian Ducks 
-and their Allies " and the favourable reception accorded to that series 
has induced me to compile, and the editors of the Journal to accept, 
a further series of articles upon the remaining Game Birds of India. 

Of necessity a work of this nature must be more of a compilation 
than original, but at the same time every effort will be made to bring 
each article up-to-date and we trust that much matter which has as 
yet found do record will here obtain a place. 

In writing " Indian Ducks " I observed in the preface that the 
articles were written as much for the purpose of inducing sportsmen 
in the future to record their experiences and observations as with the 
object of putting together an epitome of what was already known. 
The former purpose has, I think, been fully achieved and much valu- 
able information upon Indian Ducks has been recorded since the 
articles were written. We have added no little to our knowledge of 
their distribution and habits and have actually obtained a record adding 
Bewick's Swan to our List of Indian Birds. 

So with the following pages. We trust that while the compila- 
tions will show sportsmen and field naturalists the extent of present 
records it will encourage them to furnish others which will not only 
supplement but also correct them when necessary. 



2 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

It will be seen that much yet remains for sportsmen and field 
naturalists to do. Doubtless there are yet to be obtained additions 
new not only to an Indian Avifauna but to science altogether by 
those who have the good fortune to be posted on our far North- 
Eastern Frontier. But novelties are not the only things to hope for 
and there is much about the most common of our game birds which 
has not yet been properly, and sufficiently worked out. It is only 
within the last few weeks that Mr. Ogdvie- Grant has submitted the 
entirely new theory that female Woodcocks enormously outnumber 
the males and in the same article he has knocked on the head our 
old ideas as to the alleged differences in plumage between the young 
and old birds. 

As regards classification that of Blanford's Avifauna will be adopted 
almost as it is, but for the sake of convenience it may be necessary to- 
alter the sequence of the individual birds and indeed, in some cases, 
of the Families or Sub-Families also. 

The keys to the species are based as far as possible upon such 
characteristics as appeal to the non-scientific observer but in each case 
the fullest description of the adult male and female is given as also, 
where possible, of the young bird. 

Finally I may add that should these series prove as popular as did 
the " Ducks " it is proposed to bring them out in book form on the 
same lines as that adopted for those articles. 

Part I. 
Family-CHARADKIID^E. 

In 1886 in the " Ibis," page 122 et seq., Seebohm thus discoursed 
on the position of the Snipes in the great family of "Plovers." 
"The Snipes belong to the family Charadriidse, which also includes 
the Sandpipers, Curlews, Plovers and a few other allied genera. 
From all these birds they are very easily and very distinctly charac- 
terised. Most of the Oharadriidcc are web-footed; they have a 
distinct web at the base of the toes, sometimes 'much more developed 
between the outer and the middle toe ; but the Snipes, some of the 
Sandpipers, and the Turnstones are exceptions to this rule, having no 
rudimentary web between any of the toes, which are cleft to the base. 
Again, most of the Charadriidaa have comparatively long legs and 
short bills; the Snipes on the contrary have short legs and long 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 3 

bills. The only birds in this family (except the Snipes) in which the 
bill is as long or longer than twice the length of the tarsus, are the 
females of one or two species of Curlews and one or two species of 
Sandpiper, none of which have all the toes cleft to the base. The 
genus Scolopax may therefore be diagnosed as follows : — 

" Charadriidae having the bill twice as long as the tarsus, and all 
the toes oleft to the base. " 

He, however, comes to the conclusion in this paper that one 
eannot divide the group into genera and that these species must all 
come under the one genus Scolopax. 

He first shews that they cannot be divided by any structural diag- 
nosis, the two main points of which may be said to be the amount of 
feathering on the tibiae and the number of tail feathers. 

He. however, points out that there are two characteristics which 
divide five members of the group from all others, viz., the nature of 
the markings on the head and the curious silvery tips to the feathers 
of the tail underneath. 

These characteristics appear quite sufficiently satisfactory and it is 
upon these that most naturalists now divide the genera Scolopax and 
Gallinago. 

Subfamily — Scolopacxn;E. 

The members of this Subfamily may be distinguished from all 
other birds of the Charadriidae Family by having no trace of a web 
between the toes and by having the bill about twice as long as the 
tarsus. Another striking feature of the Snipes is the curious position 
of the eyes which are placed very far back in the head just above 
the anterior edge of the ear-orifice. In this country we have three 
genera. Scolopax, which contains the Woodcock only, Gallinago, 
containing the true Snipes, and Rostratula containing the birdfr 
generally called Painted Snipes. The genus Scolopax includes, 
according to Sharpe, only two species, viz., rustzeula and saturata, 
The former, the common Woodcock, is migratory summering in the 
Himalayas and extending in the winter to the Plains of India ; the 
latter is found only in Java and New Guinea and but little is known 
about it. Of the genus Galiinago Sharpe recognises 20 species somfr 
of which are migratory and some are not ; of these seven species and 
one doubtful sub-species (raddei) are found in India. The genus 



4 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Rosiratula is non-migratory and contains three species of which one, 
the Common Painted Snipe, is found over most of India and Burmah 
as well as China, Japan and Africa. 

Blanford's key to the genera is as follows : — 
A. — Sexes similar in plumage, bill straight. 

(a) Tibia feathered throughout ; no longi- 

tudinal pale stripes ; occiput and nape 
transversely striped Scolopax. 

(b) Tibia partty naked, longitudinal pale 

stripes on crown and scapular ... Gallinago. 

B. — Sexes different, bill curved downwards at 

tip Rostratula. 

The sportsman can always tell the Painted Snipes (Rostratida) at a 
glance by its bright colouration, so different in every way from an 
ordinary Snipe's plumage. 

The Woodcock he can tell, not only by its weight and size, but by 
a fflance at the under surface of its tail feathers and if these have 
silvery tips then the bird is a Woodcock. Again if the occiput and 
nape are found to be barred, and not streaked, in the character of 
their markings the bird is the same. 

SCOLOPAX RUSTICOLA. 

The Woodcock. 

Scolopaxrusticola. — Linn.,Sys. Nat., I, p. 243 (1766); Blyth,Cat., p. 
271 ; Jerdon, B. I., in., p. 670 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B., xxxvn, 
Pt. 2, p. 70 ; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 391 ; Brooks, J.A.S.B., xliii, 
Pt. 2, p. 253 ; Hume, S.F., n, p. 482 ; Anderson, ibid, in, p. 356 ; 
G. Austin, J.A.S.B., xlv, Pt. 2, p. 200 ; Fairbank, S.F., v., p. 409 ; 
Butler, ibid, p. 504 ; Hume and Davison, ibid, vi, p. 458 ; Ball, ibid, 
vn, p. 228 : Laird, ibid, p. 470 ; Hume, ibid, p. 4s3 ; id. Cat. 
No. 867 ; Bingham, S.F., vm, p, 196 ; Scully, ibid, p. 253 ; Hume, 
and Marshall, Game B., in, p. 309 ; Williamson, S.F., x., p. 517 ; 
Barnes, B. of Bom., p. 343 ; Seebohm Charadriidse, p. 502 ; Hume, 
S.F., xi, p. 318 : Newnham, Bom. N. H. S. Journal, Vol. iv, p. 52; 
Osmaston, ibid, Vol. xi., p. 473 ; Davidson, ibid, Vol. xn, p. 66 ; 
Stuart Baker, ibid, p. 500 ; Evans, Ibis, 1891, p. 80 ; Meade-Waldo, 
ibid, 1893, p. 204; Schufeldt, ibid, p. 653; Davidson, ibid, 1898, 
p. 39 ; Finn., Indian Waders, p. 138. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 5 

Scolopax rusticula. — Wharton, Ibis, 1879, p. 453 ; id, S.F. vm, 
p. 500 ; Legge, B. of Ceylon, p. 806 ; Butler, S.F. ix, p. 428 ; 
Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 95 ; Scully, ibid, p. 588 ; Marshall, 
Ibis, 1884, p. 424; Davison, S.F. x., p. 413; Oates, Birds 
of B. B., ii, p. 380 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 176 ; Hume's, Nests arid 
Eggs, 2nd Edit., in, p. 349 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. B. M., xxiv, p. 671 ; 
Blanford, Fauna B. I., iv, p. 283 ; Dresser, Pal. Birds, p. 726 ; 
Oates, Cat. B. Eggs of B. M., Vol. n, p. 66 ; Sharpe, Hand List 
of B., Vol. i, p. 166 ; Oates, Game B., n, p. 428 ; Inglis, Bom. 
N. H. S. Journal, Vol. xn, p. 500 ; Bourdillon, ibid, Vol. xvi, 
p. 10 ; Fulton, ibid, p. 63 ; Rattray, ibid, p. 663 ; Ogilvie-Grant, 
Bulletin, B. O. Club, clvi (1st Jan. 1910). 

Vernacular names. — Simtitar, Tutitar, Hin. ; Sim Kukra, Kumaun 
and Nepal ; Chinjarole. Chamba ; Daodidap gadeba, Cachari ; 
Simpoo-khlaw, Khasia ; Kangtruk, Manipur ; Wilati Chaka, Chitta- 
gong ; Bumpal or Dhabhct, Chitral : Gherak, Drosh ; Chustruck, 
Gilgit. 

Description. — Forehead and sinciput grey, generally with a dark 
mark on the forehead. Occiput and nape with three broad trans- 
verse bands of velvet black, divided by yellowish or rufous lines. 
A deep rufous brown, almost black, line running from the base of 
the bill to the corner of the eye ; a second similar line below eye 
and posterior ear coverts; ear coverts and cheeks grey, with numerous 
rufous-brown spots. Upper parts and wing coverts rufous grey with 
numerous bars of brown and rufous ; the lesser wing coverts brown 
and rufous only and the scapulars broadly black on the inner and 
white, yellowish white or pale grey on the outer webs. The primary 
coverts are rufous, with bars of grey, finely edged with dark brown. 
The primaries and outer secondaries brown, the latter notched on 
the outer webs with rufous, the notches being palest on the outer- 
most feathers. The quills are also margined with pale rufous at the 
tips. The inner secondaries are barred right across with alternate 
bands, broad of brown and narrow of rufous. Rump and upper tail 
coverts barred rufous and black or rufous and brown ; as a rule in 
the longest coverts the terminal half is almost pure rufous. 

Tail feathers dark brown or black, notched or barred with rufous 
and tipped grey above and broadly silver-grey below. 

Cnin white or nearly so, remainder of lower parts dull greyish 



6 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

white, barred throughout with narrow rufescent bars which become 
darker and more numerous on the upper breast, often running into 
one another and forming dark patches. On the abdomen and flanks 
posteriorly, the bars are sometimes centred with a paler tint. 

The adult female does not differ from the male in plumage. " The 
female is larger with the colours more dull " (Jerdon). " Males 

have the back more of the pale brown and grey, and 

the rump less red than the female " (Yarrell), i.e., Yarrell makes out 
the female to be a more rufous bird than the male. 

Young birds. — "Differ from the adult in being darker and having 
creamy-whitish, instead of ashy, spots at the end of the dorsal and 
scapular feathers ; the lower back, rump and upper tail coverts are 
plainly barred across with dusky brown, and the tail feathers are not 
largely notched with sandy brown on their margins, but have a 
narrow sub-terminal line of sandy buff between the ashy tip and the 
black of the rest of the feathers. The outer web of the primaries 
has a distinct series of fulvous notches." (Sharpe). 

The question of the alleged differences in the young bird have 
been taken up lately by Ogilvie-Grant and in the B. 0. C. Bulletin he 
thus sums up the result of his observations. " It will thus be seen 
that . . Gould . . implies that the Woodcocks with tooth-like 
markings on the outer web of the first long flight-feathers are the 
young birds of the year." 

" This statement has been generally accepted as correct." 
" The investigations which I have undertaken during the last few 
years have clearly proved the entire fallacy of this theory." 

He then explains how he shot many breeding birds in the Azores — 
an unfortunate but necesssary proceeding — and also obtained young 
birds of the year from Messrs. Meade- Waldo and Sir Richard Graham. 
Ogilvie-Grant then comments on Seebohm's description of the 
differences between the young and the old bird and says that his 
investigations have "clearly proved that it is impossible to distinguish 
between the plumage of the male and female Woodcock, or between 
old and young birds of the year, when once the latter have fully 
developed their flight feathers." 

Nestlings. — " Covered with a velvety down of a rufous colour with a 
broad band of chestnut down the centre of the crown, and another down 
the centre of the back, with three broad transverse bands down the 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 7 

sides of the body ; on each side of the crown and dorsal stripe a 
broad streak of isabelline ; a black loreal line and a central streak 
on the forehead also black ; under surface of body pale rufous, 
inclining to isabelline on the abdomen, and with some chestnut 
patches on the throat and foreneck." (Sharpe.) 

Iris deep brown, almost black. Feet green-grey or livid grey, or 
grey lead colour, claws generally paler and more fleshy. Bill 
dusky, base brown, paler and tinged with purple at the base of the 
lower mandible 

" The legs and feet are pale bluish, brown or drab, or fleshy 
plumbeous or grey, or livid grey, or bluish fleshy grey, generally 
more or less shaded dusky on the joints ; and the claws are fleshy 
brown, pale brown, blackish brown or dusky." 

"The bill is dusky to blackish brown at tip, the rest pale drab 
brown, fleshy brown with a bluish tinge or almost plumbeous ; often 
nearly white, or fleshy white at the base of the lower mandible." 
(Hume.) 

Dimensions. — "Length 13'0 to 15'0 ; wing 7*2 to 8 - ; tail from 
vent 3*0 to 3*85 ; tarsus 1*35 to 1-57 ; bill from gape 2'8 to 3*3 : 
weight 7 oz. to 12*5 oz." (Hume.) 

"Total length 15 ins., culmen 2*85; wing 7*5 ; tail 3*5; tarsus 
1-55." (Sharpe.) 

" Adult female.— Total length 14 ins., culmen 3'2, wing 7 - 3, 
tail 2*9, tarsus 1*4 " (Sharpe.) 

The Indian birds which I have examined from the Indian Museum 
and the B. N. H. Society's Museum and other skins sent me from 
Madras and Kashmir are as follows in their dimensions : — 

Males.— Culmen 2-7" to 3-1" ; wing 7-30" to 8-30" ; tarsus 
1-50" to 1-80". 

Females.— Culmen 2-90" to 3*25" ; wing 7-20" to 8'50" ; tarsus 
1-40" to 1-80". 

The question of comparative size of the two sexes is one which has 
been very much discussed and the law has been laid down by various 
•authorities in various ways. Thus Jerdon says that the female is the 
larger bird of the two, Sharpe makes out that it is a much smaller 
bird with a longer beak. Hume sums up his opinion thus " they 
show absolutely no constant difference in the size of the sexes." My 
own opinions support Hume's and I find that though the birds vary 



8 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOClETY^Vol. XX. 

enormously in size there is no difference in the ranges of size between- 
the sexes. One gets adult males as small as the smallest female and 
big females as big as the biggest males. 

I have made very careful inquiries amongst sportsmen and others 
concerning the comparative size of the sexes and have found most of 
them under the impression- that one sex or the other — their ideas 
varied as to which it was— was much bigger than the other. This is 
undoubtedly due to the fact that it takes a woodcock two years to 
grow to its full size and the difference in dimensions between a bird 
of six months old and one of eighteen months is very great. 

Another question which has never been settled is the reason or 
cause of the curious grey phase of colouration so often met with in 
the Woodcock. The colouration of this variety looks as if it had had 
all the red pigment washed out of it. I have been unable to explain 
this myself in any way. I have proved that it is not sexual and I have 
also ascertained that though it is much more common in young than 
in old birds it is by no means confined to the former. Major Wilson, 
to whom I owe thanks for much information and many useful notes, 
once shewed me two birds shot by him on the same day in Shillong, 
Khasia Hills, which might have been taken for different species so 
un-alike were they in tone of colouration. In this case the older, 
heavier and bigger bird was in the grey phase and, if I remember 
rightly, both grey and rufous birds were females. 

It would appear, therefore, that in India young birds are more 
frequently grey than are adults but that this phase of colouration is 
by no means confined to such. In fact I have myself seen fully 
adult birds almost as grey in tone as the solitary or wood-snipe. 

Ogil vie -Grant (in loc. cit.) observes " The Woodcock is more or less 
dimorphic in plumage, ie., two more or less distinct phases of plum- 
age are found ; some birds have the general colour of the upper 
part greyer, while in others it is richer and more rufous. The 
grey phase and the rufous phase occur in both sexes alike, in fully 
adult birds ; but as far as my experience goes, the grey phase is 
never found among young birds, which are always more or less 
rufous. These represent what is often described by sportsmen as the 
smaller rufous " species" of Woodcock." 

Ogilvie-Grant in this same paper discusses an apparent disparity in 
numbers between female and male Woodcocks and notes that out of 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 9 

60 Woodcock shot during the breeding season in the Azores only 
four were females and that out of eleven young birds sent him from 
Cumberland only one proved on dissection to be of that sex. As, 
however, he himself remarks, when one goes in for shooting roding 
Woodcock it can hardly be expected to get many females (fortunately). 
As regards the young birds this may be only an exceptional case 
and it is hardly safe to take this as an example of the general rule. 

In India there appears to be no difference in the numbers of the 
two sexes. Unfortunately in both the Calcutta and Bombay collec- 
tions we have but few sexed specimens and it is to be hoped sportsmen 
will help in settling this question one way or the other. 

Yet another point about our Indian Woodcock which is unsettled 
is the question as to whether or not the Indian bird differs in any 
respect from that found in Europe and Northern Asia. 

It has hitherto been considered a generally accepted fact that out- 
Indian Woodcock is a smaller bird than the English but I cannot 
endorse this. My reasons are as follows. Every one who has studied 
migration knows that young birds are more erratic in their travels, 
travel greater distances and to much more unusual districts and. 
countries than the older birds. Now certainly all those Woodcock ob- 
tained in the plains and lower hills of India and possibly all which 
are shot south of the Himalayas are birds which are on migration for 
the cold weather and those which travel furthest and are most often 
shot are the young birds of the year, hence because the birds we shoot 
are smaller than the average English bird we have come to believe, 
that the whole race is smaller. This idea is not, however, borne out by 
my researches which have shown me that fully adult Indian birds are 
as big as European specimens. Thus I have had two female Wood- 
cocks sent me (shot off the nests) which measured in wing 8'30" 
whereas my largest bird shot on migration is well under 8*0". 

Hume says that he thinks the Indian bird is smaller than the 
English but stultifies the value of his opinion by what he says later 
on, when in talking of the triangular emarginations on the primary 
quills of the wing, he writes, Yarrell says : — ' k These marks are 
indications of youth ? ' and then Hume adds u It is a curious thing 
that out of 27 Indian-killed specimens now before me, these triangu- 
lar marks are present in every specimen, only in two or three have 
they disappeared from the basal half of the feather. Our Museum 
2 



10 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX 

does not contain a single Indian-killed specimen with the whole of 
the outer web of the first quill entirely plain. " From Hume's own 
words, therefore, we assume that his opinion was formed on a 
series of immature birds, although his deductions are somewhat upset 
by Ogilvie-Grant's recent discoveries. 

The only way the question can be determined is by the measure- 
ment of adult birds in their breeding haunts, either during, or just 
prior to, the breeding season. Here again the sportsman and field 
naturalist must come to the fore and assist the scientific man who 
works in the Museum. 

In regard to the weight there is no doubt that the majority of 
birds shot in India are lighter than those shot in England but the 
reasons which account for their being; smaller would also account for 
their being lighter. Hume comments on the comparative weight of 
Himalayan (?) and English birds at some length but his conclusions 
are hardly convincing especially when one remembers, as has already 
been shown, that they are based on deductions made from a series 
of probably immature birds. He says that only 5 birds out of 53 
weighed exceeded 10 oz. whilst the weight generally was between 7 
and 12^ oz. and he compares this record of weights with a bag made 
in Ireland. 

" In only 5 out of 53 birds has the weight exceeded 10 oz. and 
of these five the weights were : — 10'5, 11'5, 12-0, 12 0, and 12*5 oz. 
Out of 53| couple shot .... in South-West Ireland, 27 
weighed between 12 and 14 oz., 6 between 14 and 15, and one 
between 15 and 16 .... . — Our 53 birds weighed, between 
7 and 8 oz. fourteen, between 8 and 9 oz. eighteen, between 9 and 
10 oz. sixteen, above 10 oz. five. There is an undoubted instance on 
record of a Woodcock in England weighing 27 oz." I have found it 
difficult to obtain weights of Indian killed-birds but the few I have 
obtained of fully adult birds do not seem to shew that our birds 
are much inferior to English, when in good condition and full sized. 
Thus Major Wilson writes me et I have only weighed one bird as 
it struck me as being bigger than usual, this weighed 13 oz. and 
was the bird I sent on to you." Dr. Moore shot birds in Dibrugarh 
weighing 12, 13, and 14 oz. and Mr. Mondy sent me a bird which 
weighed just short of 14 oz. Any of them would have equalled 
good English birds and though the weights are admittedly excep- 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 11 

tional for Indian birds this is only because it is also the exception to 
shoot any but young birds in the plains and Lower Hills of India, 
whilst even in the higher Hills of Southern India mature birds seem 
to be but seldom shot. 

Dr. W. Moore writes to me anent the weight of his Woodcock as 
follows : — " The first two I shot, both on the same day, weighed 14f 
ounces each, and though I shot no heavier birds than these afterwards 
some ran them very close, and of 18 I weighed none were under 12 
ounces except one and that was obviously a bird in very poor condition. 
I found Woodcock in Dibrugarh on the burnt chapries (grass lands) 
•ear damp forest, feeding on the parched and crippled insects brought 
to earth by the recent fires." 

Distribution. — Outside our Indian limits Seebohm thus describes 
.the habitat of the Woodcock. " Our Woodcock is a semiarctic 
bird ranging from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Scandanavia 
it breeds up to latitude 67, in West Russia to 65, but in East Russia 
and fSiberia not much above 60. Its Southern breeding range ex- 
tends to the Azores, Canaries, Madeira, the Alps, Carpathians and 
Caucasus, to the Himalayas (where it breeds at an elevation of 10,000 
feet) and to Mongolia and the mountains of Japan. It has not oc- 
curred in Iceland or in Greenland, and once only in the Faroes ; 
but accidental stragglers, no doubt driven Westward by storms, 
principally from the Azores, have been met with on the American 
Continent, in Newfoundland, New Jersey and Virginia. 

Within Indian limits the Woodcock is a resident throughout the 
Himalayas where it breeds freely above 10,000 feet, and often at 
even lower elevations. Thence in the cold weather it migrates in 
considerable number to every portion of the Indian Empire where 
there are suitable hills and mountains. It has been frequently shot 
in Ceylon and in the Burmese Hills as far south as Tennasserim, it 
is found in all the Hill ranges of Southern India and is common in 
the Sub-Himalayan Ranges during the winter months. As might be 
expected, where the country is adapted to sportsmen and shooting is 
more or less easy the Woodcock is said to be more common than 
elsewhere. Thus in the Nilgiris, about Ooty, it is quite common 
though it is reported to be far less so in the Assamboo Hills and to 
be comparatively rare in the Palnis, Shevaroys, &c. That is to 
say where the sportsman can get at the birds in comfort, he goes 



12 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

out and finds them common, whereas where the coyer is heavy and 
the ground difficult lie goes out far less often and sees far fewer birds* 

Exactly the same conditions are found in the North-East Frontier. 
The Khasia Hills appear to have been forested with an especial 
view to provide good shooting for Woodcock and therefore tradition 
has long demanded that every sportsman who wishes to be known 
as such must pursue this bird for all he is worth. He'nce it is known 
to be more or less common and the hardworking gunner may work 
up to nearly a hundred birds in a good season, indeed Major Wilson 
has only just missed his 200 birds in one season. Next to the Khasia 
Hills are the North Oachar Hills, in fact they form part of the same 
Range. These, however, are either very heavily forested or are 
covered with bamboo. The latter are seldom in India, as far as I 
am aware, frequented by Woodcock and the former is too heavy to 
allow of shooting small game with any comfort • the consequence 
is no one ever attempts this form of sport and the cock is said to be- 
rare. The fact is, I think, that anywhere between 1st November 
and 1st March in hills over 4,000 feet elevation one should be able 
to find Woodcock if sufficient time and trouble is given to the search 
and there are suitable places for the birds to lie up in. In the plains 
the matter is different and here Woodcock are only rare visitors, 
though chance birds are met with, generally in December and 
January, in many parts of the country. In Burma they seem to- 
descend to the lower countries, often almost to sea level as Oates 
says, "more frequently than they do in India. Still, even in the 
latter country, wherever there are hills near by cock are sure to 
be found at more or less frequent intervals during the cold, 
weather. 

In Dibrugarh, in Lakhimpur, which is surrounded by lofty hills at 
no great distance, anything from five or six to a dozen are shot 
annually. In Cachar one or two are seen or shot each cold weather 
and the same in practically every district of the Assam Valley. In 
Dibrugarh there are a few places which are almost a certain find 
for an odd cock or two during December and January and Mr. F. 
Moore, who made a point of looking up these birds, always succeed- 
ed in getting from four to a dozen birds each year he was in this 
district. In Sylhet Oripps reported it to be so common that he had 
known of as many as four brace being obtained in a single morning.. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 13 

Once, however, we get any distance from Hills cock only appear as 
rare stragglers and in these cases it is probable that birds migrating 
from one range to another are, as the Irishman said of the owl, 
benighted by day and have to stop where they are until the suc- 
ceeding sunset. In this way woodcock have been shot in Guddam 
(Golconda), Kurrachee, Sitapur, Agra, Nynpuri, Cawnpore, Dacca, 
Rangoon, Tavoy, Calcutta, Madras, Kanara (away from the hills) 
Taipuo, Bombay and many other places. 

For some reason the woodcock always forms a most fascinating- 
object of pursuit for the sportsman. It does not matter whether it 
is a cold, hazy morning in the Welsh coast, a sweltering day in the 
foot hills of the Himalayas, or a balmy day in the lovely climate of 
December in the Nilgiris or Khasia Hills ; the owl-like flip-flap of 
the brown bird's wings brings the same little thrill to the gunner and 
the soft thud amongst the bracken and bushes in reply to a successful 
shot brings a feeling of pleasure that is, for some reason, paralleled 
by the slaughter of no other game bird. 

The haunts of the woodcock are in themselves attractive and one 
can wander, gun in hand through sombre pine forest, sunlit copse of 
oak or the dense scrub of an Indian ravine always with a certainty of 
being interested, whatever the sport may be. There is something in 
•®ne's surroundings which makes one take an optimistic view of life 
and it is not until one returns to buildings and the cook has worked his 
will on the results of the day's bag that one once more remembers 
that " only man is vile." 

My experience of cock shooting in India, is, unfortunately, practi- 
cally nil. I have shot a casual cock in the plains of Oachar and of 
Kamrup and more than occasionally have bagged a brace in North 
Oachar but I have never had the delight of a long day's trudge through 
the bracken and pine forests of the Khasia Hills, in which I have 
now lived so many years. Perhaps the most successful of the many 
sportsman IShillong has harboured is Major Wilson of the 8th 
Gurkhas and to him my thanks are due for much information and a 
most interesting account of his first cock in 1908. He writes " They 
generally arrive after the 15th of October, (though I see in 1890, I 
killed one on the 8th) and I generally begin to look for them about 
that date, this year without result till the 23rd. On that day, I 
happened to have for my morning parade " Exercise in hill climbing," 



14 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

so took my men up the side of the big hill overhanging Shillong, 
which is pretty well covered with pine forest. 

" On parades like this, during the shooting season I consider it 
legitimate to carry a gun, and to take my two spaniels " Celar '' and 
" Audax " with me. 

" We, that is, my following of about 100 men, my batman with 
the cartridge bag, the two dogs and myself, start up the hill within 
half a mile of my house. A road runs zig-zag up the hill through 
forest and a hundred yards or so to the right of the road flows the 
stream which forms part of the station water supply. We pound 
steadily up the hill until we have already marched about a mile and 
a half, up some 1,100 feet. Here I think the men may as well halt 
to get their wind, whilst I go down to look at the stream. 

" Celar " and " Audax" go into the wood above me, and present- 
ly one of them gives tongue. I see nothing, but from some little 
distance up the hill I hear the wings of a bird clicking against the 
branches of the trees as he flies, a sound I have noticed with both 
w 7 oodcock and pheasant at home. A second later, he gives me the 
type of shot I love best, coming towards me high overhead. I 
throw up the gun, fire, and as 1 lower it, see the cock crashing down 
through the branches. The orderly picks him up, and not having 
seen me shoot one for at least seven months, asks what he is to do 
with it, thereby showing to how great an extent, the present system, 
of training the individual soldier to think for himself acts on some 
individuals. Not having sufficient command of his vernacular to 
tell him to put it " where the monkey put the nuts," I tell him to 
bring it along. 

" On returning to my small command, who have by this had a 
good five minutes' rest, the bird is duly admired, and we fall in and 
plod still further up the hill. On reaching the top we turn to the left 
along the edge of the Government reserved forest, passing some 
likely looking ground, but as I should have to halt my men to try 
it, it is scarcely the game to do so now, so I call off the dogs, 
who are only too keen to work it. Along the crest of the hill for 
a mile or so, and then we begin to descend. Half way down, a 
stream runs almost parallel to, and about fifty yards from our path, 
and as I can keep in sight of the men, I think it quite legitimate to 
work it. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 15 

" Just at this moment, the dogs rout out a brace of Rufous-neoked 
Partridges from amongst the bracken beside the path, and both are 
added to the bag. 

" The bed of the stream looks, and usually is, a grand place for a 
Woodcock. Here and there are swampy bits, or patches of bracken, 
while both banks are covered with fern and daphne, with a fairly 
thick pine forest over all. 

" The dogs hunt this valley for about sis hundred yards down to 
the bottom, but there is no sign of anything till I am just coming out 
of the wood, when I hear a flutter to my right, and the orderly shouts 
he has put up a bird. 

" I push my way through the grass, cobwebs and busbes, and ask 
if he has marked it down. 

" He says he has, so we walk it up, I see a small brown shape 
flitting through the undergrowth, and the second cock of to-day is 
added to the bag ; we then come out and rejoin the sepoys on the road 
and march home, the result of the morning's work being a march of 
seven miles up and down about 1,100 ft. over fairly rough country, 
with a brace of partridges and two woodcock to show at the end 
of it, all done within two and a half hours." 

It will be seen from what Major Wilson writes that we do not in 
India get birds in the numbers they are obtained at home. In Shillong 
and its vicinity four or five birds in a day's tramp must be considered 
fair sport and six to eight birds something quite out of the common. 
Major Wilson has shot eight to his own gun in a day and Mr. 
Faichnie, of the Postal Service, once got nine but I have heard of 
no bigger bag to one gun in a single day's shooting. In the Nilgi- 
ris, Hume says " ten or twelve birds to two guns in a morning is 
quite an unusually fine bag so it must not be supposed that they lie 
thick as a rule, and yet in particular parts of the hills five or sis are 
sometime shot out of one tiny shola, not perhaps above thirty yard- 
wide and not a quarter of a mile in length." The largest bao- re- 
corded for India is that recorded by A. Grahame Young in Hume 
and Marshall's Game Birds of India 28 years ago. Ihis bag was 
made in the Tos Forests in Kullu. Hume quoting him, thus records 
the bag. " The end of January is about the best time for them. The 
largest bag that I know of was 33 birds to two gnus between Nuggur 
and Hyson ; a good many others were missed. Jf the season be at 



16 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

all favourable, one is pretty sure of flushing a dozen or so in the 
course of a day in the favourite haunts." 

Hume writing of these favourite haunts thus describes them : 
" Cover and running water are what in India the woodcock most 
affects ; you may find them alike in the middle of deep forest or 
thick Ringal jungle near the banks of some rushing hill streamlet, 
foaming and sparkling in its rushy bed, where save a few tiny 
velvety corners, there seems no single spot in the neighbourhood 
where they can possibly feed ; and again in clumps of low scrub in a 
treeless opening where sonie stream debouching in a clayey basin 
converts this into a mossy swamp, through which its movement is to 
be detected only at the further end where, as if ashamed of its late 
sluggishness, it gushes out to resume its late brawling descent. But, 
swamp or stream, the water must be moving to please the Woodcock: 
and though there are exceptions to this rule, you will generally hunt 
in vain mountain swamps and tarns, where there is no outlet and the 
water is stagnant, though all the surroundings and adjuncts be 
everything, apparently, the breast of woodcock can desire. Jn 
England we find them beside little stagnant ditches and pools in 
covers ; but in India I have seldom so seen them, having almost 
always flushed them in the neighbourhood of running water." 

In the Khasia Hills they undoubtedly generally affect places 
within easy reach of running water, but this is possibly becau.se in 
these hills it is difficult to get away from it. They certainly some- 
times lie up in small patches of swamp which are not directly con- 
nected with any running water for some distance. Thus, until this 
year when the whole patch was cleared, a woodcock could always 
be put up in a tiny patch of swamp not 50 yards by 20 which is at 
the bottom of my garden. I never allowed a gun to be fired here 
and the birds soon became curiously tame never rising until one was 
within a very few yards of where they squatted. Major Wilson has 
recorded a similar instance in his own compound. " Speaking of 
the little place in my garden it is a bit of rushy swamp, about twenty 
yards long and ten wide. On one side of it is open grass, and on the 
other a bank on which grow some brackens, bushes, and about a 
dozen pine trees. Early one morning, I let the dog into it, and a 
woodcock jumped up almost at once, flew over the dog, and pitched on 
the grass about five yards from me, where he squatted about five yards 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 17 

off' with his tail spread like a turkey-cock's, awaiting developments. 
"The dog worked up to the end of the marshy bit and knowing there 
was a bird there, turned and came back towards me. 

" When the cock thought he was too close to be pleasant, he 
again executed his manoeuvre of flying over the dog, and I distinctly 
saw him use his beak to lever himself, as it were, into the air. This 
time he pitched where I could not see him, and when he rose again 
he evidently meant going, so I let fly and very nearly bagged an 
old native woman in the next compound as well." 

In connection with this little piece of swamp the same writer has 
commented on the regularity with which woodcock return year after 
year to the same piece of ground. " I soon discovered that to find 
woodcock with any certainty a good spaniel was required, as well as 
an intimate knowledge of the ground, for one woodcock succeeds 
another in a favourite spot, just as one trout succeeds another 
behind a big stone in a burn at home, and in Shillong the places the 
cock mostly frequent are few and far between. 

" This peculiarity of the bird I learnt before ever I came out to 
this country, and it was well expressed a few days before I left home 
by an old retainer of ours, who said ; ' Now, Mr. A., I may be deid 
and gone afore ye come back, but ye'll mind the holly bush on the 
brse abuve the kirk-yard. When the snaw's on the ground, it aye 
bauds a woodcock, and a graand ane.* " 

Many a woodcock I shot there as a boy, and no doubt many a one 
has been shot there since. So it is in Shillong. Each year the cock 
arrive, their instinct brings them into the haunts their ancestors 
frequented, though, alas, these haunts are getting fewer and fewei 
as the station extends. 

" The unwillingness of the 'cock to leave a favourite spot, so long- 
as any cover at all remains, is shewn by the fact that both last 
season and the season before, I got an occasional bird within thirty 
yards of my house, fifteen from a much-used foot-path, and about 
fifty from some stables. This was a cosy little bit of covert in the 
old days, before the gro und was so much built over. 

" There is a drain and slightly marshy bit of ground in the midst 
of our .Regimental lines where the 'cock feed at night still, although 
the barracks have been inhabited for close on forty years." 

In England, of course, cock shooting is indulged in under very 
different circumstances and with very different results and I was 



18 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

fortunate enough on one occasion in Wales to participate in a shoot 
in which three guns got 49 couple of cock in a very few hours. 
We had been shooting three days a week over the rough country 
all round the South Coast obtaining small, mixed bags of pheasant, 
partridge, hare, &c, anything from ten to thirty brace a day but 
never, as far as I remember, had a cock shown itself. On the day 
in question, a crisp November morning in 1894, we start our morn- 
ing trudge with a beat through some bracken bordered by a tiny 
copse of oak and scrub on the crest and with a ditch and some 
swampy ground at the foot of the hill. As we enter the bracken a 
hare breaks and is neatly turned over in the open by H, the gun 
on my left hand. The report, however, puts up a small covey 
of partridge, out of shot, who sweep over the little copse and pitch 
in a field just over the covert. Finishing the bracken without further 
result we turn round and beat the far side of the hill for the par- 
tridge. I, as right-hand man, taking the deep bracken lying just 
inside the oak trees. We have only gone some hundred yards when 
we walk into the birds, which have scattered a little, and four 
are added to our bag. I have one shot and a miss at the partridge 
but as I fire I catch a glimpse of what I am sure is a woodcock get 
up and flit through the trees to my right, but on saying so I am 
merely laughed at for my pains, as the cock are not supposed to be 
in. 1 , however, insist on beating back through the spinney on my 
own account and hardly have I got well inside when two cock are 
up and off before I am ready for them. Within five paces, however, 
another gets up and falls to my shot and as he falls another rises and 
is missed. Before I can load the spaniels have another bird in the 
air and before I have walked the spinney through five birds have 
been dropped and at least as many more missed. After this the- 
other guns come up and after inspecting my bag it is at once decid- 
ed that a large flight must have just come in and that the original 
day's shoot should be abandoned for the purpose of hunting up the 
most likely places for the cock. 

Their favourite haunts along, these Coasts are the numerous small 
copses and spinneys which nestle in between the hills, sometimes 
running a little way up the sides, often surrounded with a fringe of 
light scrub or gorse and nearly always with a tiny stream trickling 
down the centre and losing itself in a swamp at the foot. We soon 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 19 

come to one of these little woods and arrange to work it from the 
bottom upwards, one gun taking the centre and the other two the 
edges. As the guest I am given the best place in the centre but 
before we get into the wood itself two cock are put up from the 
bracken at the edge of the swamp and are downed with a pretty 
right and left by my host. No more birds are seen until we are 
well inside the cover when a single bird gets up from the mossy bed 
of the tiny stream just in front of me and is promptly bowled over. 
A second gets up within a few yards but I miss badly and the bird 
jinks away to my right and I hear the bang, bang of H., gun num- 
ber three, a good shot who has doubtless accounted for him. 

For some time I get no more shots only putting up one bird 
which flops out of my sight before I have time to take a snapshot at 
him. The birds seem to be lying up in the holly bushes and 
gorse on the edge of the copse and both my neighbours are get- 
ting repeated shots and soon one of them missing a double 
shot, turns a cock my way and he comes towards me in and 
out of the trees with his curious owl-like flight and though he escapes 
my first barrel the second brings him down almost on my head . I then 
get a pheasant and miss another cock but finish up the beat with a nice 
right and left at a pair of wood -pigeon. 

Counting our bag we find that B, our host, has six cock, a pheasant 
and a rabbit, H. two pheasant and four cock and myself a pheasant, 
two pigeon and two cock. 

Our next beat is a narrow strip composed of scrub and holly bushes 
intermixed with a few bigger trees fringing a ditch of running water 
which here and there widens out into small patches of bracken covered 
swamp. This is too narrow for three guns, so B. goes ahead and stands 
at the end, whilst we beat up to him. A start is made by H. with a 
right and left at pheasant and we then walk half way through before 
we get another shot and we begin to think the birds are not so thick 
after all. Here however from a dense patch of holly bushes the dogs 
put up four cock together and we have the pleasure of accounting for 
all four though, to level matters, we each miss a comparative ly easy 
shot immediately after. Yet again we have four birds in the air at the 
same time but we only drop three, two are picked up at once and 
whilst hunting round for the third another bird gets up between H. 
and myself and flies straight towards me ; neither can shoot until he 



20 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

gets almost up to me when he rises and tries to dodge ; back but is 
bowled over with a lucky shot just in time. 

So on through the strip with constant shots all through its length 
and, curiously enough, in this bit of cover we keep putting up the birds 
three and four almost together with intervals in which we put up 
none at all. The taller trees are scanty and the bracken very withered 
so the cock are all hiding under the many clumps of holly bushes and 
brambles at the very edge of the swampy pieces. The shooting is easy 
in the comparative absence of the taller trees and we find when we get 
through our beat that H. has nine birds to my ten and that our host 
has beaten us both with 12 cock and a pheasant. 

We do not have such luck, however, with our next beat which is a 
pine wood with very little under-growth and no water. Here we put 
up three or four cock only and get but one, though we add a couple of 
rabbits and one more pheasant to the general stock. Leaving this 
wood we work through a scarp facing the sea and covered with 
bracken, gorse and brambles whilst every few yards a cheerful little 
cascade goes tumbling down into the sea below us. Both rabbits and 
cock are very numerous here, but the walking is terrible and, having 
but one arm both to shoot and climb with, I frighten a great many 
more birds and rabbits than I kill, indeed I emerge the other end ot 
the scarp with but one cock and two rabbits, a result exactly doubled 
both by H. and B., the latter adding a brace of partridge out of a cove)' 
put up on the fields above him by some labourers. 

Yet another scarp succeeds this one, but the walking is better and 
out of the 7 birds collected here I claim three having only missed one. 
This beat brings us up to the farm where we have lunch, a Welsh 
lunch of cold birds, apple tart and Devonshire cream washed down 
with draught beer. Half an hour more for a smoke and oiir host 
makes us turn out again to take full advantage of a day's shooting of a 
kind that does not come too often. 

Walking down the lane a small boy says he has seen a cock pitch 
in some brambles by a pond in the field to our right and, sure enough, 
the dogs turn him out and B. adds him to the fast-swelling bag. From 
here we make for three small spinnies divided from -one another by 
about a hundred yards or so and themselves covering Only two or three 
acres each. Our host and B. each take one corner and send me on 
ahead to shoot the gaps ' and very pretty shooting I get; They have 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON, 21 

hardly got into the first spinney before a couple of shots are heard and 
a few seconds after a cock comes flitting towards me out of the last few 
trees and as he passes I bowl him over ; a little fluff of feathers rise- 
into the air, a soft thud on the grass and before we can pick him*up a 
second bird is dropped almost on the top of the first and no sooner are my 
cartridges home than a third follows. Then I have two long shots and; 
misses and whilst reloading another passes over me before I can shoot. 
Both B. and H. are in sight now and I prepare to move on to the next 
gap but as J turn round a cock flies almost into me and, giving him a 
little law, he too finds his way to grass. 

The second gap is a repetition of the first but here I put in six misses 
to three kills as the birds do not fly so kindly for me. The last spinne} 
is best of all, the birds seem determined to favour me and I get two 
shots to every one by the two guns inside and when they come out I 
am able to shew them 13 birds, of which 6 have been the result of the 
last spinney, besides a wood-pigeon and a pheasant. The others be- 
tween them have 15 cock, two rabbits and a brace of pheasants 
so we have every reason to be jubilant. We have now 88 cock, 
a bag never beaten here before but we are not yet finished. 
Another long pine wood with bracken and hazel on the outskirts 
only gives us a single bird but a hazel copse a few yards further on 
gives us three more and but for my bad shooting should have 
given us five. Then we pick up two odd birds, one from a holly 
hedge near a pool and another from a bracken patch bordering some 
turnips. By this time it is getting late and the birds are now in the 
open feeding and H. gets one as it flaps overhead, making its way 
from one feeding ground to another. Only a few minutes more of 
day-light remain and we hurry for the last beat on our way home. 
Here we find that there are still lots of birds but it is getting too 
dark for good shooting and we miss more than we hit so; that only 
three more birds are brought to book. We have now 98 birds and 
our host insists on our trying to make up the hundred, but three or 
four more misses in the gloaming at silent things, more like bats than 
birds, and one bird lost in the dark are the only results, so we have 
to be content with making the biggest bag of cock recorded in 
my host's shooting experience. A tramp of two miles to the carts 
in the fast gathering dark and then home after a long twenty miles 
trudge and the best days small game shooting I ever hope to have. 



22 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX 

Contrasting well with Major Wilson's account of* shooting in the 
Khasi Hills and with ordinary cock shooting at home is the account 
given by Tickell of cock shooting in Nepal which is quoted by 
Hume. " Woodcock-shooting in Nepal is laborious work from the 
steepness of the hills and the spongy nature of the ground which the 
bird frequents. We found them on light rich mould, thickly matted 
with grasses, ferns, and other weeds, and everywhere furrowed by 
little rills of water trickling through the tangle, or here and there 
stagnating in little pools or 'bog-holes' concealed under a layer of 
vegetation, which formed tolerable pitfalls to the unwary intruder, 
receiving him sometimes up to the hip. The jungle on these hills 
is pretty thick, but not lofty, consisting mostly of briars and thicket ; 
and it would have been impossible to get a fair shot within it, were 
it not that some of the largest rills (perhaps a yard broad) bordered 
with mossy turf, formed narrow vistas through the tangle, up and 
down which the birds when flushed would fly, giving some chance to 
a snap shot. We had no dogs, a luxury known to very few Indian 
sportsman, but employed beaters to find the game. I had never 
even seen cock-shooting in England, and my first day's experience of 
it in Nepal surprised me not a little. I was a good snipe shot in those 
days, and, imagining from the general resemblance of the two birds 
that a Woodcock must fly like a Snipe, I was much taken aback, 
when hailed to ' look out,' at perceiving what appeared like a large 
bat coming with a wavering, flagging flight along the little lane-like 
opening in the wood where I was posted ; but in an instant, ere I had 
made up my mind to fire^ the apparition made a dart to one side, 
topped the bordering thicket, and seemed to fall like a stone into the 
covert beyond. These sudden jerks and zigzags, in the midst 
of its otherwise dilatory flight, are terribly puzzling to a novice. 
The bird alights also in the same fashion, dropping at once down as if 
it had flown against a wall. They were not numerous in Nepal, and 
two couple bagged to one gun during the afternoon was considered 
very fair sport. We found them only on the low spurs bordering the 
open valley of Kathmandu, on its northern side — on such slopes as 
were of the description above given, looking more like the copses and 
hazel woods of England than the forests of India." 

Tickell's remarks on the birds flight are very good and to the 
point. At home the bird is a strong, good flier and the curious inde- 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 23 

-finite manner it has of flying is often far more puzzling to a beginner 
lhan the flights of swifter straighter-going birds. Its very haunts, of 
course, add to the difficulties of shooting as in addition to its natur- 
ally zigzag flight it is constantly twisting and dodging to escape 
obstructions, then too the light is often not of the best and the 
extreme silence of its rise and flight is in itself disconcerting. There 
is no warning whirr of wings or " pench " as of a snipe rising, the 
first thing is you see it, perhaps only as it flits behind some impossible 
jungle, barely giving time for a hasty snap shot. 

In India the Woodcock seems to be of a far more tame and confid- 
ing nature than it is in Europe and this also affects the flight as the 
bird makes no effort to get away at any pace when it is flushed. 
Hume writes : — " When migrating they are said to fly strongly and 
well, but when flushed, the flight is at first slow, uncertain and Owl- 
like, and ceases suddenly, the bird dropping instantaneously behind 
some bush. I have never had any sport with Woodcock in Northern 
India. I have often shot them, rarely more than three in a day ; but 
they gave no sort of sport. They fluttered up flushed by the dogs or 
some beater within twenty yards, and were knocked over by a snap 
shot as they hung wavering on first rising. One shot them because 
they were so good to eat ; in every other respect they were not worth 
shooting. They don't seem to fly a bit as Woodcock do in covers at 
home, where even a good shot is at times baulked ; but, like Snipe, and 
almost every living thing domiciled in this " clime of the sun," they 
seem to have become listless and sluggish. " 

The manner in which Woodcock are said to perform surgical 
operations on their own wounds has often been alluded and is a com- 
mon belief with gamekeepers and others, indeed many sportsmen 
whom I have met are quite convinced that the apparent attention 
which has been paid to a wound is the intelligent work of the bird 
itself. Thus Major Wilson writes me : — " On two occasions I have 
noticed instances of the so-called wonderful way the Woodcock has 
of doctoring itself. One day I wounded a bird, saw it go off badly 
hit but failed to pick it up. A fortnight or so later I flushed a bird 
in exactly the same place and got it. It seemed in very poor con- 
dition and on examining it, I found it had what looked like a re- 
gular splint on one of its legs formed of a tiny piece of stick most 
carefully bound round with feathers. The other case was one of a 



24 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX.. 

bird which had evidently escaped from a snare.. A great patch of 
skin had been torn off just above the wing and this was covered 
with a poultice of feathers beautifully attached to the feathers grow- 
ing in the bird's body. ?r 

Of course, these works of art are the result of accident, not design,, 
and are caused by the birds lying in muddy places. The wounded 
part, in most places wet with blood already, naturally gets covered 
with mud or clay to which feathers, tiny sticks and grass adhere and 
make, what Major Wilson terms, a poultice and doubtless this may 
be in some instances as effectual as a splint or poultice made by de- 
sign. I once shot an owl with a badly smashed thigh, how caused 
I do not know, but it had been Iving in muddv grass-land and the 
breast, nest the wounded leg and the whole thigh itself had become- 
densely matted with feathers, chips of grass, mud and blood which 
formed a perfect plaster of Fans splint and in addition to this, in 
lying down the bird had had the wounded leg forced up against the 
breast where the foot had stuck to the feathers and mud so that it 
might have been said that not only had the bird arranged a splint 
for itself but had also put its' foot int©' a sling to prevent its moving, 
about, 

The Woodcock is generally considered rather a stupid bird and 
an easy prey to trappers and snarers who take full advantage of his- 
weak intellect. 

They are said to be regular trapped in the Nilghiris and parts of 
the Himalayas and certainly in the Khasia Hills snares are to be 
found set in almost every place known to be haunted by Woodcock. 

In Latham's Synopsis, Vol. Ill, p. 130, there is a very quaint 
description of the Woodcock. Amongst other things Latham notes 
that " they are stupid birds and often taken in nets placed at the- 
openings where they come out of the woods and return to them in 
the evenings, which they do in particular paths : they are also caught 
in springes placed on the ground, or near it, sometimes by the legs, 
at other times by the neck : for as these birds will not walk over the 
least obstacle which projects in their way, it is usual to place a range 
of stones and in the avenues between to set springes, by which means 
many are often taken." 

The Woodcock is a very silent bird and but little is on record 
about its voice. The male is said ■ to have a hoarse, grating note-. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDTA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 25 

called "a bleat," "a. .croak,." "a jarring chuckle" by various 
writers. Mr. Osmaston speaks of the noise made by a female Wood- 
cock disturbed in its brooding as being " a continuous sort of grating 
purring noise." Hume says that as far as his own experience goes- 
the Woodcock is mute in the cold weather, but he quotes Mr. 
Wilson as writing of them in their summer haunts : "At this- 
season they are seen towards dusk, about the open glades 
and borders of the forests on the higher ridges, flying rather 
high in the air in various directions and uttering a loud wailing 
cry." Hume also quotes " European authors " to the effect that 
the Woodcock has " a very peculiar call-note, first one or two snorts, 
a hollow coarse, somewhat lengthened nasal sound, followed by as 
short fine sharp sort of whistle, which when one is accustomed to it. 
may be heard to a considerable distance. " 

The diet of the Woodcock ranges over rather a wide limit. 
Tickell says it will swallow a lob worm whole, I have found tiny 
snails and water shells in its stomach and on another occasion a bird 
I examined had been feeding entirely on some small white worms? 
of a very wiry hard consistency. It feeds on grubs, beetles, insects of 
almost any sort and will also swallow spawn of frogs. It is almost 
entirely a nocturnal bird, even more nocturnal than crepuscular, 
feeding after dark or only a very short time before nightfall. In the 
day it lies up and sleeps, and at this time is usually found in a drv 
spot though near water. 

Breeding Habits and JSidification. — There are two points in con- 
nection with the breeding of the Woodcock which call for remark ; 
first is the curious manner of flight during the breeding season, some- 
what analogous to the drumming of snipes ; and, secondly, the- 
habit the Woodcock has of carrying its young from one place to> 
another. 

As regards the roding of the Woodcock, as its habit of flight 
during the breeding season is called, this is described by Seebohm 
as follows ; — " The Woodcock does not drum like the snipe but during 
the breeding season like that bird, the male forgets for a time his 
skulking habits and flies backwards and forwards, uttering a peculiar 
note, which, though unquestionably proceeding from the throat, 
must be regarded as analogous to the drumming of the snipe. This 
peculiar habit of the Woodcock is described as roding and is- 



26 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

indulged in early in the morning and late in the evening, in the 
pairing season, sometimes before it reaches its breeding grounds, but 
more often after its arrival there. This roding continues for about a 
quarter of an hour, during which his peculiar notes are uttered, 
sometimes singly and sometimes one following the other.'" 

Dresser quoting Ekstrom gives in greater detail the manner in which 
the Woodcock rodes. He writes : — " During the first days of spring the 
Woodcock commences roding the instant the sun has sunk below the 
horizon, but at a more advanced period somewhat before its final 
disappearance and continues until nightfall. In the morning it 
begins roding whilst it is still quite dark, and ceases previous to its 
being full daylight. When he rodes there is always an interval 
between each tour and retour, which is more observable in the 
evening, when it goes and returns there several times. The first 
time it always flies high and generally with rapidity, the second its 
flight is but little above the tree tops, and commonly slower, the 
third time still nearer the ground and yet more leisurely." Oates 
who quotes both these authors adds " when flying about in this extra- 
ordinary manner the plumage is puffed out and the flight is rather 
slow." 

Oates' remarks agree well with what was told me by a game- 
keeper in Wales, who said that he had observed Woodcock just 
before they left in March roding outside some of the spinnies I 
have mentioned in my account of a day's shooting in Wales. This 
man informed me that just at dusk the cock came out of the cover 
and sailed slowly backwards and forwards a few times in front of it. 
At first the flights were high, but gradually the birds got lower and 
lower until reaching the level of the scrub they again disappeared 
into it. Each flight was said to be in the shape of a long arc, the 
highest points being reached at the end and commencement of it, 
whilst in length they were anything from 50 yards to 200 or more. 
The bird was described as flying slowly with plumage puffed out, 
head thrown far back and bill somewhat pointed upwards. I did not 
inquire how many times the flights were repeated, but the impres- 
sion I obtained was that they were numerous and lasted for some 
time. 

In this country Mr. F. Wilson, whose note I have already quoted, 
seems to be the only writer who has recorded anything in regard to 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 27 

these nuptial flights. Mr. J. Lindsay Smith has, however, written 
me an interesting letter on the Woodcock and its habits on Dunga- 
gali, and he says in this that he has often observed them roding ; and 
that whilst thus engaged this bird utters "a rather harsh croak 
alternately with a sharp whistle or squeak, something like that of- a 
eat but very much stronger." 

The habit the Woodcock has of carrying its young from one place 
to another is very well known, but there are not many descriptions 
on record of how the carrying is done. 

Davidson saw the bird in the act of carrying its young in Kashmir, 
but has unfortunately left but little on record about it. He observes : — 
" On the 28th May I found a pair with small young ones and dis- 
tinctly saw one of the old birds carrying a young one between its 
feet or legs. It flew only some 50 yards, but though I followed at 
•once, I not only failed to find the young bird, but could not even put 
up the old one again, and on returning could not find the young one 
that I had previously noticed on the ground." 

Littledale also records having seen the same occurrence. He 
writes, " to my delight up flew a Woodcock about five yards from 
jny feet. She had a young one — the men said two young ones, but 
I could not see two distinctly myself — in her claws pressed close 
under her ; and she flew slowly and heavily for about ten yards, 
then rested above a bramble which the young one seemed to catch 
hold of with its claws, or become entangled in. The old bird flut- 
tered for quite half a minute over it, before she could pull the little 
one clear and fly a few yards further down, when she alighted but 
rose again, when I sent a man to try to catch the young one." 

A friend in Scotland to whom I wrote to obtain information on 
this point informs me that he has only once certainly seen the Wood- 
cock carry its young, though he believes that on two or three occa- 
sions when he has disturbed cock in spring they carried away a young 
•one with them. On the occasion he refers to as having distinctly 
seen what happened he writes in epistola ; — " We came on this bird 
very suddenly and she rose almost at my feet and made off with a 
young one held tightly up against her breast, and, I think, held on 
either side by her claws. As she left three young ones behind her 
when she first flew away, I at once hid myself and awaited to see 
what further she would do. In a few minutes back came the old 



28 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

lady and dropped on the ground close to the nest and after scuffling 
about a bit she grasped one of the young ones on either side and 
picked it up. As she rose I could see that her extended legs held 
the young one low down on either side, but she at once drew up her 
legs close to her body and then appeared to be holding it between her 
breast and thighs, this of course owing to the contracted position of 
her legs. Once started she flew quite easily to some distance, but 
seemed to find it rather difficult to get a comfortable hold of the 
young ones at first. She removed all four a distance of nearly 50 
yards within about a quarter of an hour." 

It is not definitely known whether both parents share in the 
labour of removal, but it is probable that such is the case. Indeed, 
from Davidson's note given above, it would appear rather as if whilst 
he was following one of the parent birds, the other had carried off" 
the remaining youngster. 

It is possible that the removals are not always due to the birds 
being disturbed, and it may be that they are undertaken also for the 
purpose of getting to fresh feeding grounds. On several occasions 
young Woodcocks known to be in one place have been found 
removed to some distance, although, as far as was known, no disturb- 
ing element had approached the original nest site. 

The Woodcock breeds very freely throughout the Himalayas at 
10,000 feet upwards and probably also very much lower down. 
Whether its breeding range extends to the East as far as the more 
lofty ranges of the Naga Hills and Manipur is very doubtful, and 
there is nothing to show that- it breeds in any of the Burmese Hill 
Ranges. 

Although so many Oologists have taken its eggs in this country, . 
there is curiously little on record about its nidifications therein. 
Hume when he wrote the " Game Birds " remarked on this, and 
noted that of the many who had taken the nests, the only account 
he possessed was that given him by Anderson, which he quotes as 
follows : — 

" On the 30th June, I turned my face towards the snows in 
another direction, determined to consider my expedition a failure so 
long as the discovery of the breeding haunts of the Woodcock, 
which was one of its chief objects, still remained unachieved. After 
two days' stiff marching I pitched camp at a place called Kemo, at 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 29 

■an elevatiou of some 10,000 i'eet over and against Namick, which is 
celebrated for its salt springs." 

" We were following up a huge wounded Presbytis schistaceus 
through a dense undergrowth of ringals, when a Woodcock rose 
close to us, dropping again almost immediately, disappearing in the 
cover. A diligent search revealed the long-looked-for prize, four 
-eggs, which were deposited in a slight depression in the damp soil, 
and embedded amongst a lot of wet leaves, the thin ends pointing 
.inivards and downwards into the grounds." 

" The eggs found (I could see they were hard-set), I told Triphook 
I had no intention of leaving the place without bagging the bird. 
It was raining heavily and bitterly cold with the thermometer down 
to 40° : but fortunately for us, before we had time to make our- 
selves comfortable under an adjoining tree, the bird flew back in a 
sort of semicircle, alighted, and ran on to her nest. No sooner down 
than she was off again, frightened, as I subsequently learnt, by one of 
■ our dogs, but which at first thought alarmed me not a little as I 
thought she was removing her eggs. After having satisfied myself 
that my suspicions were unfounded, it was decided, as I had done my 
duty in finding the nest, shooting the bird should devolve on Triphook, 
and right well he did it, considering all the disadvantages 
which militate against having a snap-shot in dense cover and a 
thick mist. I never do anything but miss on such critical occa- 
sions ; at any rate, I would rather some one else made a mull of it 
than myself." 

" The eggs were a most beautiful set . . . they are far darker 
.and redder than the usual run of Woodcocks' eggs, all four resembling 
the second figure in Hewetson's work, and in the character of their 
markings they are not unlike richly coloured specimens of some Terns' 
eggs." 

Osmaston has an interesting account of the finding of a nest in the 
Tons Valley, especially interesting as in the case there was no attempt 
to carry off the young ; the mother, when disturbed, attempting to 
divert attention by feigning being crippled. He says that after 
finding the mother and tiny young, only a day or two old, the former 
" all the time 1 had been inspecting her brood had been going- 
through the strangest of antics with outspread wings aad tail, and 
making a continual sort of grating, purring noise. She allowed me 



30 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX V 

to approach within a few feet, and then, with an apparent effort half 
fluttered, half ran away." 

Rattray took a large number of nests of the Woodcock in Changia 
Gali, Danga Gali and other places near Murree. In our Journal 
(in loc. sit.) he records : — " This bird breeds freely round Changia 
GaJi from about 8,500 feet upwards. I saw some 8 or 10 pairs, and 
found some 5 nests, each containing the usual four eggs. The nests 
were all in thick forests and generally under a shrub like Rue. The 
nest is a typical one. I hope next year to get a good photo of a 
sitting bird and settle the question I lately ventilated in "The Field ,r 
as to birds sitting with eyes closed and bill resting on the ground." 

The typical nest referred to is that shown by Rattray in the- 
beautiful photograph which accompanies his article. This shows a 
nest formed by a depression in a mass of leaves and rubbish lying on 
the ground under a thickly foliaged bush. 

In India the Woodcock seems seldom to breed before May and 
generally not before the end of that month. Osmaston found young 
birds on the 17th June in the Tons Valley. Davidson says : — " On the- 
24th and 25th May we obtained two clutches of its eggs, consisting 
of four slightly incubated and three fresh eggs, and on the 28th May 
I found a pair with small young ones." This was in Kashmir near 
Ganjadgir, and I have eggs in my own collection taken by Rattray at 
Danga Gali as late as the 14th July. Lindsay Smith records hard 
set eggs as late as the end of August, and he twice came on nests and 
eggs, broken by cattle, at the end of July. 

In Europe they seem to breed a great deal earlier than in India. 
Many seem to commence breeding operations in March, and I have 
European eggs taken in March, April and May, my latest date being; 
that of a clutch taken in Germany on the 25th May. They are, 
however, sometimes much later than this. Davidson writing to me on 
the 6th August says that as he is writing there is a Woodcock sitting 
on four eggs in his own preserves, and he adds that this is the third 
sitting, the bird having hatched off two previously. 

Hewetson says that the " Woodcock lays its eggs amongst the dry 
grass or dead leaves which form the surface of the woods and planta- 
tions which it frequents. It is an early breeder, frequently having: 
young ones in the middle of April." 

Yarrell describes the nest as being " all in dry warm situations- 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 31 

amongst dead grass and leaves without any attempt at concealment. 
The nest was wholly composed of dead leaves, chiefly of the common 
fern, loosely laid together and without any lining." 

"It would, however, be more proper to say beds than nests ; for, 
like those of the Plover, they are merely slight hollows, formed 
by the nestling of the birds in dry soft spots or on the fallen 
leaves." 

Seebohm (Eggs of British Birds) merely says that the nest is- 
piaced on the ground and is little more than a hollow scratched in 
the earth and lined with a few leaves and a little dry grass. 

The eggs appear to be always four in number, and I have no in- 
formation as to any full clutch numbering less. Typically the eggs 
are far more tern like in character than like snipes' eggs as one- 
would have expected. As a rule they are broad ovals, distinctly 
pointed at one end and sometimes slightly " peg top " in shape, but 
never the actual peg top of the true snipes' eggs. The texture of the 
eggs is fine and smooth and often has a considerable gloss, which 
is more or less permanent, as I have eggs in my collection more than- 
20 years old which still show a fine glossy surface. 

Hume thus describes his eggs : — " The ground colour varies from 
pale yellowish white, through various shades of buff and buffy stone 
colour to a reddish cafe-au-lait. The markings never very densely set 
and at times very sparse, consist of different shades of brown, brownish- 
yellow and brownish-red on the one hand, and greys, from sepia 
to purple on the other. The former occur in moderate sized blotches, 
spots and specks as primary markings. Often these are more 
numerous in a cap or zone about the large end. Occasionally not a 
single blotch or spot is one-tenfh of an inch in diameter, and nine 
out of ten are little more than specks, but in other eggs many of the 
blotches, especially about the large end, are a quarter of an inch and 
upwards in length. The greys, pinkish, lavender, sepia occur as 
small clouds, spots and smears, secondary not surface looking mark- 
ings rarely either large or thickly set, except when amongst the 
blotches of a zone or cap, when the eggs exhibit such." 

" A large series, chiefly Northern European, vary from 1-5 to VH 
in length and from 1*3 to 1*5 in breadth. I have no Himalayan 
eggs, but I suspect that like the birds they would average smaller 
than European specimens." 



32 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATCRAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

My eggs which contain series from Scotland, England, Germany 
and India agree well with Hume's description except one clutch from 
Germany which has a red cafe-au-lait ground with dense blotches 
and smears of rich vandyke brown and a few subsidiary blotches and 
smears of deep-lavender. 

My Indian eggs average 1*6" X 1*32" as against an average of 1*70" 
X 1'34" in English and Scotch eggs, and T69" X 1*32" for German 
eggs. My biggest egg is one from Germany, measuring 1*86" X 
1'54", my smallest is from Scotland and measures 1'59" X 1*26". 

It will be seen that the measurements of my eggs do not bear 
out Hume's opinions as to Indian birds being smaller than European, 
but rather endorses my view that Indian birds average small, because 
they are immature. 

Seebohm gives the size of the Woodcock's eggs as being 1*8" to 
1-6" in length and 1-4" to 1"3" in breadth. 

Dresser gives the average size as being l , 75"xl*32". 

The Plate. — This is an excellent one. This bird in the back- 
ground is supposed to represent the grey phase of colouration, but, 
though this is well shown in regard to the scapulars and back, yet 
many birds will be found far more grey than this specimen on the 
lower parts and wing quills also. As regards the bird in the fore- 
ground all that need be said is that the white round the eye is far too 
conspicuous and the bill is not a normal colour. It is true that in a 
few birds the tint of the bill may be as depicted, but, as a rule, there 
is always a more flesh or horn-coloured tinge about it. 

It must be remembered that the range of variation in the depth of 
colouration of the Woodcock is yery great, and though the plate is 
a very fine example of one shade, many birds will be found to be 
paler, especially on the lower parts, whilst some again may be obtained 
even darker than this bird. 

In life the eye of the Woodcock seems even larger, darker and 
more lustrous than it is shown to be in the plate. 



(To he continued.) 



33 

THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON, 
INDIGENOUS AND INTRODUCED. 

BY 

E. Blatter, S. J. 

( With Plate I and Map A). 

INTRODUCTION. 

It was a favourite idea of the late Dr. Scheffer, formerly 
Director of the Botanic Gardens of Buitenzorg, to illustrate 
by means of photography the palms of the Malay Archi- 
pelago and many others from various parts of the world which grow 
so luxuriously in the famous Gardens of Java. His premature 
death (1880), however, prevented him from giving life to his idea 
and from finishing the promising series of illustrations which he had 
started in the " Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg." Pro- 
fessor Beccari was kind enough to undertake the publication of some 
of Dr. Scheffer's notes and plates, enriched by his own valuable 
observations. It is to be regretted that, after the appearance of the 
" Reliquiae Scheffer ianse," nobody felt inclined to continue the work, 
as there is scarcely a better way of conveying correct notions regard- 
ing the habit of palms than by means of photographic illustrations. 
Even the most elaborate description and detailed analysis will never, 
in that respect, come up to a tolerably good photograph. It is for this 
reason that we intend- to publish a series of articles on Indian palms, 
indigenous as well as introduced, and to illustrate them by as many 
photographs as we are able to procure. We are sorry not to be in a 
position to give much fresh information with regard to the morpho- 
logical characters of most palms, as the leisure required for such 
observations was not at our disposal. We have, however, tried to 
make the descriptions as complete as possible by carefully comparing 
and, where practicable, verifying the descriptions and illustrations as 
given by various authors. In many cases, where we found a good de- 
scription of a species we have not hesitated to adopt it almost word for 
word, supposing that everybody will understand that in a condensed, 
technical description of a plant not much origiuality can be expected, 
especially if a uniform plan has once been adopted. In this we are 
only following in the footsteps of systematic botanists. 



34 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX 

With regard to the classification of the palms we shall follow the 
arrangement laid down by Professor Drude in the '' Natiirliche 
Pflanzenfamilien " ; in minor points only we found it convenient to 
introduce a few changes. We have chosen Professor Drude' s 
system of classification in preference to the one adopted in Sir J. 
Hooker's " Flora of British India " for entirely practical reasons. 
As we include in our description a great number of exotic species, 
the plan given by Professor Drude seemed to simplify matters 
considerably. In order to give the series not only scientific interest 
but also practical value, we shall add to the description of the 
species an account of their economic uses and, besides, a few notes 
on their cultivation. We cannot lay claim to the practical ex- 
perience of a gardener and have, therefore, to rely in this matter on 
the remarks scattered in various books on gardening. As many of 
the palms described below have been introduced into European 
Conservatories, we hope that some hints on palm-growing in Europe 
will be welcome. 

In order to avoid, on the one hand, too frequent references to 
authorities in the test, and on the other to indicate the books where 
those desirous of further information may easily find it, we shall give 
a list of the literature on palms at the end of the introductory chapter. 
Later on all the references to botanical authors will be given in their 
usual abbreviated form. In the interest of those who are not fami- 
liar with the ways of botanists, we shall add a list of the authors with 
the abbreviations commonly used in botanical works. 

We are fully aware of many imperfections regarding the treatment 
of our subject. Those who have ever made, or tried to make, a special 
study of palms will realise the many difficulties that lie in the way of 
such an undertaking. We shall always be very thankful for any 
suggestions or corrections. 

Our sincere thanks are due to Captain Gage, the Director of the 
Botanical Survey of India, and Mr. H. F. MacMillan, the Curator of 
the Royal Botanic Gardens at Peradeniya, who have supplied us with 
a considerable number of photographs which otherwise we should not 
have been able to secure. To Mr. MacMillan we are, moreover, 
indebted for his valuable suggestions. We owe another set of 
photographs to the kindness of Mr. Phipson, the former Honorary 
Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society, to the Rev. Max 



Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate 1. 




Group of Palms in Peradeniya Gardens, Ceylon. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 3o 

Maier, S. J., and to Mr. Roscoe Allen. Mr. Lock, the Assistant 
Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Peradeniya, obliged us b\ 
putting the library and herbarium of the Gardens at our disposal. 
Lastly, we would express our thanks to Mr. Millard, the Honorary 
Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society. Without his 
practical and untiring interest in the subject wo should never have 
been able to start this series. 

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE EXPLORATION OF THE 
INDIAN PALM-FLORA. 

Alexander von Humboldt 1 wrote in the year 1849 : " It is remark- 
able that of this majestic form of plants (palms) up to the time of the 
death of Linnaeus only 15 species were described. The Peruvian 
travellers Ruiz and Pavon 2 added to these 8 more species. Bonpland 3 
and I, in passing over a more extensive range of country from 12° S. 
Lat. to 21° N. Lat., described 20 new species of palms, and dis- 
tinguished as many more, but without being able to obtain complete 
specimens of their flowers. At the present time, 44 years after my 
return from Mexico, there are from the Old and New World, includ- 
ing the East Indian species brought by Griffith, above 440 regular- 
ly described species. The " Enumeratio Plantarum " of my friend 
Kunth, published in 1841, had already 356 species." It is evident 
from this account, that the progress made in the exploration of the palm- 
flora in general was a very slow one, and it cannot be expected that 
the knowledge of the Indian palms was much advanced at that time, 
In Rheede's " Hortus Malabaricus," which was finished in 1703, 
only those palms are described which have been cultivated in India 
from time immemorial (Areca catechu, Phoenix sylvestris, Borassu? 
flabellifer, Oocos nucifera,- etc.) Roxburgh's "Plants of the Coas ; 
• of Coromandel " (1795 — 1816) contains only a few species, whilst 

J A. v. Humboldt, Aspects of Nature in Different Lands and Different Climates, Vol. II 
126. London, 1850. (Translated from the German.) 

2 Hipolito Ruiz Lopez, born in 1754, was in charge of the Botanic Garden of Madrid, 
and died in Madrid in 1815. He and Joseph Pavon undertook (1779-1788) a scientific toui 
through Peru, Chili, and the neighbouring Spanish Provinces. In a shipwreck they 
lost the greatest part of their botanical collections. The results of their travels were 
published in the "Flora Peruviana et Chilensis," Madrid, 1798-1802, and the " Systema 
vegetabilium florae Peruvianas et Chilensis." Madrid, 1798. 

3 Humboldt, in company with Bonpland, travelled in Spanish America between 1793 
.and 1804. 



36 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY , Vol. XX. 

his " Flora Indica ", which appeared 17 years after his death 
(in 1832) brings the number of palms up to 41. At about the same 
time Wallich's " Plantse Asiatics? Rariores " (between 1830 
and 1832) was published by the East India Company. Though 
valuable in other respects, the work did not add much to our 
knowledge of Indian palms. 

It was not until Griffith with his untiring energy and enormous 
knowledge began his botanical investigations, that the palms of India 
became better known. As Assistant Surgeon he accompanied Wallich 
to Assam ; he explored the tracks near the Mishmi Mountains between 
Sudiya and Ava ; made a journey from Assam to Ava, and down the 
Irrawadi to Rangoon ; traversed 400 miles of the Bhutan country ; 
joined the Army of the Indus in a scientific capacity ; went from 
Kabul to Khurasan and succumbed finally to the fatigue and sick- 
nesses due to exposure during his long and restless journeys (1845). 
The various papers, including many on palms which he communicat- 
ed to the " Calcutta Journal of Natural History " and to the Linnean 
Society of London, and his other publications, are models of scientific 
research. His drawings, microscopic analyses and descriptions of 
plants are evidence of astonishing industry and profound knowledge. 
For the fruits of these labours we are indebted to J. McClelland, 
who published in Calcutta, between 1847 and 1854, five volumes 
with a 4to volume of illustrations : " Posthumous papers bequeathed to 
the H. E. I. C, and printed by order of the Government of Bengal ; 
being journals of travels by the late William Griffith, Esq., 
arranged by John McClelland, M.D. 5 ' The most important 
amongst these is the volume entitled : " Palms of British East India " 
(1850). The author's preface furnishes some information regarding 
the scope and origin of the book. " The present attempt," says 
Griffith, " will be found to include all the Palms of British East 
India that I have met with myself, or of which I have been able to 
procure such knowledge, as I considered sufficient for their determina- 
tion. I wish it merely to be viewed as a slight sketch to be filled up 
hereafter. This subject, so far as regards systematic botany, is one of 
considerable interest, and in order to meet the convenience of the 
Indian public, I have written the descriptions in English, in pre- 
ference to the common language of Botanists. This seemed to me 
the: more proper, because English is the language through which 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 37 

scientific knowledge is communicated in this counti-y, more especially 
in the Medical and other Colleges, from which all that is to be 
expected in the dissemination of this science among the natives of India 
must at present be derived . . , The determination of the species 
having been difficult, indeed nearly insuperably so to me, in reference 
to the means possessed in India, the numerous names new to science 
proposed in this work, must be taken with some qualification. I shall 
never regret to see any of these names cancelled in favour of others 
justly prior, that is to say, prior by definition, and by publication. 
However imperfect the definition may be ; and it must be confessed, 
that most of those of palms are necessarily imperfect, still it bears 
evidence of a wish on the part of an author to do his duty by the 
science, for which, moreover, he thus endeavours to show a proper 
respect. But I would not be disposed to waive my right, in favour 
of mere MSS. names originating in indolence, and too often fostered 
by a courtesy of a very mischievous nature, inasmuch as the practice 
is directly opposed to proper observation and due discrimination. 
Such names are, in fact, only weak and temporary usurpations of 
authority." 

The materials from which the work has been prepared were an 

extensive collection of palms made by Griffith himself and his friends 

in various parts of India, more especially at Malacca, and in Assam, 

and of a few found in the Botanic Gardens of Calcutta. To these we 

must add the species figured in Roxburgh's national collection of 

drawings and most of those described in his " Flora Indica." The 

species of Buchanan Hamilton, amounting to nine in number, Griffith 

has not been able to determine, in default either of manuscripts, 

specimens, or drawings. For the rest, Griffith has been much assisted, 

as he says himself, by Martius' great work on palms, so far as regards 

the sections, and from Mohl's contribution to it he derived most of 

what relates to structure. It was Griffith, on the other hand, that 

enabled Martius to describe in his 3rd volume a considerable number 

of Indian species, as only a few months before his death he had sent 

his whole collection of palms to Martius, who at that time was 

engaged in finishing his monumental " Historia Naturalis Palmarum." 

During the lifetime of Griffith and especially in the second half of 

the 19th century, valuable work has been done in the exploration of 

the palm-flora by many botanists in various parts of India. We 



38 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

mention only Anderson, Thwaites, Scheffer, Kurz, Brandis, Trimen, 
Beccari, and especially J. D. Hooker, who in the Vlth Volume of 
his " Flora of British India " (1894) gives a concise account of all the 
palms which had previously been found in India and to which he 
himself and Beccari were able to add some new species. Lately, 
Prof. Beccari has enriched the literature on palms by his magnificent 
monograph on the genus Calamus, and we can only hope that he 
will be able to continue and finish his great undertaking to describe 
and illustrate the Asiatic palms. 

In spite of all the labour spent by many scientific men in the study 
of Indian palms, there still remains much to be done. A great 
number of species are only partially known ; the knowledge of others 
is extremely scanty, and there are, besides, a few, of which we know 
only the name, the original not having been discovered as yet. 

THE PALMS IN GENERAL. 

The Stem. — The adult palm has generally a tall, woody stem, 
bearing a crown of leaves ; a considerable number, however, remain 
shrubby and some even have quite the appearance, but nothing save 
the appearance of perennial herbs. The stems in some species hardly 
appear above ground, in others they rise to the height of 500 feet 
(Calamus). It is doubtful whether there exist entirely stemless 
palms. Not seldom we find in descriptions palms mentioned as stemless, 
but on closer examination we usually find that the stem is very short 
and covered all over with the bases of the stalks of fallen leaves and 
the dense crown of new leaves. In diameter the stems vary from the 
reed-like Chamsedorea and slender Rattan to the more usual sturdy, 
pillar -like structure as seen in the Date-palm, Palmyra -palm, the 
Oreodoxa, the Talipot and many others. While in some the stem is 
hardly as thick as a goosequill, it measures in others from three to five 
feet in diameter (Borassus flabellifer, Corypha). The long, slender 
stems of the Rattans or cane-palms are not self-supporting, but 
scramble over the surrounding vegetation ; but in most palms the stem 
exists quite independent of all other plants. 

The trunks of some are almost perfectly smooth, others rough with 
concentric rings, the scars of the fallen leaves. Many are clothed 
with a woven or hairy fibrous covering, which binds together the 
sheathing bases of the fallen leaves ; others are densely beset with 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 39 

cylindrical or flat spines, often eight or ten inches long and as sharp 
as a needle. As in these cases also the leaf-sheaths are covered with 
spines, such palms offer a serious obstacle to the traveller who 
attempts to penetrate the tropical forest. 

Branching is a rare occurrence in the tall aerial stem, It is the rule 
only in a few species of the genus Hyphcene (thebaica, coriacea, and 
indica). In these palms the stem forks, often several times in succes- 
sion, and there is no doubt that here we have cases of true dichotomy, 
similar to the mode of branching observed in Pandanus furcatus 
(Screw-pine). In ten other genera (out of a total of 131) exceptional 
cases of branching are recorded. These are often due to an injury to 
the terminal bud, as in the Wild Date, where the apex is continually 
tapped for toddy. In other cases branching takes place in consequence 
of the replacement of flowering buds by leaf-buds, which develop into 
shoots. Mr. F. Field gives a photograph of a Wild Date Palm with 
14 branches (Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. xvni, 
p. 699) that was growing at a village named Amas in the Gaya 
District, and he mentions that at one time the tree had been struck by 
lightning and split, and that from the base of the split those branches 
started. 

The formation of horizontal suckers at the base of the stem is not 
so seldom. When they grow erect, they afford a characteristic bushy 
habit, as in the case of Rhapis fiabeliiformis, a species often cultivated 
in gardens. 

The Leaf. — The foliage generally forms a magnificent crown at the 
end of the trunk. It is this crown that renders the palms objects of 
such beauty and elegance. The leaves are large and often gigantic, 
surpassing those of any other class of plants. In some species they 
are 50 feet long and 8 wide. We can easily distinguish two main 
types of leaves, the palmate and pinnate, which give rise to the 
popular terms Fan-palm and Feather-palm respectively. In the 
Fan-palms the blade is entire while enclosed in the bud, but folded 
up. When the leaf expands the folds become torn to a greater or 
less distance from the margin inwards. The depth of division varies 
much in different genera and species. In the pinnse (leaflets, seg- 
ments) of the Feather-palms we can observe, similar characteristic 
foldings and tearings. The presence or absence of a terminal leaflet 
and the shape of the pinnae in such a leaf afford useful distinctive 



40 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

characters. Occasionally, in the genus Caryota, these segments are 
aoain divided (bipinnatisect), their ultimate divisions resembling in 
shape the fin or tail of a fish. 

The petiole (leaf-stalk) is usually large and stout and has a strong, 
broad, sheathing base. The leaf-fall is, as generally in Monocotyle- 
dons not a predetermined process, as observed in dicotyledonous 
trees. After some time, when the leaf has reached the end of its 
life-period, it gradually falls over, as the weight of the large blade is 
too oreat for the dying petiole. The blade remains attached until 
the stalk becomes so decayed that the leaf falls by its own weight or 
wets broken off by wind or rain-storm. The sheath is often seen to 
persist for sometime, its tough fibres forming a dense matting round 
the bases of the younger leaves. In some genera (Calamus, Desmoncus) 
the stem is surrounded above the petiole by a sheath-like stipule, 
called ochrea. In a few species the ochrea forms a hollow smooth- 
walled chamber, in which ants make a home {Korthalsia echinometra, 
scaphigera, scortechinii, waUichicefolia). 

Within the leaf-sheath we often find stem-thorns, which are at 
first flattened upwards against the stem and spread only after leaf-fall. 
The stems and leaves of the Rattans often bear numerous recurved 
spines which aid them in scrambling over trees and bushes. Also the 
leaf-rachis Cmidrib) may be produced into a naked, barbed, whip-like 
flagellum. 

The leaves are generally green on both sides, but occasionally of a 
silvery white on the underside (Coperm'cia cerifera). In rare cases 
blue the middle of some leaves shows concentric bands of yellow 
and in the manner of a peacock's tail, as in the prickly Mauritia. 

Another important character is the direction of the leaves. The 
segments may be arranged in a comb-like manner close to one 
another, with a stiff parenchyma, allowing the rays of the sun to play 
over their surface, and causing them to shine with a brilliant verdure 
in the Cocoa-nut Palm, and with a fainter ashy-coloured hue in the 
Date-tree, or they have a more flexible, grass-like texture, and are 
curled near the extremity. The more acute the angle formed by the 
leaves with the upper part of the stem, i.e., the nearer the leaves 
approach the perpendicular, the bolder and nobler is the aspect of the 
species to which they belong. A comparison between the Real Date 
Palm and the Wild Date Palm will show this sufficiently. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 41 

In Feather-Palms the petioles either burst from the dry, rough, 
woody portion of the stem (Cocos nucifera, Plicenioo dactylifera), or 
there rises in the rough part of the stem a grass-green, smooth, and 
thinner shaft, like one column above another, from which the petioles 
spring (Oreodoaa regid). A special character of melancholic solemnity 
and grandeur is added to the tree, when in Fan-Palms the living 
foliage rests on a circle of dead leaves. 

There are various ways in which the leaf-blade protects itself 
against the influence of too intensive sun-light and the violent force 
of the rain. Fan-leaves as well as feathery leaves very often assume 
an inclined or even vertical position. This is effected either by the 
torsion of the pefiole or by the leaf-stalk trying to get into a more 
upright position. It is not uncommon that the two rows of pinnae are 
turned upwards till they form a small angle with each other 
{ChrysaUdocarpus lutescens), and even the two halves of a fan-leaf 
are sometimes seen to close upon each other — just like a half-open 
book. 

The Root. — After germination the primary root soon perishes and 
is replaced by adventitious roots springing from the base of the stem. 
In the South American genus Iriartea, development takes place 
above ground, the short stem being supported by prop-like adventi- 
tious roots, which increase in size with the increase in circumference 
of the shoot. The Sabal-Palm, Wax-Palm, and others, differ in that 
they form on the surface a short, horizontal rhizome, which becomes 
gradually thicker until the normal sized leaf-rosette is produced, 
when it begins to grow erect and forms the cylindrical stem. At the 
base the stem is often conically thickened. This gives the necessary 
mechanical rigidity, in consequence of which the stem does not 
curve in a gale but bends from the base, from a position like | to one 
like /. The mechanical physiology of stem and root is on the whole 
very little known. Why, e.g., the stems of Cocos and other palms 
are curved — and not straight, we are not yet able to explain. 

The Flower. — The ilowersof a palm are never solitary ; they always 
form a usually very large and much branched inflorescence. This is 
either a simple or compound spike, or a richly branched panicle. 
The branching is racemose and the flowers are often embedded in the 
fleshy surface of the branches ; for this reason it is customary to call 
the inflorescence a spadix. In the Talipot and Metroxylon it is 



42 JOURNAL, BOMB A 7 NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

terminal ; after many years' growth and the production of a stout 
woody trunk, the growing point ceases to produce leaves and develops 
a gigantic inflorescence. This so exhausts the plant that, after fruit- 
ino-, it dies* In most cases, however, the spaclix is axillary and 
withers away after fruiting. It is formed in the sheathed axil of a 
leaf but often does not develop until after the subtending leaf has 
fallen, when the spaclix is therefore below the leaf-crown. In other 
cases again, as in the Sabal maiirkiceforme the large flower-shoots 
appear among the green leaves. These relations are constant for 
every species, sometimes even for a whole genus. 

Before the flowers open a sugary sap in considerable quantities 
flows to the large spadix. The inhabitants of the tropics learned in 
early times how to obtain that sap, which by fermentation changes 
into a favourite intoxicating drink, the toddy. Each spadix is enclosed 
in an often enormous spathe, or each branch is separately sheathed by 
smaller spathes. After some time the spathe becomes torn along defi- 
nite lines by the rapidly growing flower-shoot and either separates com- 
pletely at the base or remains to sheathe the stalk and lower branches. 

The flowers are small and inconspicuous, generally of a white, pale- 
yellow, or green colour, but, as if to make up for this defect, they 
are mostly produced in such masses as to present an eminently strik- 
ing and imposing appearance. A single spathe of the Date-Palm 
contains about 12,000 male flowers, and Metroxylon rumphii has 
been computed to have no less than 208,000 flowers in one spathe, 
or about 624,000 upon a single tree. 

The flowers are sessile or sometimes embedded in the surface 
of a fleshy spadix, as in the male inflorescence of the Brab Tree 
(Borassiis). They are arranged in a close or loose spiral, or more 
rarely are distichous. As a rule the flowers are unisexual, the male 
and female often occupying different parts of the same inflorescence, 
e.g., a few females occur at the base of the branches, whilst the 
upper part is thickly crowded with males, or the branches of the spike 
bear female flowers in the lower and male in the upper half. In other 
species, the two sexes may be mixed, usually one female between two 
males. In this case the two male flowers appear in succession and then 
the female, so that the spike is for the time being unisexual. The male 
and female flowers may vastly differ in size, as in the Brab Tree where 
the enormous female flowers contrast strongly with the minute male. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 43 

The flowers are regular and follow the very general formula of 
monocotyledonous plants. We have therefore usually 3 sepals, 3 
petals, 6 stamens or a multiple of it, and 3 carpels for the excep- 
tional hermaphrodite flower, while the stamens are rudimentary 
(staminodes) in the female and the carpels in the male (pistillode). 
The sepals and petals are tough and persistent, leathery or fleshy in 
their structure. The sepals are generally smaller than the other- 
wise similar petals, and only in rare cases is the corolla entirely 
covered by the calyx. Sometimes a whorl of stamens is wanting, or 
there is an indefinite number. The powdery pollen is produced in 
great quantities, escaping in clouds from the large male spikes. The 
pollination-methods of the palms want investigation. Wind-pollina- 
tion is probably most general, as e.g., in the Cocoa-nut Palm, though 
some palms, e.g., Sabal and Cliamcedorea, are said to be entomophi- 
lous. The sweet smell of the inflorescence and the great mass of 
flowers which form a conspicuous object, seem to be in favour of 
insect-pollination. Where the male and female flowers are close 
together on the same spike, self-pollination is excluded by the well- 
marked protandry which we have already mentioned. 

The ovary consists almost throughout of 3 carpels which are either 
quite free or completely united. In the latter case the ovary is 
generally trilocular. The style is short and the ovules, one for each 
carpel, are either anatrapous, hemitropous, or rarely orthotropous. 

Fruit and Seed. — When the fruit ripens, two of the carpels with 
their ovules may become abortive, as e.g., in the Cocoa-nut, where 
we find only one seed, though the three carpels are distinctly indi- 
cated by three longitudinal sutures and by the constant presence of 
three round scars (germ-pores) on the hard endocarp. The fruit is 
either a berry or a drupe ; in the latter case the endocarp is usually 
united to the seed. If the carpels are free, a syncarp of one-seeded 
fruits results ; if they are united, we shall have a single fruit with 
one, two or three seeds according to the number of ovules that 
develop. The fruit in Lepidocaryince (including the Rattans, the 
Sago-palm, and others) is covered with hard, closely fitting, generally 
smooth, imbricating scales. 

Compared with the size of the plants, the fruits are generally 
small ; some are in this respect like peas, as in the Euterpe of tropical 
America. The common Cocoa-nut is one of the largest; and the 



44 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Double Cocoa-nut (Lodoicea sechellarum), measuring about four feet 
in circumference, is probably surpassed by no other fruit hitherto 
discovered. 

In the seeds we observe a similar variety in size and shape. In 
fruits which contain only one seed it is generally more or less rounded, 
as in the Cocoa-nut ; in the Date it is long and narrow. In fruits with 
three seeds, it often becomes flattened on two sides and rounded on 
the outer in consequence of mutual compression. 

The point on the testa from which well-marked vascular bundles 
radiate, shows the position of the raphe or chalaza. The inner 
integument of the ovule is, in some genera, much thickened along the 
course of these bundles and becoming greatly increased during ripen- 
ing, grows into the endosperm and produces the characteristic 
appearance in section known as ruminate. This can be seen in the 
Betel -nut. Within the thin, fibrous seed-coat there is a copious 
endosperm which holds embedded in some part of its circumference 
the minute cylindrical or conical embryo. The endosperm may be 
comparatively soft, the cells containing a considerable amount of oil 
and proteid (Cocoa-nut), or it may be hard (Date), or occasionally 
mucilaginous. 

Geographical Distribution. — There are about 1,100 known species 
of palms which are distributed among 131 genera. They form a 
monocotyledonous order, essentially characteristic of the tropical 
region (cf. Map A.). Chamcerops humilis is the only native of 
Europe ; it is a Mediterranean species which occurs in Southern 
Spain, Italy, and Greece. . The monotypic genus Nannorhops which 
is indigenous on the Himalayas extends through Afghanistan and 
Baluchistan to south-east Persia. " Of the Chinese-Japanese region, 
only the east-coast, as far as Korea and the south of Japan, shows some 
representatives of this order. A few small genera are peculiar to the 
Southern United States and California. The Chilian genus Jubsea 
extends to the 37th parallel, while in the eastern hemisphere the 
southern limit is 41° S. Lat. in New Zealand. The great centres are 
tropical America and tropical Asia. The order is represented in 
Central America by 7 genera, in the West Indies by 5, and extends 
southwards as far as Chili. In tropical Asia it covers the Indo- 
Malayan region, Borneo, New Guinea and Australia, always within 
the northern and southern limits indicated above. In tropical Africa 



^w 




>J J\ 


v "Z. 




v QC 


£t/~*Cr 


\ ^ 


T? ^ . 


> X. 


Qt , 


\ V- 


Uj 


1 "3 






<=> \ 


* 


*1 


1 

1 






rt 



s 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 45 

only 14 species are known to occur. Several genera have been found 
in the Pacific Islands. 

Drude has shown that, with the exception of three genera, all the 
rest are restricted either to the Old or to the New World. Of those 
three the Cocoa-nut has a wide distribution on the coasts of tropical- 
America, in India and the South Seas, but all its allies are American. 
The Oil-palm (Elceis guinensis) is indigenous in western tropical 
Africa, whilst another species of the same genus is a native of equa- 
torial Africa. One species of Raphia belongs to America, whilst 
several others have their original home in tropical Africa and 
Madagascar. 

The following table gives all the genera of palms with the number 
of species and their distribution. An asterisk indicates that the genus 
is represented by indigenous species in India and Ceylon: two 
asterisks, that representatives of the respective genus are cultivated 
in Indian gardens. 

Tribe 1. — CoryphinjE. 
1 . Phosnicece. 

1. * Phoenix, L. Sp. about 12, Sub-tropical Africa ; Tropical Asia. 

2. Sabalece. 

2. ® * Chamserops, L. Sp. 2, Mediterranean region. 

3. * Trachycarpus, Wendl. Sp. 3, Northern India, Burma ; Northern 

China ; Japan. 

4. Rhapidophyllum, Wendl. & Dr. Sp. 1, Florida, South Carolina. 

5. * ° Rhapis, L. Sp. 3, Eastern Asia, from China to the Sunda Islands. 

6. Acanthorhiza, Wendl. & Dr. Sp. 4, Tropical America. 

7. Colpothrinax, Griseb. & Wendl. Sp. 1, Cuba. 

8. Trithrinax, Mart. Sp. 4, South America. 

9. * « Thrinax, L. Sp. 9, Antilles ; Florida, 

10. * Corypha, L. Sp. 6, Tropical Asia, Malay-Archipelago. 

11. * Nannorhops, Wendl. & Hook, Sp. 1, India ; Afghanistan ; S. 

Persia. 

12. * Licuala, Wurmb. Sp. about 45, Indo-Malayan region ; New 

Guinea ; North Australia. 

13. * Livistona, R. Rr. Sp. about 13, Indo-Malayan region ; New Guinea ; 

East Australia. 

14. Erythea, Wats. Sp. 2, South California and Guadalupe Island. 

15. * * Pritchardia, Seem. & Wendl. Sp, 5, Sandwich Islands. 

16. * * Washingtonia, Wendl. Sp. 2, South California and Arizona. 

17. Brahea, Mart. Sp. 2, Mexico ; South Texas. 



46 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY Vol. XX 

28. Crysophila, Bl. Sp. 1, Mexico. 

2 9. * * Sabal, Adans. Sp. 7. from Venezuela to the Antilles and the 
South-Eastern States of North-America. 

20. Serensea. Hook. f. Sp. 1, Florida. 

21. * * Copernicia, Mart. Sp. 6, America. 

22. Teysmannia, Zoll. Sp. 1, Sumatra. 

Tribe II. — Borassiisle. 

3. Borassece. 

23. Pholidocarpus, Bl. Sp. 5, Amboina ; Timor, Borneo. 

24. Medemia, P. Guil. de Wuertt. & Braun. Sp. about 4, East Africa. 

25. * Hyphsene, Gaertn. Sp. 10, Africa, India. 

26. * * Latania, Comra. Sp. 3, Mascarene Islands and neighbouring coast 

of Africa. 

27. * Borassus, L. Sp. 1, Tropical Africa ; India, from Ceylon to the 

Sunda Islands. 
28 * * Lodoicea, Labill. Sp. 1, Sychelle Islands. 

Tribe III. — Lepidocaryin/e. 

4. Mauritiece. 

29. Mauritia, L. f. Sp. 9, Northern Brazil ; Guiana ; West Indies. 

30. Lepidocaryum, Mart. Sp, 5, Northern Brazil ; Guiana. 

5. Metroxylece. 

31. * * Kaphia, P. de B. Sp. 6, Tropical Africa ; Madagascar ; Tropical 

America. 

32. Oncocalamus, Wendl. & Mann. Sp. 1, West Africa. 

35. Ancistrophyllum, Hook. Sp. 3, West Africa. 

34. Eremospatha, Wendl. & Mann. Sp. 3, West Africa. 

-35. Eugeissona, Griff. Sp. 2, Malay-Archipelago. 

36. * * Metroxylon, Rottb. Sp. 1, Malay-Archipelago ; New Guinea. 

37. Pigafetta, Bl. Sp; 3, Malay- Archipelago ; New Guinea. 

38. * Zalacca, Reinw. Sp. 10, Assam ; Malay-Archipelago. 

39. * Korthalsia, Bl. Sp. 20, Malay- Archipelago ; New Guinea. 

40. Ceratolobus, Bl. Sp. 2, Sumatra ; Java. 

41. * Plectocomia, Mart. Sp. 6, Khasya Hills ; Himalaya ; Assam ; 

Malay- Archipelago. 

42. * Plectocomiopsis, Becc. Sp. 3, Malayan. 

43. * Calamus, L. Sp. about 170, Tropical and Sub-tropical Asia ; Tropical 

West- Africa ; Australia. 

44. * Dasmonorhops, Bl. Sp. about 80, Tropical and Sub-tropical Asia. 

Tribe IV. — CEROXYLiNiE. 
6. Arecinece. 

45. * Caryota, L. Sp. about 10, tropical Asia, Malay-Archipelago, 

Australia. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 47 

46. * Arenga, Labill. Sp. about 10, Tropical Asia ; Malay- Archipelago ; 
New Guinea ; Australia. 

' 47. * Didymosperma, W. & Dr. Sp. 8, East India ; Malay- Archipelago. 

48. * Wallichia, Roxb. Sp. 3, East India. 

49. Orania, Sp. 5, Malay-Archipelago ; Papua. 

50. Podococcus, Wendl. & Mann. Sp. 1, West-Africa. 

51. Sclerosperma, Wendl. & Mann. Sp. 1, West- Africa. 

52. * Bentinckia, Berr. Sp. 2, Travancore ; Nicobar Islands. 

53. Manicaria, Gaertn. Sp. 1, Tropical America. 

54. Leopoldinia, Mart. Sp. 4, Brazil. 

55. Calyptronoma, Griseb. Sp. 4, Tropical America. 

56. Geonoma, Willd. Sp. about 80, Tropical America. 

57. Asterogyne, Wendl. Sp. about 2, Central America. 

58. Calyptrogyne, Wendl. Sp. 3, Central America. 

59. Welfia, Wendl. & Hook. Sp. 2, Central America. 

60. Iriartea, R. & Pav. Sp. about 10, Tropical America. 

61. Catoblastus, Wendl. Sp. 3, Columbia ; West Brazil ; Peru. 

62. Wettinia, Poepp. & Endl. Sp. 3, Andes. 

63. Ceroxylon, H. B. Kth. Sp. 5, Andes. 

64. Juania, Dr. Sp. 1, Juan Fernandez. 

65. * * ChamBedorea, Willd. Sp. about 60, Tropical America. 

66. Morenia, R. & P. Sp. 5, Andes. 

67. Kunthia, Humb. & Bonpl. Sp. 1, North- West Brazil ; Columbia 

68. * * Hyophorbe, Gaertn. Sp. 3, Mascarene Islands. 

69. Gaussia, Wendl. Sp. 1, Cuba. 

70. Pseudophcenix, Wendl. & Dr. Sp. 1, South Florida. 

71. Synechanthus, Wendl. Sp. 3, Central America ; Columbia. 

72. Reinhardtia, Liebm. Sp. 8, Central America ; Mexico, 

73. * * Dypsis, Noronb. Sp. 6, Madagascar. 

74. Phloga, Hook. Sp. 1, Madagascar. 

75. Hyospathe, Mart. Sp. 3, Tropical America. 

76. Prestcea, Hook. Sp. 1, Trinidad. 

77. ° * Oreodoxa, Willd. Sp. 6, Tropical America. 

78. Gigliolia, Becc. Sp. 2, Borneo. 

79. ® * Howea, Becc. Sp. about 3, Lord Howe's Island. 

80. Linospadix, Wendl. & Dr. Sp. 6, New Guinea ; east coast of 

Australia. 

81. Iguanura, Bl. Sp. 10, from Malacca to Borneo. 

82. Calyptrocalyx, Bl. Sp. 2, Moluccas ; Australia. 

83. Sommieria, Becc. Sp. 2, Papua-Archipelago, 

84. Chnostigma, Wendl. Sp. 3, Samoa ; Lord Howe's Island. 

85. * * Heterospathe, Scheffer Sp. 1, Amboina. 

86. Jes enia Karst. Sp. 3, South America. 

87. Roscheria, Wendl. Sp. 1> Seychelles 



48 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY^ Vol. XX. 

88. * * Nephrosperma, Balf. Sp. 1, Seychelles. 

89. * * Verschaffeltia, Wendl. Sp. 1, Seychelles. 

90. * * Phcenicophorium, Wendl. Sp. 1, Seychelles. 

91. * * Deckenia, Wendl. Sp. 1, Seychelles. 

92. * * Acanthophcenix, Wendl. Sp. about 3, Mascarene Island. 

93. * Oncosperma, Bl. Sp.4, Tropical Asia. 

94. Euterpe, Mart. Sp. about 10, Tropical America ; West Indies. 

95. (Enocarpus, Mart. Sp. 8, Tropical America. 

96. Ptychandra, Scheff. Sp. 2, Moluccas. 

97. Cyphokentia, Brongn. Sp. 10, New Caledonia. 

98. * * Hydriastele, Wendl. and Dr. Sp. 1, tropical north-coast of 

Australia. 

99. * * Kentia, Bel. Sp. 10, Moluccas ; New Guinea ; Lord Howe's Island ; 

Norfolk Island ; New Zealand ; Chatham Islands. 

100. Kentiopsis, Brongn. Sp. 2, New-Caledonia. 

101. Veitchia, Wendl. Sp. 4, New Hebrides ; Fiji Islands. 

102. Drymophlceus, Zipp. Sp. 12, Malay- Archipelago ; New Guinea ; 

New-Caledonia ? Australia ? 

103. * * Cyrtostachys, Bl. Sp. 2, Malay- Archipelago. 

104. Ptychococcus, Becc. Sp. 3, New Guinea ; Moluccas. 

105. * * Ptychosperma, Labill. Sp. 13, Sunda Islands ; Papua-Archipe- 

lago ; Fiji Islands ; North Australia. 

106. * Loxocoecus, Wendl. & Dr., Sp. 1, Ceylon. 

107. * e Actinorhytis, Wendl. & Dr., Sp. 1, Malay- Archipelago. 

108. Bhopaloblaste, Scheff. Sp. 2, Moluccas ; New Guinea. 

109. * Ptychoraphis, Becc. Sp. 3, Malayan. 

110. * * Dictyosperma, Wendl. & Dr., Sp. 3, Mascarene Islands. 

111. * * Archontophcenix, Wendl. & Dr., Sp. 3, Tropical and Sub-tropical 

East-Australia. 

112. Nenga, Wendl. & Dr., Sp. about 11, from Malacca and the 

Sunda Islands to New Guinea. 

113. Cyphophcenix, Wendl. & Hook., Sp. 2, New Caledonia. 

114. Mischophlceus Scheff., Sp. 1, Ternate. 

115. ® Pinanga, Bl. Sp. about 40, India ; Malay-Archipelago. 

116. ° Axeca, L. Sp. 14, Tropical Asia: Malay-Archipelago; New-Guinea; 

Australia. 

7 Cocoinece. 

117. Barcella, Trl. Sp. 1, Brazil. 

118. 8 ° Elseis, Jacq. Sp. 2, Tropical Africa and America. 

119. Orbignya, Mart. Sp. 6, South America, 

120. * « Attalea, H. B. Kth., Sp. 23, Tropical America. 

121. * * Maximiliana, Karst. Sp. 3, Tropical Brazil ; Guyana ; Trinidad. 

122. * Cocos, L. Sp. about 30, Tropical and Sub-tropical America, 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 49 

123. Diplothemium, Mart. Sp. 5, Brazil. 

124. Jubtea, Gay, Sp. 1, Chile, 31-35° S. Lat. 

j 25. * * Martinezia, Kth. Sp. 7, Tropical America. 

126. * * Acrocomia, Mart. Sp. 7, Tropical America. 

127. * ° Astrocaryum, Mey. Sp. 29, Tropical America ; Brazil, 

128. ° * Bactris, Jacq. Sp. 90, Tropical America. 

129. Desmoncus, Mart., Sp. about 25 Tropical America. 

Teibe V. PhyTELEPHANTIN/E. 

130. * * Phytelephas, R, & P. Sp. 3, Tropical America, between 9°N. Lat. 

and 8° S, Lat. 

131. * Nipa, Thunb. Sp. 1, Tropical Asia ; New Guinea ; Australia. 



DISTRIBUTION OF PALMS IN BRITISH INDIA. 

Roughly speaking about a hundred species have been described as 
being indigenous to British India and Ceylon ; certainly a small 
number if compared with many regions in tropical America. Nearly 
all of them are comparatively unobtrusive, and if a traveller in India 
meets palms forming a conspicuous feature in the landscape of the 
plains, he may be sure that the trees are either Wild Date- 
Palms (PhcenLc sylvestris) or Palmyra-Palms (Borassus flahellifer), 
or, near the sea, Cocoa-nut Palms (Cocos nucifera). The most 
majestic palm of India and easily distinguished by its stature, foliage 
and inflorescence, is the Talipot (Corypha), but it is exceedingly rare 
and confined to certain localities. 

A short survey of the botanical regions of India, as laid down by 
Sir Joseph Hooker, will reveal some interesting facts regarding the 
distribution of Palms. 

We begin with the Burmese region, which is richest in species, 
not only regarding its whole vegetation, but also as to its palm flora. 
According to Sir J. Hooker, the region is bounded on the north and 
north-east by the flanking mountains to the south of the Assam 
valley and China, on the east by China and Siam, on the west by 
Bengal and the Indian Ocean, and on the south' by the State of 
Khedah in the Malay Peninsula. W r e include here also the Andaman 
and Nicobar Islands. Up to 70 species have been recorded from this 
region, of which, according to our present knowledge of the neigh- 
bouring countries 28 are endemic. 

We may divide this botanical region into four sub-regions, North- 
ern, Western, Eastern, and Central, to which we shall add, in the 
7 



50 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX 

meantime, the two separate sub-regions of the Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands. Northern Burma extends for 500 miles in a north-eastern 
direction from the great bend of the Brahmaputra in Bengal to the 
Chinese Province of Yunnan. The range of mountains flanking the 
Assam valley on the south forms its northern boundary. It belongs 
politically to Assam and comprises the districts known as the Garo, 
Khasya, Jaintia, Nowgong, Naga, Patkai, and Manipur Hills. They 
rise, on the average, to 4,000 to 5,000 feet, a few peaks even above 
10,000. Blanford's description of the climate of Shillong gives on 
the whole a fair idea of the meteorological condition of this sub- 
region. " This station is situated on a gently undulating tableland, 
4,800 feet above the sea-level, immediately north of the culminating 
ridge of the Khasi hills, and about midway between the valley of 
Assam and the plains of Sylhet. . . On the average of the 4 years, 
1869-1872, the mean temperature of Shillong was 62°, which is 
about the same as that of Constantinople, Barcelona, and Oran ; in 
fact of an average Mediterranean climate. In the warmest months, 
June to August, it is below 70°, and in April and May intermediate 
between the two, since in the Khasi Hills rain is so frequent in the 
spring months that the temperature does not rise to a maximum in 
May, and suffers no abatement when the monsoon rains set in in June. 
The lowest reading recorded was just above the freezing point ; the 
average minimum of the 4 years 34°, and the mean temperature of 
December and January 51°. In December and January, the most 
serene months of the year, the mean difference of the early morning 
and afternoon temperatures is 19° or 20°. While in respect of tem- 
perature, the climate of Shillong much resembles that of places in the 
south of Europe, in the dampness of its atmosphere and its rainfall it 
is eminently tropical. In the driest month, March, the humidity is 
indeed only 59 per cent, of saturation, but from July to October 
inclusive it ranges between 86 and 89, and from June to September, 
on an average, eight-tenths or more of the sky is clouded. In April 
it rains on one day in three, in May on two days out of three, and in 
the four succeeding months even more frequently. On the average 
of 18 years there have been 150 rainy days in the year. The average 
rain-fall of the year hardly exceeds 85 inches." 1 

1 Elanford, Climates and Weather of India, p. 112. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 51 

To this sub-region are exclusively confined the following species : 
Areca nagensis, Pinanga griffithii, P. hookeriana, Didymosperma nana, 
D. gracilis and Plectocomia hhasyana. Of other species we find 
Pinanga gracilis, Wallichia densijlora, Didymosperma nana, Caryota 
urens, Caryota obtusa, Phoenix rupicola, P. acaidis, P. liumilis, 
Licuala peltata, Livistonajenhinsia, Trachycarpus martiana, Calamus 
erectus, C. flagellum, C. leptospadix, C. jloribundus, C. acanthospa- 
ihus, C. gracilis, Dcemonorops jenkinsianus, Zalacca secunda. 

Western Burma includes the humid strip of land between the sea- 
and the crests of the Chittagong and Arakan Hills, and separated by 
the deltas of the Irrawaddy, Sittang, and other rivers, the coast of 
Tenasserim down to Mergui. The mean temperature of Chittagong is 
77°. April and May are about equally hot, viz., 81° and 82° and it 
remains nearly uniform from April to the end of September, the 
night temperature rising in the same measure as the day temperature 
falls, until the daily range is reduced by one-half, more or less. The 
highest temperature of the year occurs in April, or, more frequently 
in May, and varies between 91° and 99°. In the cool season the 
lowest temperature occurs as a rule in January, sometimes in February, 
and varies between 45° and 52°. The diurnal range of temperature 
in the drier seasons of the year does not exceed 23°. The humidity 
of the air averages 80, and in the driest month, either February or 
March, is as high as 70. At the height of the rains the humidity 
averages 87 per cent, and upwards. The rainfall amounts on an 
average to 106 inches and the number of rainy days to 122. '' The 
position and configuration of Arakan and Tenasserim on the west 
coast of the peninsula, with hill ranges running parallel with the coast, 
expose them to the influence of the south-west monsoon of the Bay 
of Bengal, in the same manner and as fully as are the Konkan and 
Malabar to that of the Arabian Sea, and with a similar result, viz., 
an excessive rainfall from June to September. In Arakan, however, 
this rainfall is more prolonged than on the west coast of the Konkan 
in the .same latitudes.' 5 (Blanford). Dense, evergreen forests cover this 
tract of country, Dipterocarps, Oaks, Bamboos, Orchids, Palms, and 
Ferns forming a conspicuous feature. In Chittagong occur Wallichia 
densiflora, W. caryotoides, Calamus erectus, C. viminalis, C. tenuis, 
C. guruba, C. gracilis, and Dcemonorops jenhinsiannus, in Tenasserim 
Licuala longipes, L. speciosa, Calamus concinnus, C feanus, C. 



52 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

nitidus, C. platyspathus, C. myrianthus, C. melanacanthvs, C.palus- 
tris, and Plectocomia macrostachya. Spread all over the sub-region, 
from Chittagong to Tenasserim, we find Areca triandra, Pinanga gra- 
cilis, Caryota urens, Nipa fruticans and Calamus latifolia. In Pegu 
the following species have been found : — Pinanga hexasticha (endemic 
in Pecu), P. hymenospatha (endemic), Wallichia disticha, Arenga 
saccharifera, Livistona speciosa, Calamus arborescens (endemic), C. 
lonqisetus, Zalacca beccarii, Plectocomiopsis paradoxus, and others. 

The sub-regions Eastern and Central Burma are little known, and 
no materials are at our disposal. 

Of the Andaman Islands, only a few points have been explored by 
botanists, of which the chief is Port Blair. Barren Island, Narcondam 
and the Coco have been visited by Major Prain. The climate of these 
islands is almost equatorial in its uniformity, and in many respects 
similar to that of Tenasserim. They are hilly, the hills being for the 
most part only a few hundred feet in height, and covered with forests, 
which are typically Burmese. The vegetation of the interior hills, 
which reach 2,400 feet in height, is not known at all. The mean 
temperature of Port Blair is 80°. There i> but little variation during 
the year ; March and April are the warmest months, with a mean 
temperature of 82°, and a mean daily maximum of 92°. The average 
extreme range of temperature in the course of the year is only 26°. 
The diurnal range of temperature is as much as 14° or 1 5° in the 
driest months, February, March, and April. The mean humidity is 
83 per cent, of saturation. The monsoon sets in in May and the 
rainfall of that month is 'little less than that of June. The number 
of rainy days amounts to nearly half the clays in the year, and 
during the summer monsoon there are only 5 or 6 rainless days in 
the month. A comparatively considerable number of palms have 
been recorded from the Andaman Islands. Areca triandra, Pinanga 
manii, Pinanga kuhlii, Caryota. mitis, Phoenix paludosa, Corypha 
umbracuiifera, Licuala peltata, L. spinosa, Calamus longisetus, 
C. viminalis, C. andamanicus, C. palustris, Dcemonorops manii 
(endemic), D. hurzianus (endemic), Kortlialsia laciniosa. 

The flora of the Nicobar Islands is even less known than that of 
the Andaman Islands. Climatically there is not a great difference 
between the two groups of Islands, and as to the vegetation of the 
Nicobars, we cannot decide at present whether it belongs to the 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 53 

Burmese or to the Malay Peninsular flora. Four species of palms 
are endemic in these Islands, viz., Ptychoraphis augusta, Bentinckia 
nicobariea. Calamus nicobaricus and C. unifarius ; two species are 
endemic in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands: Pinanga manii and 
Calamus andamanicus. 

Of the Eastern Himalayan region, only Sikkim is botanically well 
known. Its proximity to the Bay of Bengal and the direct exposure 
to the effects of the south-west monsoon make the district the most 
humid part of the whole range of the Himalayas. The total number 
of species of flowering plants is estimated to be about 4,000, of which 
only 20 are palms. Of these, only 2 inhabit the temperate zone 
(from 6.500-11,500 feet) : a scandent Rattan (Plectocomia himalaica) 
and a Fan-Palm ( Trachycarpus martiana). The rest belong to the 
tropical zone (1,000-6,500 feet). At the lowest elevations we find 
Phcenix rupicola ; Pinanga gracilis and Wallicliia densifiora reach 
as high as 3,000 feet, Calamus erectus, C. flagellum up to 4,000, 
Caryota urens up to 5,000, Calamus acanthospadix up to 6,000. 
Other palms belonging to the same zone are Wallicliia disticha, 
Licuala peltata, Calamus leptospadix and Dcemonorops jenkinsianus. 

The Western Himalayan region, which extends from Kumaon 
to Chitral has a much cooler and drier climate than the Eastern 
Himalaya. In consequence of it we find that 12 of the eastern 
species of palms have entirely disappeared in the western region. In 
the temperate zone there ocelli's only one species (a Trachycarpus) 
which is confined to and local to Kumaon and Garhwal. Five 
others belong to the tropical zone of Kumaon, viz., Phoenix sylvestris, 
P. acaulis, P. humilis, Wallicliia densifiora and Calamus tenuis, alt of 
which have a very wide distribution. 

In the Indus Plain region, including the Punjab, Sind, and 
Rajputana, west of the Aravalli range and Jumna river, Cutch, and 
Northern Gujarat, the only indigenous palms are Phoenix sylvestris and 
JVccnnorhops ritchieana. The latter finds its north-eastern limit in 
the Salt range, and the south-western limit in Sind and Baluchistan. 

The Gangetic Plain region stretches from the Aravalli hills and 
Jumna river to Bengal, including the Sundarbans, the plains of 
Assam and Sylhet, and the low country of Orissa north of the 
Mahanadi river. Hooker has divided this region into three sub-reg- 
ions : an upper dry, a lower humid, and the Sundarbans. In the upper 



54 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Gangetic plain, extending from Eastern Rajputana to a little above 
the bend of the Ganges at Rajmahal, we have a vegetation character- 
istic of a dry country. The trees are, for the most part, leafless during 
the hot season, and the herbaceous flora is burnt up. Two palms are 
cultivated in many parts (Phoenix and Borassus), and in thickets we 
find two species of Rattan (Calamus). The lower Gangetic plain or 
Bengal proper of the old maps is distinguished from the upper valley 
by its humidity and luxuriant evergreen vegetation. The Betel -nut 
palm, Phoenix, Palmyra, and Cocoanut are generally cultivated. Of 
indigenous palms, the following are found, Corypha elata, C. talliera, 
Calamus viminalis, C. tenuis, C. guntba, Doemonorops jenhmsiarms. 
The Sundarbans consist of a great number of islets which, in great 
part, are covered with a dense evergreen forest of trees and shrubs 
with a rich undergrowth of climbers and herbaceous plants. Nipa 
fruticans is gregarious in the swamps and on river banks, whilst 
Phoenix pahidosa is found in drier localities. There occur, also 
two Rattans, a Calamus and a Dgemonorops, both common to 
Bengal. 

The Malabar region (including Southern Gujarat, the southern 
half of Kathiawar, the Konkan, Kanara, Malabar Proper, Cochin, 
Travancore, and the Laccadive Islands) is for the greatest part a 
hilly or mountainous country and " is (except in the north) of 
excessive humidity, the mountains often rising abruptly from the flat 
coast of the Arabian Sea. Its abrupt western face is clothed with a 
luxuriant forest vegetation of Malayan type, except towards the north 
where, with the drier climate, the elements of the Deccan and Indus 
Plain Floras compete with that of Malabar. The eastern face 
slopes gradually >into the elevated plateau of the Deccan, but it is 
varied by many spurs being thrown off which extend far to the east- 
ward, often enclosing valleys with a Malabar Flora. One great 
break occurs in the chain in lat. 11°N., where a transverse valley 
separates Travancore from the mountains north of it, and carries 
species characteristic of the Malabar Flora almost across the 
Peninsula.' 3 (Hooker). 

To this region, including the Nilgiri Hills, belong over 20 species 
of palms. Pinanga dichsonii, Bentinckia coddapanna, Calamus 
rheedii, C. huegelianus, C. brandisii, C. gamblei are endemic. Of 
other palms we mention : Phoenix sylvestris, P. robusta, P. acaulis 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 55 

P.humilis, Caryot aureus, Calamus pseuclotenuis, C. thwaitesii, Corypha 
umbraculifera. Areca catechu, Borassvs fiabellifer and Cocos nucifera 
are widely cultivated. 

The Deccan region comprises the whole comparatively dry elevated 
tableland of the Peninsula east of Malabar and south of the Gangetic" 
and Indus Plains. The Coromandel coast, extending from Orissa to 
Tinnevelly may be considered as a sub-region. Deciduous forests 
form the most conspicuous feature of the Deccan plateau. Compara- 
tively evergreen ones are found on the coasts and slopes with an 
eastern aspect. Of palms, there occur jPhcenLv sylvestris, P. robust a, 
P. acaulis, P. humilis, Calamus viminalis, C. pseudotenuis, C. rotavg, 
Borassus fiabellifer. Phcenix pusilla forms impenetrable thickets in 
sandy soils near the sea . 

The Ceylon region presents, on the one hand, a close affinity to the 
vegetation of Malabar and the Deccan, on the other it differs from 
the Malabar flora in having many more Malayan types. Of endemic 
species 780 have been reported, and of these eleven are palms : Areca 
concinna, Loxococcus rupicola, Oncosperma fasciculata, Phoenix 
zeylanica, Calamus rivalis, C. pachystemonus, C. ' digitatus, C. 
radiatus, C. zeylanicus, C. ovoideus. The most conspicuous palm 
in Ceylon is Corypha umbraculifera ; Nipa fruticans is rare. Other 
indigenous palms are Phoenix pusilla, C. thwaitesii, C. pseudotenuis, 
C. delicatulus, C. rotang. 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 

Adanson (Adans.), 1727-1806. Brongniart (Brgt.), 1801-1876. 

Aiton (Ait.) 1766-1849. Brown (R. Br.), 1773-1858. 

Anderson (T. Anders.) Burmann (Burm.), 1706 1780. 

Baker (Bak.). Cavanilles (Cav.), 1745-1804. 

Balfour (Balf.), 1808-1884. Chapmann (Chapm.). 

Beauvais (Beau v.), 1755-1820. Commerson (Commers.), 1727-1773. 

Beccari (Becc). Crueger (Crueg.), 1818-1864. 

Bentham (Benth.), 1800-1884. Cunningham (A, Cunn.), 1791-1839. 

Berry. 

Blanco, 1780-1845. Delile, 1778-1850. 

Blume (BL), 1796-1862. Desfontaines (Deaf.), 1750-1833. 

Bonpland (Bpld.), 1773-1858. Dillenius (Dill.), 1687-1747 

Bory (1780-1845). Drude. 

Brandis. Duncan (Dune). 



56 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XX. 



Elliot (Ell.), ISr.O. 
Endlicher (Endl.), 1805-1849. 

Fenzl.(Fzl.), 1808-1879. 
Forskal (Forsk.), 1722-1763. 
Forster (Forst.), 1729-1798. 
Fraser (Fras.), 1750-1811. 

Gtertner (Gsertn.), 1732-1791. 
Giseke (Gis.). 1741-1796. 
Gmelin (J. Gmel.), 1748-1804. 
Graham (Grab.), 1805-1839. ■ 
Griffith (Griff.). 1810-1845. 
Grisebach (Griseb.), 1814-1879. 
Guersent (Guers.), 1796-1848. 

Hamilton (Ham.) 
Heritier (Herit.), 1746-1800. 
Hildebrandt (Hildebr.), 1847-1881. 
Hooker (Hook.) 1785-1865. 
Hooker, J. D. (Hook. f.). 
Humboldt (Humb.), 1768-1859. 

Jack, 1795-1822. 

Jacquin (Jacq.), 1727-1817. 

Jussieu (Juss.), 1748-1836. 

Karsten (Karst.), 
Kerchove (Kerch.), 1819-1881. 
Klotzsch (Kl.), 1805-1860. 
Koch (C Kch.), 1805-1879. 
Koenig (KoeD.), 1728-1785. 
Kunth (Knth.), 1788-1850. - 
Kunze (Kze.), 1793-1851. ■ 
Kurz, 1834-1878. 

Labillardiere (Labill.), 1755-1834. 
Lamarck (Lam.), 1744-1829. 
Lemaire (Lem.), 1801-1871. 
Leschenault (Lesch.), 1773-1826. 
Linden (Lind.). 
Lindley (Lindl.) 1799-1865. 
Linne (L.), 1707-1778. 
Linne fil. (L. fi].), 1741-1783. 
Loddiges (Lodd.), 1776-1849. 
Loudon (Loud.), 1783-1843. 
Loureiro (Lour.), 1715-1796. 



Luersson (Luers.). 

Mann, 1868. 

Martius (Mart.), 1794-1868. 
Masters (Mast.). 
Meissner (Meissn ), j- 187r"i. 
Michaux (Mchx.), 1746-1802. 
Miller (Mill.), 1S91-1771. 
Miquel (Miq.), 1811-1871. 
Moore (C. Moore.). 
Mueller (F. Muell.), 
Murray (Murr.), 1704-1791, 

Necker (Neck.), 1729-1793. 
Nees, 1776-1858. 
Noronha. f 1787. 
Nuttall (Nufct.), 1785-1859. 

Orbigny (D'Orb.), 1802-1857. 
Otto (O. & Dietr.), 1783-1856. 

Pancher (Panch.) 
Pavon (Pav.) 1754-1840. 
Persoon (Pers.), 1770-1836. 
Plumier (Plum.), 1646-1706. 
Poiret (Poir.), 1755-1834. 

Reichenbach fil. (Rcbbch. f .) 

Reinwardt (Reinw.), 1773-1854. 

Richard (Rich.). 1754-1824. 

Rodriguez (B. Rodr.) 

Roemer (Roem. & Schult.), 1763-1819. 

Rollisson (Rollis.), 1792-1875. 

Roxburgh (Roxb.), 1759-1815. 

Royle, 1799-1855. 

Rumphius (Rumph.), 1627-1702. 

Scheffer (Scheff.), 1845-1880. 

Scblechtendal (Schlchdl.), 1794-1866. 

Schultes(Roem.& Schult.). 1773-1831. 

Seemann (Seem.), 1825-1871. 

Siebold (Sieb.), 1796-1866. 

Smith (Sm.), 1785-1816. 

Solander (Soland.), 1736-1782. 

Sprengel (Spreng,or Sprgl.). 1766-1833. 

Spruce. 

Steudel (Steud.), 1784-1856. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 57 



Swartz (Sw.), 1760-1818. Wallace. 

Wallich (Wall.), 1787-1854. 

Walpers (Walp), 1816-1855. 

Walter (Walt.) 1740-1821. 

Wendland (Wend.) 

Wight, 1796-1872, 

Wildenow (W.), 1765-1812. 
Vahl, 1749-1804. Wurmb. 

Van Houfcte, 1810-1876. Wuerttemberg (Prinz G. v. Wuertt.). 

Veitch (J. Veitch), f 1869. 
Verschaffelt, (Versch.), 1825-1886. Zippelius (Zipp.), 1796-1828. 

Zollinger (Zoll. ), 1818-1859. 



Tejsman (Tejsm.) 

Thunberg(Thbg. or Thunb.),l 743-1 822 
Thwaites (Thwait.), f 1882. 
Tournefort (Tourn.), 1656-1708. 
Trimen. 



LITERATURE. 

Anderson, T., in Journal Linn. Soc., vol. xi. (On Indian Palms). 

Andes, L. E., Vegetable fats and oils. (Translated by Ch. Salter). 

London, 1897. 

Ascherson in Verhandl. Ges. Erdk. Berlin v. (On Hyphsene). 

Baker, J. G. Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles. London, 1877. 

Baillon, Monographie des Palmiers. Paris, ] 895. 

Baron, R. Notes on the Economic Plants of Madagascar, Kew Bull, of 

Miscell. Inf. 1890. 
Beccari, Malesia, vol. i and iii., Genova, 1877-1890. 

„ Le specie d. Palme raccolte alia Nuova Guinea. 

„ Le palme incluse nel genere Oocos. Estratto della Malpighia 

anno I. fasc. 8. 
,, Ulustrazione di alcume palne viventi nel Giardino Botanico di 

Buitenzorg. Reliquiae Schefferianse, 1885. 
„ Palme nuove Papuane, Estratto dalla publicazione U. Martelli 

" Webbia " Firenze, 1905. 
,, Le Palme delle Isole Fill (Philippine.) 
„ Systematic enumeration of the species of Calamus and Dsemonrops, 

(Rec. Bot. Survey, India, II, n. 3.) 
„ Asiatic Palms. Lepidocaryeee, part I. The species of Calamus. 
Calcutta, 1908. 
Beddome, Flora Sylvatica of the Madras Presidency. Madras, 1869-1873. 
Bentham, G., Flora Hongkongensis, with supplement. London, 1861-1872. 
„ G., Flora Australiensis, London, 1863-1870, vol. vii. 

„ and Hooker, Genera Plantarum. London, 1862-1883. 

Birdwood, Catalogue of the Economic products of the Presidency of 

Bombay. Bombay, 1862. 
Blanco, Manuel, Flora de Filipinas. Gran edicion bajo la direccion cienti 
fica del P. Fr. A. Naves, text 4 vols., pi. 2 vols. Manila, 1877-1880. 



58 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Blume, Eumphia sive commentationes botanicas de plantis Indise Orientalis 

Leyden, 1835-1848. 
Blume, Flora Javee, etc., Brussels, 1828-1829. — Nova series. Amsterdam 

1858. 
Blume, Enumeratio plantarum Javse et insularum adjacentium, 1830. 
Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xxv, 1886. 

Brandis, D,, Forest Flora of North-West and Central India. London 1874. 
Brandis, D„ Indian Trees. London, 1906. 
Brongniard, A. T., Botanique (Phanerogamic) du Voyase autour du monde 

execute sur la Corvette La Loquille pendant les annees, 1822-1825. Paris 

1820. 
Brown, R., Vermischte botanische Schriften, 1825-1834, vol. i. 
Burmann, J., Thesaurus Zeylanicus. Amsterdam, 1737. 
Burmann, J., Flora Malabarica. Amsterdam, 1769. 
Burmann, N. L., Flora Indica. Leyden, 1768. 

Cook, O. F., Origin and distribution of the Cocoa Palm, Contr. Nat. Herb, 

vol. vii. Washington, 1902. 
Cook, O. F., A synopsis of the palms of Porto Rico, Bull. Torr. Bot., 

Club, vol. xxviii. 
Cook, 0. F. and Collins, 6. N., Economic plants of Porto Rico, Contr. 

TJ. S. Nat. Herb, vol. viii. Washington, 1903. 
Cooke, T., Flora of the Bombay Presidency, vol. ii. 
Copeland, E, B., On the water relations of the Cocoanut Palm, Philipp. 

Journ. Science, vol. i. No. 1, 1906. 
Curtis, W v The Botanical Magazine ; continued by W. J. Hooker and 

J. L\ Hooker. ("Descriptions and plates of palms in various volumes). 

Dalzell and Gibson, The Bombay Flora. Bombay, 1861. 

Dampier, W., A new voyage round the world, 4 vols. London, 1717. 

Darwin, C, On the action of sea-water on the germination of seeds. 

Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. L, 1857. . 
De Candolle, A., Distribution geographique des plantes alimentaires, 

Geneva, 1836. 
De Candolle, A., Geographie botanique raisonnee, ou exposition des faits 

principaux et des lois concernant la distribution geographique des 

plantes de l'epoch actuelle, 2 vols. Paris, 1855. 
De Candolle, A., Origin of cultivated plants. London, 1884. 
' Delile, A. R., Flore d'Egypte. Paris, 1824. 
Desfontaines, R. L., Flora atlantica sive historia plantarum quae in 

Atlante, agro Tunetano et Algeriensi crescunt. Paris, 1798-1800. 
Drabble, On the anatomy of the roots of palms. London, 1904. 
Drude, O., Palmse Brasilienses. Munich, 1881-1882. 
Drude, O., Flora Brasiliensis, vol. hi. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 59 

Drude, O., Ausgewaehlte Beispiele der Fruchtbildung bei den Palmen, Botan, 

Zeitung, 1877. 
Drude, 0., Die geographische Verbreitung der Palmen. Petermann's 

geograph. Mitteil, 1878. 
Drude, 0., Palmse, in " Natuerl. Pflanzenfamilien." 
Drude, 0., Die Palmenflora des tropischen Africa, Engler's botan. Jahrb." 

vol. xxi., 1895. 
Drury, H., The useful plants of India. Madras, 1858. 
Durand et Schinz, Conspectus Floras Africa, v. 

Eichler, Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Palmenblaetter, Abhandl. der Kgl. 

Preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. Berlin, 1885. 
Eichler, Ueber die Verdickungsweise der Palmenstsemme, Sitzungsber. d. 

Kgl. Preuss, Akad. physik — math, Kl. 1886. 
Engler, Hochgebirgsflora des trop. Afrika, Berliner Akad., Physik. Abt. 

1891, ii. 
Engler, Die Planzenwelt Ost-Africas u. d. Nachbargebiete. Berlin, 1895. 

Ferguson, The Palmyra Palm. Colombo, 1888. Reprint from the " Ceylon 

Observer." 
Firminger, T. A. C, Manual of gardening for Bengal and Upper India. 

Calcutta, 1890 (ed. 4). 
Fletcher, F., The Date Palm, Agricult. Ledger, No, 1, 1906. 
Forbes, H. 0., A Naturalist's wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago, ed. 

2. London, 1885. 
Forskal, P., Flora iEgyptiaco — Arabica. Kopenhagen, 1775. 
Forster, G., De plantis esculentis insularum oceani australis commentatio. 

Berlin, 1786. 

Gartner, J., De Fructibus et seminibus plantarum, Stuttgart and Tue- 

biugen, 2 vols,. 1788-1791. 
Gage, A. T., On the anatomy of the roots of Phoenix paludosa, Roxb. 

Calcutta, 1901. 
Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers. 
Gatin, Recherches anatomiques et chimiques sur la germination des Palmiers. 

Paris, 1906. 
Gaudichaud-Beaupre, C. Botanique du Voyage autour du monde, fait 

pendant les annees, 1817-1820. Paris, 1826. 
Gaudichaud-Beaupre, C„ Botanique du Voyage autour du monde execute 

pendant les annees, 1836 et 1837. Paris, 1844-1866. 
Gies, Nutritive value and uses of the Cocoanut. Journ., N. Y. Bot. Gard., 

vol. iii, 1892. 
Graham, J., A catalogue of the plants growing in Bombay and its vicinity. 

Bombay, 1839. 
Griffith, W., Palms of British East India. Calcutta, 1850. 



60 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Griffith, W., In Calcutta Journal of Natural History, vol. v. 

Griffith, W., Notulse ad Plautas Asiaticas, vol. iii. 

Griffith, W., Journal of Travels in India. 

Grisard et Van den Berghe, Palmiers utiles et leurs allies. Paris, 1889. 

Grisebach A. H. R., Die Vegetation der Erde nach ihrer klimatischen 

Anordnung. Leipzig, 1872. 
Grisebach, A. H. P., Flora of the British West Indian Islands. London, 1864. 
Grisebach, A. H. R., Catalogus Plantarum Cubensium. Leipzig, 1866. 
Guppy, H. B., The dispersal of plants as illustrated by the flora of the 

Keeling or Cocos Islands. Trans. Vict. Instit., xxiv, 1890-1891. 

Haberlandt, G., Eine botanische Tropenreise. Leipzig, 1893. 

Haeckel, E., A visit to Ceylon. (Translated by Clara Bell). London, 1883. 

Hasskarl, J. C, Plantse javanicse rariores. Berlin, 1848. 

Hemsley, W. B., Report, of the scient. results of the voy. of H. M. S. 

" Challenger " during the years 1873-76. Botany, vol. i., 1885. 
Henze, G., Les plantes industrielles, ed. 3. Paris, 1895. 
Henze, G., Les plantes alimentaires des pays chauds et des colonies. Paris, 

1899. 
Hillebrand, W., Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. New York, Heidelberg, 1888. 
Hoffmeister, Travels in Ceylon and Continental India. Edinburgh, 1848. 
Hooker, J. D„ Himalayan Journals. 
Hooker, J. D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. London, 1844-1860 

II. Flora Novse Zelandise. 
Hooker, J. D., Handbook of the New Zealand Flora. London, 1867. 
Hooker, J D., Insular floras. Gardener's Chronicle, 1867. 
Hooker, J. D., Flora of British India. London, 1872-1897, vol. vi. 
Hooker, J. D., "Botany," being Chapter IV of vol. I of the Imperial 

Gazetteer of India. Oxford, 1907. 
Hooker and Thomson, Flora Indica. London, 1855. 
Humboldt, F. A., De distribntione geographica plantarum. Paris, 1817.'' 
Humboldt, F. A., Aspects of Nature in different lands and different climates 

London, 1850. (Translated). 

Jacquin, Fragmenta botanica, 1809. 

Jumelles, H., Les cultures coloniales, Plantes alimentaires, Paris, 1901. 

Plantes industrielles et medicinales. Paris, 1901. 
Junghuhn, F. W., Java, seine Gestalt. Pflanzendecke und innere Bauart. 
Leipzig, 1852. 

Karsten, G. K. W. H., Die Vegetationsorgane der Palmen. Berlin, 1847. 
Karsten, G. K. W. H., Florae Columbiee terrarumque adjacentium specimina. 

selecta. Berlin, 1858. 
Kerchove de Denterghem, Les Palmiers, Paris, 1902. 
Kirk, Palms of East Tropical Africa. Journ. Linn. Soc, 1833, vol. xxiv. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 61 

Kirkwood and Gies, Chemical Studies of the Cocoanut. Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club, vol. xxix, 1902. 
Klotzsch, J. F., und Garcke, A Die botanischen Ergebnisse der Reise des 

Prinzen Waldemar von Preussen in den Jahren. 1845-1846. Berlin 1862. 
Kny, Bau der Leitbuendel der Palmen. Abhandl. des botan. Vereins d. 

Prov. Brandenburg, xxiii, 1 881. 
Koch, C, Hortus dendrologicus. Berlin, 1853. 
Kunth, C. S., Enumeratio plantarum omnium hucusque cognitarum. Stuttgart 

and Tuebingen, 1833-1850. 
Kurz, S., Forest Flora of British Burma. Calcutta, 1877. 
Kurz, S., In Journ. Asiat. it'oc, Beng., vol. 53, II. (On various Indian 

palms). 

Loureiro, J., Flora Cochinchinensis, 1790. 

Lyon, The Cocoa-nut, etc., Bureau of Agr. (Philippines) Bull. N. 8, 1903. 

Martius, C. F, P., Historia naturalis Palmarum, 3 vols. Munich, 18234850. 
Martius, C. F. P., Bericht ueber die Morphologie der Palmen, Muenchner 

gel. Anzeigen, 1847, N. 171-179. 
Martius, C. F. P., Die geographischeu Verhaeltnisse der Palmen mit 

besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Hauptflorenreiche, Muenchner gel. 

Anzeigen, VI. (1838), VIII. (1839). 
Masters, Garden Palms, Gardener's Chronicle, 1884, 1885, etc. 
Miquel, F. A. W., Analecta botanica indica. Amsterdam, 1850-1852. 
Miquel, F. A. W., Flora Indise batavaa. Amsterdam, 1855-1859. 
Miquel, F. A. W., Prodromus Florae Sumatrana?. Amsterdam, 1860-1861, 
Miquel, F. A. W., Sumatra, seine Pflanzenwelt und deren Erzeugnisse. 

Leipzig, 1862. 
Mcenkemeyer, Reiseskizzen, Mceller's Deutsche Gaertner — Zeitung, 1886. 
Mohl, Ueber den Bau des Palmenstammes, Vermischte Schriften (1845). 
Mollison, Cultivation of Betel, Palm, etc. (Depart, of Land Rec. and Agric. 

Ind. Bull. 20.) 
Montero y. Vidal, El Archipelago Filipino y las Marianas, Carolinas y 

Palaos. Madrid, 1886. 
Mueller, F. v., Fragmenta Phytographiaa Australia?. Melbourne, 1858-1865. 
Mueller, F. v., Vegetation indigene et introduite de 1' Australie. Melbourne, 

1866. 
Mukerji, N. G., Handbook of Indian Agriculture. Calcutta, 1907. 

Naumann, F. C, Ueber den Vegetationscharacter der Inseln des Neu- 
Britannischen Archipels und der Insel Bougainville. Engler's Jahrb. 
vol. vi, 1885. 

Oersted, A. S., Palmae Centroamericanas, Videnskabl. Meddelelser fra den 
Naturhist. Forening i Kjobenhavn, 1858. 



62 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Oersted, A. S., L'Amerique Centrale, Recherches sur sa Flore, etc. Kopen- 

hagen, 1863. 
Oliver, Flora of Tropical Africa, vol. VIII. London. 
Orbigny, Voyage dans l'Amerique meridionale ; Palmee (Palmetum Or- 

bignianum) by Martius, vol. VII, part 3, 1839. 

Pechuel-Loesche, Loango-Expedition, III. 

Pfitzer, Fruechte, Keimung und Jugendzustasnde der Palmen. Berichte der 

deutsch. Bot Gesellsch. 1885. 
Pierre, L., Flore forestiere de la Cochinchine. Paris 1880-1882. 
Posppiff, E. F., Nova genera ac species plantarum, quas in regno Chilensi, 

Peruviano et in terra Amazonica annis, 1827-1832 legit Edwardus 

Pceppig et cum Stephano Endlicher descripsit iconibusque illustravit. 

Leipzig, 1835-1845. 
Prain, D., Bengal plants. Calcutta. 1903. 

Reinwardt, C. G. C, Ueber den Character der Vegetation auf den Inseln 
des indischen Archipels. Berlin, 1828. 

Reisseck, S., Die Palmen. Vienna, 1861. 

Rheede, H. Van, Hortus Malabaricus. Amstelod. 1678-1703. 

Rodrigues, J. Barbosa, Palmse Mattogrossenses novas vel minus cognitse. 
Rio de Jan., 1898. 

Rodrigues, J. B., Palmse novae Paraguayenses. Rio de Jan., 1899. 

Rodrigues, J. B., Sertum Palmarum Brasiliensium. Relation des Palmiers 
nouveaux du Bresil, 2 vols. Paris, 1903. 

Rolf R. A., On the Flora of the Philippine Islands and its probable de- 
rivation. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. V. 

Roxburgh, W., Plants of the coast of Coromandel. London, 1795-1819. 

Roxburgh, W., Flora Indica, or description of Indian Plants. Calcutta, 1832. 

Royle, J. F., Essays on the productive resources of India. London, 1840. 

Royle, J. F., The fibrous plants of India. London, 1845. 

Rumph, G. E., Herbarium- Amboinense (edited by Burmann). Amsterdam, 
1741-1755. 

Safford, W. E., Extracts from the note-book of a naturalist on the Island 

of Guam. The Plant World, vol. 4, 5, 6. Washington, 1902-1904. 
Safford, W. E., The useful plants of the Island of Guam. Contributed from 

the U. S. Nat. Herb, vol. IX, Washington, 1905. 
Salomon, C, Die Palmen nebst ihren Gattungen und Arten. Berlin, 1887. 
Scheffer, R., Enumeration des plantes de la Nouvelle Guinee, Ann. Jard. 

Bot. Buitenz. vol. I. 
Scheffer, R„ Sur la groupe des Arecinees, Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor 

Nederl. Indie, xxxii, und Annales du Jardin Bot. de Buitenzorg, i 

p. 103, ii, p. 79. 
Schimper, A. F. W., Die indo-malayische Strandflora. Jena, 1891. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 63 

Schweinfurth, G., Im Herzen von Africa. 

Schweinfurth, G., Mitteilungen ueber die Colonia Eritrea. Verh. Ges. f, 

Erdk. Berlin, 1892. 
Seemann, B., Flora of the Isthmus of Panama. In the " Botany of the 

Voyage of H. M. S. " Herald" during the years 1845-1851. London, 

1852-1857. 
Seemann, B., Popular History of the Palms and their allies. London, 1856. 
Seemann, B., Flora Vitiensis. London, 1865-1868. 
Shortt, J., Monograph of the Coconut Palm. Madras, 1888. 
Sonnerat, P., Voyage a la nouvelle Guinee. Paris, 1776. 
Sonnerat, P., Voyage aux Indes orientales et a la Chine. Paris, 1806. 
Spon, E. and F. N. Spon's encyclopedia of the industrial arts, manufactures, 

and raw commercial products, edited by C. G. W. Lock. London, 1882. 
Spruce, Palmse Amazonicae. Journ, Linn. Soc. Bot., XL, 1869. 
Swingle, The Date Palm and its utilization in the South-Western States. 

Bulletin 54, Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of 

Agriculture, 1904. 

Talbot, W. A., List of the Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Climbers of the Bom- 
bay Presidency. Bombay, 1902, ed. 4. 

Thonning, In Videnskabernes Selskabs Afhandl., IV, 1829 ( On Phoenix 
spinosa). 

Thurston, E., The Palmyra Palm, its occurrence, cultivation and uses. 
Agricul. Ledger No. 20, 1894. 

Thwaites, G. H. K., Reports on the Royal Botanic Garden, Peradeniya, 
1856-1867. 

Thwaites, G. H. K., Enumeratio plantarum Zeylaniaa. London, 1864. 

Trimen, H., A handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, 5 vols., text, 1 vol. illustr. 
London, 1893-1908. 

Wald, K., Lebensbaume, Regensburg, 1906. 

Wallace, A. R., Palm Trees of the Amazon and their uses. London, 1853. 

Wallace, A. R., The Malay Archipelago. New York, 1869. 

Wallace, A. R., Island life. New York, 1881. 

Wallich, N., Plants asiaticse rariores. London, 1830-1832. 

Walker, H. S., The Coconut and its relation to the production of Coconut 

Oil. Philippine Journ. of Science, vol. i, No. 1, 1906. 
Warburg, O., Ueber Verbreitung, Systematik und Verwerthung der polyne- 

sischen Steinnuss-Palmen. Ber. der Deut. Bot. Gesellsch, vol. XIV, 1896. 
Walpers, W. G., Annales Botanices systematica, vol. iii, and v. 
Warming, E., Oekologische Pflanzengeographie. Berlin, 1896. 
Watt, G., A dictionary of the economic products of India. Calcutta, 

1885—1893. 
Watt, G., The commercial products of India. London, 1908. 
Wendland, H. L., Index Palmarum et Cycadearum cultarum. Hannover, 

1854. 



64 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Wendland, H. L., Einiige neue Palmen Amerikas. Linnaea, J 857. 
Wendland, H., Ueber Grisebachia, ein neues Palmengenus, Goettinge: 

Nachrichten, 1875. 
Wendland, H. and Drude, 0., Palmse Australasicas, Linnsea, 1875. 
Wendland, H., Die systematische Einteilung der Palmen. Bericht der 40 

Versam. deutscher Aerzfce und Naturforscher. Hannover, 1866. 
Wendland, H., Ueber die Blastter der Palmen. Botan. Zeitung, 1679. 
Wendland, H., and Mann, Palms of Western Africa. Transact. Linn. Society. 

1863, vol. xxiv. 
Wiesner, J., Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches, 2 vols. Leipzig, 1900-1903= 
Wight, R., Illustrations of Indian Botany. Glasgow, 1831. Madras, 1841-50. 
Wight, R., Icones plantarum Indise Orientalis, or figures of Indian plants. 

Madras, 1840-1856. 
Wight, R., Spicilegium Neilgherrense, Calcutta, 1846-1851. 
Wight, R., and George Arnold Walker-Arnott, Prodromus Floree Peninsulee 

India? Orientalis, Madras, Calcutta, and London, 1840-1856. 
Wildeman, E. de, Les plantes tropicales de grande culture. Brussels, 1902. 
Winton, Anatomy of the fruit of Cocos nucif era. Americ. Journ. Sci., ser. 

4, Vol. XII, 1901. 



(To be continued.) 



THE COMMON SNAKES OF INDIA. 

BY 

Major F. WALL, i.m.s. 



Plate XIII. ( Ancistrodon himalayanus and Psammodynastes 
pulverulentus) not having arrived from England, will be published 
in the next number of the Journal. 

Editors. 



65 

A POPULAR TREATISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN. 

SNAKES. 

Illustrated by Coloured Plates and Diagrams. 

BY 

Major F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Part XIII with Plate XIII and Diagram. 

( Continued from page 792 of Volume XIX). 

The vipers constitute a family ( Viperidce) characterised by the 
shape of the maxilla or upper jawbone which as shown in a previous 
paper (Vol. XVI., p. 535) consists of a vertical column bearing a 
pair of tubular fangs. In all other snakes the long axis of the 
maxilla is placed horizontally. 

The fangs of vipers are relatively much longer than in poisonous 
colubrines. They are also more curved, and slender, and the seam 
on their anterior faces — which marks the junction of the circum- 
fiexed walls that form the poison canal — is far less obvious than in 
poisonous colubrines. 

The family Viperidce is divided into two subfamilies on the pre- 
sence or absence of a cavity placed between the eye and the nostril, 
and known as the loreal pit. The pit bearers are called pit vipers, 
and are classed together under the name Crotalince, the pitless vipers 
under the name Viperince. 

ANCISTRODON IIIMALAYANUS. 

This viper belongs to one of the four genera into which the sub- 
family Crotalinse is divided. The genus is characterised by the 
possession of large shields of the colubrine type on the top of the head, 
and the absence of a rattle at the end of the tail. It contains eleven 
species, seven of which are American, three Asian, and one 
European. 

History, — It was first described by Dr. Giinther in 180'4. 

Nomenclature. — (a) Scientific. — The generic name from the Greek 
" agkistron " a hook, and " odous " a tooth was introduced by de 
Beauvois in 1799. 

From the derivation, and the fact that the godfather of the o-enus 
spelt the name agkistrodon, it seems a pity that the word has been 



66 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

altered to its present rendering which was introduced by Baird in 
1864. 

(b) English. — The brown Himalayan viper is probably the best 
name for it. The only other brown viper in this mountainous region 
is Lachesis monticola which occurring only in the Eastern Himalayas, 
and extending to the Malayan subregion may be designated the 
brown, or spotted Himalo-Malayan viper. 

(c) Vernacular. — The only native name I know for it is " pohur " 
which is what the Kashmiris call it. 

General characters. — The body is rather stout, and heavy for the 
length of the snake, and round in section. Anteriorly it attenuates 
so as to make the neck very apparent, behind the broadly expanded 
angles of the jaws. Posteriorly it suddenly reduces in girth at the 
anus, so that the termination of the body, and commencement of the 
tail are far more obvious than in colubrine, and other snakes. The 
head is rather elongate and remarkably flat above, and especially so 
on the snout, this being due to the marked ridge (canthus rostralis) 
proceeding forwards from the eye-brow. The muzzle is rather 
narrow in front, the head broadest midway between the eyes and the 
neck. The nostril is rather small, and placed near the middle of a 
shield which is usually quite divided below, and frequently above the 
nasal aperture. The eye is rather large with an iris beautifully 
specked with gold, and a vertical pupil. The commissure of the 
mouth shows an exaggerated curve opposite the fang. The tail is 
about one-seventh the total length of the snake and ends in an 
elongate terminal shield. The scales on the upper parts are lustre- 
less, and strongly ridged, the shields beneath smooth, and highly 
polished. 

Identification. — It is a very easy snake to recognise. To begin with 
the association of a loreal pit, with large shields on the head pro- 
claims the genus, and there are only three species within Indian limits, 
viz., himalayanus, hypnale, and millardi. Both the last have a more 
or less well marked boss on the top of the snout — which is absent in 
the foremost — and inhabit Hills South of Bombay, or Ceylon. 

Dimensions. — The largest measurement I know of is that recorded 
by Stoliczka, viz., 34 inches. I have never seen one more than 25i 
inches and 1 should say that average adults vary from about eigh- 
teen inches to two feet. 



A POPULAR TREATISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 67 

Haunts. — The brown Himalayan viper favours an altitude be- 
tween about 7,000 to 10,000 feet though it wanders higher. Within 
these limits it is a very common snake, perhaps the most common 
in the Western Himalayas, but East of Nepal is decidedly uncommon. 
Mr. G. A. Millar writing to me in 1900, told me that during a 13 
years' residence in Darjeeling he had only once had this snake 
brought to him, though he was interested in the collection of snakes 
now preserved in the museum of St. Joseph's College, and did 
much to make it what it is. I know of no other authentic record 
of this viper from this part of the Himalayas (L e., East of Nepal). 
Above 10,000 feet the snake becomes increasingly scarcer with the 
altitude. 1 found it at about 12,000 feet in Kashmir, and aspecimen 
in the Indian Museum was captured at the foot of the Dharmsala 
glacier at an elevation of 16,000 feet. This is by far the highest 
altitude I know of for any snake. The only other proximate 
elevations known to me are 14,000 feet where the snake discovered 
by Lieut. F. M. Bailey, inhabiting hot springs in Thibet was cap- 
tured, which I described in this Journal as Tropidonotus baileyi, 
and 12,500 feet the elevation at which Dr. H. Gadow encountered a 
rattlesnake in Mexico (Crotalus triseriatus). I think it is essentially 
a forest lover, being rarely found away from the protection offered 
by vegetation. In Kashmir I had no difficulty in finding specimens 
whenever I instituted a search for them. It very frequently found 
refuge beneath fallen timbers, so that I had rarely to turn over more 
than half a dozen logs before flushing one, and I have found two 
beneath different parts of the same bole. Of course it finds abundant 
refuge in other situations such as clefts in rocks, or beneath boulders 
where it is more difficult to dislodge. In Kumaon it frequently takes 
up quarters in the walls of terraced fields, or gardens where it is a 
source of special danger to the inquisitive house dog, that will thrust 
its nose into any cranny where it has discerned a movement. In 
camp it is by no means an infrequent visitor to one's tent, a fact which 
places most people on their guard who know Kashmir, and indulge 
in the gipsy life which is so attractive in that State. 

Habits. — I encountered many in Kashmir when not searching for 
them. On a warm summer's day it is frequently to be seen coiled up, 
and basking in lazy enjoyment in the sun. Usually it selects a spot 
within easy reach of cover, to which it withdraws in a leisurely 



68 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XX. 

fashion when disturbed. In cold or inclement weather it retires to 
any convenient quarter. Its movements are never what I would call 
really active, in fact compared with other non-viperine snakes it is 
a sluggard and it does not appear capable of hurrying itself under any 
amount of stimulation. 

It probably passes a long term of hibernation each year, coming 
forth like other snakes of temperate climes in the spring and retiring 
in the late autumn. In spite of this it manages to fatten itself amply, 
for in the autumn months, its organs are packed with fat to a degree 
that has made me suspect a gravid condition, but subsequent investiga- 
tion has frequently proved such a specimen a male. This snake in 
common with many other will often when provoked flatten itself, or 
crouch on the ground in a remarkab'e manner. The flattening is 
most evident in the hinder part of the body, but what object the 
snake has in behaving so it is difficult to guess at. Mr. Gleadow has 
remarked on this peculiarity in this Journal (Vol. xii, p. 577). 

Disposition. — The brown Himalayan viper is a lethargic individual, 
slow to anger, but if sufficiently provoked will bite. It would appear 
to avoid a disagreeable situation whenever possible rather than pro- 
voke an encounter. The specimens I removed into the open and 
played with, would pass by a stick, or other offending object pushed 
in their way again and again as if unconscious of the offence offered. 
If rapped en the tail they shook that appendage with vigour in 
acknowledgment of the insult, without turning to avenge it If 
cover was within easy reach they always strived to get there, rather 
than show fight, but if baulked, or if severely struck they would 
coil themselves up, erect the head, quiver the tongue and vibrate the 
tail tip, and on further provocation would frequently strike out 
fiercely. I think it probable that they rarely inflict a bite unless 
trodden upon. 

Food. — Stoliczka* says that it feeds principally on mice, but although 
my observations were made for the most part in the same part of the 
Himalayas as his, I never found anything in the stomachs of those 
captured in Kashmir except the little skink Lygosoma himalayanus. 
This beautiful little lizard with its cherry-red waistcoat, is extremely 
common in Kashmir, where one rarely turns over a stone, without 

* Jourl. As. Soc, Bengal, Vol. XXXIX., p. ^26. 



A POPULAR TREA TISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 69 

finding one quartered in company with an equally common black 
scorpion. So many of my brown Himalayan vipers had recently fed 
on this lizard, that it is evident, that they must contribute largely to 
checking their numbers. I have found as many as three Lygosoma in 
the stomach of a single Ancistrodon. In other parts of the Himalayas - 
I have usually found this same lizard taken, but in Kumaon I have 
on four occasions known mice devoured. 

Breeding.-— I do not know the exact mating seasou, but it is pro- 
bably in the spring — April or May. The period of gestation is also 
not known. Like most other vipers this species is viviparous in habit, 
and the young are launched forth probably in August and September. 
Several specimens I had in July were gravid and contained immature 
embryos. These were seen to be coiled spirally, in a bath of transpa- 
rent fluid, which occupied the upper part of the yolk. The investing 
membrane covering this oval shaped bath was transparent, so that 
the contained foetus could be seen clearly in every detail, before the 
egg investment was ruptured, The embryos I unravelled in July were 
about two or three inches in length. What the length of the 
embryo at birth is I cannot exactly state, but it is probably about 5 
inches. The species is not very prolific, only from 5 to 7 embryos 
having been observed in a sinole brood. 

Poison. — Nothing is known about the qualities of the poison and 
I have never been able to hear of a casualty in the human subject, 
except that of a cooly employed by Mr. P. W. Mackinnon near 
Mussoorie who was scratched in the thumb when attempting to 
capture one. The fact that the injury sustained was very slight 
and superficial and no ill effects of any sort were evoked makes 
it fairly certain that no venom had been injected in this case. 
A dog bitten on the nose this year at Binsar (Kumaon) suffered 
considerably. The whole muzzle swelled, and the animal was very 
distressed and affected constitutionally. The wound was not incised, 
but permanganate of potash was applied locally. One may assume 
that this reagent had little if any effect in neutralising any poison 
injected below the surface skin. After one day's serious illness, the 
dog improved, and in two more days was quite well again. There 
were no hoeuiorrbages reported. I did not see the dog, but the snake 
was referred to me and I learnt the details of the casualty later. 

It would seem from this case that the poison is not very virulent, 



70 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

and it is probable that in the human subject a fatality is unlikely to 
occur, but it seems strange that we should know so little about 
the effects of the bite of so common a snake. There must be abund- 
ant casualties every year in the Himalayas, but so long as people 
before whom these cases are brought, refrain from publishing details, 
and omit to refer the offender to some authority for identification, our 
ignorance of the poison effects will remain what it is.* 

Distribution. — The Himalayas, probably as far as the Indus in the 
West and the Brahmaputra in the East. The Khasi Hills in Assam 
is also reported as a habitat, as far as I am aware on the sole authority 
of Jerdon. I think we should await confirmation of this before 
accepting it. It is a very easy matter for even the most careful 
collectors to mix specimens. In at least one instance, viz., Dinodon 
zeptentrionalis, Jerdon was in doubt as to whether the locality was the 
Himalayas or Khasi Hills in Assam. I have also shown reason to 
doubtf the Himalayas as the habitat of the specimens of Trachischium 
monticola in the British Museum collected by Jerdon, this snake 
being otherwise only known from the Khasi and neighbouring Assam 
Hills, and it seems to me possible that in the case of Ancistrodon 
himalayanus Jerdon's specimens in the British Museum may have 
come from the Himalayas. 

Lepidosis. — Rostral. — About as high as broad ; in contact with six 
shields, the anterior nasal sutures being much the longest. Internasals. 
— A pair ; the suture between them as long or nearly as long as that 
between the prefrontal fellows, as long or rather shorter than the 
internaso-prsefrontal sutures. Prefrontals. — A pair; the suture 
between them subequal to the prsefronto-frontal sutures ; in contact 
with internasal, supraloreal, uppermost prseocular, supraocular, and 
frontal. Frontal. — Touches six shields (exclusive of the small scales 
so often interpolated at the angles of the head shields) ; the fronto- 
supraocular sutures longest. Supraoculars, — Length and breadth 
subequal to that of the frontal. Nasal. — Usually incompletely 
divided by a suture from the nostril to first labial, which, however 
may be absent ; sometimes an additional suture passes from the nostril 
to the internasal ; in contact with the 1st only of the supralabial 
series. Supraloreal. — One, in contact with the internasal. Loreal. — 

*TMs was written before Colonel Fenton's notes which appeared ia our last Jourl., p. 1004. 
t Bomb. Nat. His. Jourl., Vol. XIX., footnote, page 343. 



A POPULAR TREATISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN 
SNAKES. 



EXPLANATION OB" DIAGRAM. 

ANCISTRODON HIMALAYANUS and PSAM- 
MODYNASTES PULVERULENTVS. 



A. S. 


Anterior Sublinguals. 


F. 


Frontal. 


Int. 


Internasals. 


Lor. 


Loreals. 


M. 


Mental. 


M. S. 


Median Sublinguals. 


N. 


Nasals. 


Pa.- 


Parietals. 


Po. 


Postoculars. 


Pra. 


Prseoculars. 


Prf. 


Prefrontals. 


P.S. 


Posterior Sublinguals. 


s. 


Rostral. 


s. 


Supraocular. 


SI. 


Supraloreal. 


Su. 


Sublingual. 


T. 


Temporals. 


I to 8 


Supralabials. 


I to IV 


Infralabials. 



A POPULAR TREATISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 71 

One deeply grooved, and forming the anterior boundary of the 
loreal pit. Prceoculars. — Three, the two lowest diverging forwards, 
and forming the upper and lower boundaries of the loreal pit. Post- 
oculars. — Usually two (sometimes three), the lower larger, and some- 
what crescentic. Temporals. — Two, the lower very large and in 
contact with the 3rd, 4th and 5th supralabials normally (where the 
supralabials are 8, it touches the 4th, 5th and 6th). Supralabials. — 
Usually 7, the 2nd touching the eye (sometimes 8 with the 3rd touch- 
ing the eye) ; the penultimate a very large and high shield. Infra- 
labials. — Four, the 4th largest, and in contact with 3 or 4 scales behind. 
Sublinguals. — -A single pair. Costals. — Two headslengths behind 
head, 21 usually (rarely 23), midbody 21 (rarely 23), two headslengths 
before the anus 17 ; all the rows strongly keeled except the last for a 
variable distance anteriorly ; apical facets present in pairs. Ventrals. — 
144 to 166. Anal. — Entire. Subcaudals. — 34 to 52, divided. 

Abnormalities.— Small scales are often intercalated between the 
head shields. Rarely some of the anterior subcaudals are entire. I 
have never seen a specimen with the scale rows 23 in midbody, but 
Boulenger mentions such. 

Colour. — Very variable. Specimens occur of a nearly uniform 
light brown, of various tints to blackish-brown. Usually the snake 
is more or less conspicuously marked with a coarse mottling or 
blotching, darker than the ground colour, and irregularly distributed. 
Sometimes more or less obvious short crossbars are apparent, and 
very frequently a light vertebral line bordered with dark zigzag or 
sinuous stripes laterally. The flanks are beautifully dappled with 
various shades of dark brown, and there are often some white mot- 
tlings at the side of the neck. The head is often darker than the back, 
and shows dark marks on the enlarged shields. A conspicuous 
oblique dark streak bordered with white, runs from the eye to the 
gape. The lips are enamel-white or pale pink, and so is the chin and 
throat, and many of the labial sutures pigmented. The underparts 
are very finely powdered with various tones of brown, sepia, rufous, 
plumbeous or dirty white. The tail is usually reddish towards the tip. 
Dentition and jaws — Maxilla. — Upper half hollowed out into a 
cup, the external and posterior walls of which are deficient. This cup to 
which the prefrontal bone provides a roof, forms a spherical cham- 
ber — the loreal pit. Below the bone supports two canaliculate fangs. 



72 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Palatine. — Very short, about one quarter the pterygoid in length, 
highly compressed; not extending forwards as far as the maxilla? ; a 
short edentulous space in front, and a longer space behind ; supports 
3 or 4 subequal well developed teeth. Pterygoid. — Highly com- 
pressed; from 6 to 9 subequal well developed teeth anteriorly : more 
than half its length edentulous behind. Mandibular. — Dentary bone 
about half the length of the articular ; supports ]1 teeth, gradually 
reducing in length behind. 

The family Colubridoe according to the present accepted scheme of 
classification is divided into three large groups or " Series " based 
upon the absence, presence, and situation of grooved or tubular teeth 
(fangs). The aglypha (Greek " a " without and " glypho " I carve) 
are characterised by the absence of " carved " or grooved teeth. 
The opisthoglypha (Greek " opisthe " behind), has grooved fangs fixed 
in the posterior extremity of the maxilla or upper jaw, and the pro- 
teroglypha (Greek "proteros" before), has tubular fangs situated in the 
front of the maxilla. The fact that the fangs in the opisthoglypha are 
grooved, and those in the proteroglypha tubular has never yet been 
actually stated in works on ophiology,and in perusing the standard work 
on the subject, viz,, the Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum 
by Mr. Bouienger one must of a necessity be misled, for the author re- 
peatedly, if not invariably, speaks of grooved fangs in describing the 
dentition of the proteroglypha. As a matter of fact all the fangs in 
the snakes of this series are tubular, though there is always a very 
obvious seam on the anterior face of the fang where the circumflexed 
walls have united. The subject .of this paper belongs to the opistho- 
glyphous series of colubrines, as will be seen on referring to the figure of 
the maxillary dentition. (See page 79). 

This series is divided into three sub-families Homalopsincv, Dipsado- 
morphince and Elachistodontince , the species of which are all harmless 
to men. Psammodynastes is one of the 69 genera into which the 
second of these sub-families is further divided. 

PS AMMO D YNASTES P UL VER U LENT US. 
The Mock Viper. 

History. — This snake was first described by Boie in 1827, and for 
many years was classified as a Psammophis. In 1858 Gunther 



A POPULAR TREATISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 73 

removed it from this genus on account of its corporeal habit which is 
much shorter, and stouter than that characteristic of Psammophis, and 
introduced the present generic name. There is no doubt that the two 
genera are very distinct, for though the maxillary dentition is very 
similar in both, I notice that there is a short edentulous gap between 
the 4th tooth, and the succeeding enlarged pair in Psammophis which 
does not occur in Psammodynastes. Of much greater significance how- 
ever are the differences in shape of the preemaxillary, nasal, and frontal 
bones especially the last. Further the palatine bone in Psammophis 
is unusually short, not extending as far as the 4th maxillary tooth 
whereas in Psammodynastes it extends forwards to the 2nd tooth. 

The genus Psammodynastes has but two species, one peculiar to the 
Malayan sub-region, vie, pictus, the other also a Malayan snake whose 
range of distribution extends through a considerable area of our 
Indian Dominions, viz., pulverulentus. 

Nomenclature — (a) Scientific. — The generic name is from the Greek 
" psammos " sand, and " dunastes" a ruler. The specific title is from 
the Latin, meaning dusty. 

(b) English. — The mock viper seems to me the most appropriate 
name for it, for it bears a very marked superficial resemblance to a 
viper, a fact remarked upon by most previous writers. Its similarity to 
the Himala}*an pit viper Ancistrodon himalayanus is especially striking, 
as will be seen from our Plate, and I know of no more remarkable 
resemblance between any two snakes of different families, or even 
genera. The short and rather stout body, contracted tail, flattened head, 
swollen lips, large eye with vertical pupil, lustreless dorsal scales, and 
highly polished ventral plates are all very characteristic viperine traits, 
but the resemblances do not stop here, for its attitude of menace is 
very like that of vipers, added to which it is viviparous in habit. 

(c) Vernacular. — I know of none. 

General characters. — The head is flattened on the top, and rather 
almond-shaped, the snout narrowed in front, and rather short, and the 
neck very obviously constricted. The ridge from the eye to the snout 
(canthus rostralis) is very marked, separating the face from the crown. 
The upper lip is rather swollen giving a forbidding expression to 
the facies. The nostril is placed in a single shield, and the eye 
which is large has a vertically elliptic pupil, and an iris specked with 
gold. The body is rather stout, and short, and markedly compressed. 

10 



74 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

(Mr. Boulenger says it is cylindrical but this is a mistake.) The tail is 
short being about one-fifth to one-sixth the total length of the snake. 
The scales on the back are lustreless and smooth, those on the 
underparts highly polished. 

Identification. — As far as I am aware it is the only Indian snake 
that has three pairs of sublingual shields, separated by a longitudinal 
furrow (the mental groove), but it will be wiser to take in conjunction 
with this the costal rows which are 19 in mid body. Another unusual 
feature in lepidosis that I should mention here is that the suture 
which the lower temporal makes with the penultimate supralabial is 
decidedly shorter than that made with the antepenultimate. In 
almost all other snakes where the temporal touches two supralabials the 
anterior suture is much shorter than the posterior. 

Dimensions. — Adults usually range between about 1 foot 3, and 
1 foot 9 inches. The largest specimen I have measured was a $ 
which was 2 feet and f of an inch long. 

Haunts. — It is eminently a forest lover. I have always met 
with it in jungle, or quite close to jungle, and its sombre colouration 
must offer it considerable protection in the gloom of such an environ- 
ment. The area of its distribution* is one remarkable for the abun- 
dance of its forests, and the dearth of anything approaching 
desert tracts, so that its scientific name " lord of the sands " is un- 
fortunate. 1 have had several specimens sent to me from tea estates 
in the Eastern Himalayas and Assam where again there is abundance 
of cover and shade. Nicholson* mentions having taken one whilst 
swimming in the Rangoon lake. This was probably an accidental 
circumstance for it shows no special predilection for an aquatic 
environment, though like other land snakes it can evidently swim 
with ease when occasion demands it. It is a much commoner snake 
in the Hills than in the Plains, and favours especially altitudes be- 
tween about 3,000 and 6,000 feet. In the Khasi Hills within these 
limits I found it quite a common snake, and in the Eastern Himalayas 
below Darjeeling [ have had enough specimens sent me to show 
that it is to be considered one of the common snakes in this locality. 
Below 3,000 feet in the same vicinity it is decidedly less common, 
and Stoliczkaf even records it as a rare snake there. It occurs in the 

* Indian Snakes, p. 131. t Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, Vol. XL., p. 422. 



A POPULAR TREATISE ON TEE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 75 

Plains in Upper Assam and in Burma, but I would call it, an un- 
common species at this level. In Burma Evans and I only got 4 
specimens out of a total of considerably over 600 nearly all of which 
were collected in the Plains. In Assam I got only 5 in the Plains 
out of a total of 615 specimens. 

Habits. — Though a vertical pupil is usually associated with a 
nocturnal habit, this snake appears to me to be more frequently 
abroad in the day time than at night, in fact most of my specimens, 
if not all, have been encountered during the day. It is a lively little 
creature exhibiting much activity when disturbed, and I have usually 
found it difficult to capture for two reasons, firstly owing to the 
agility with which it disappears into cover which is a] ways adjacent, 
and secondly owing to the caution necessary in dealing with a snake 
that cannot be distinguished from a viper with any degree of cer- 
tainty till after capture. I have liberated specimens in the open, 
on a road or in my verandah and it makes strenuous efforts to escape, 
even indulging in a series of leaps in order to evade recapture. 

A hatchling of 4§ inches' that I had in captivity managed to scale, 
and cling to the face of the glass bottle in which it was incarcerated, 
the diameter of its prison being about 4 inches, a truly marvellous 
feat showing that its scan so rial powers are little if at all inferior to 
that of the deftest climbing snakes, but in nature 1 have never 
noticed any inclination for it to climb into bushes or trees. 

Disposition. — The mock viper is a plucky, and vicious snake. Those 
I have met with have usually menaced if they have not actually struck 
at me. One I had in captivity for some time invariably prepared to 
strike at me, adopting a truly viperine pose with head erect and the 
forebody retracted into sigmoid curves. Those I have flushed in their 
native haunts have usually struck viciously at me, and more than 
one trustworthy informant who has sent me a live specimen appears 
to have met with a similar experience. Blanford* mentions encoun- 
tering one in Sikkim that nearly bit him. Even the little hatchling 
I had in captivity struck out fiercely at me. On the other hand 
I have had two specimens that refused to strike under severe pro- 
vocation, though they posed as if intending to do so. 

Food. — Its staple diet is of a reptilian order, frogs and lizards being 
equally favoured. On four occasions I have found frogs in the 
* Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1871, p. 373. 



76 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

stomach, once in a diminutive specimen only 1\ inches long. The 
lizards I have known taken are Ptyctolaema gularis once, a Calotes 
once in Shillong which was almost for certain jerdoni as the scales 
were of a vivid green colour, and skinks of the genus Lygosoma on 
three occasions, two of these being L. indica. 

The sexes. — My notes show that the sexes are evenly balaneed, 
and with the exception of one unusually large 9 my measurements 
seem to indicate a similar degree of growth between them. Males 
as a rule have rather longer tails. 

Breeding. — I have had opportunities of chronicling but few breed- 
ing events, so that I cannot speak with any great certainty of this 
important function. In the hills the mating season would appear to 
be in summer, probably about August since I have had two speci- 
mens with impregnated ovarian follicles in September in the Khasi 
Hills (Shillong) and one in the same month in the Eastern Himalayas 
(Pashok). As regards the Plains I can vaguely suggest that matrimo- 
nial intercourse probably occurs in the winter months — December 
to February — at least so it would appear. The period of gestation is 
not known, but probably exceeds four months, since the young are 
discharged alive. The gravid 9 I kept in Dibrugarh appeared 
obviously in this state two months before I killed her and eviscerated 
her unborn progeny. In the Plains the young are born in June 
and July, for I captured a hatchling 4J inches long in Rangoon in 
June and the almost mature embryos of my captive Dibrugarh 
specimen just alluded to were expected in July. 

The young at birth measure from about 4f to 5| inches. The 
species is not very prolific from an ophidian standpoint. I have 
on two occasions found 10 eggs in the oviducts, once 8, and in 
my Dibrugarh specimen there were 3 embryos, and 3 non-fertile 
eggs. 

The rate of growth is somewhat difficult to calculate from my 
records, but it appears to me that the young double their length in 
the first year, add some 4 to 6 inches in the second, and at the 
beginning of their third year appear to be sexually mature since 
my smallest gravid 9 measured 1 foot 3| inches. These deductions 
are in consonance with my observations on other snakes. 

Distribution. — The Eastern Himalayas probably as far West as the 
Western limit of Nepal, the Assam Hills and Plains, the Burmese 



Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Map. 




Distribution ob Psummodynastes pulverulentus within Indian Limits. 



1. Butal, Nepal (I.M.). 2 Pashok (F.W.). 3 Tindharia (F.W.). 4 
Buxa Dooars (F.W.). 5 Dejao, N. Lakhimpur (F.W.). 6 Dibrugarh (F.W.). 
7 Sadiya (F.W.). 8 Jaipur (F.W.). 9 Sibsagar (I.M.). 10 Shillong 
(F.W.)- 11 Cherrapunji (I.M.). 12 Samaguting (I.M.). 13 B. Cachar (I.M.). 14 
Chittagong (I.M.). 15 Kindat (F.W.). 16 Katha (F.W.)- 17 Wumbezat 
(Wall and Evans). 18 Pegu (I.M. and Theobold). 19 Rangoon (Nicholson, 
Wall and Evans). 20 Moulmein (I.M. and F.W.). 21 Tavoy (I.M.). 22 
King's Isle, Mergui (I.M.). 23 Tounggyi, S. Shan States (B.M.). 

I.M. implies Indian Museum, B.M. British Museum, and F.W. the Writer. 



A POPULAR TREA TJSE ON THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 77 

Hills and Plains, Indo-China, Tenasserim, the Malay Peninsula, and 
the whole Malayan Archipelago to Formosa. 

The precise localities from which it has been collected within 
Indian limits are shewn in the accompanying map. 

In the Indian Museum there is a specimen said to be from the 
Central Provinces of India, but as this seems to me most unlikely 
it is best to await confirmation of this locality, which is so far 
removed from its certain area of distribution, before accepting it. 

Lepidosis. — Rostral. — Touches 6 shields, the rostro-nasal sutures 
longest. Internasals. — Two, the suture between them -f to f that 
between the prefrontal fellows, about f the internaso-prse frontal 
suture. Prefrontals. — Two, the suture between them equal to or 
rather greater than the praefronto-frontal suture ; in contact with 
internasal, nasal, loreal, upper prseocular, supraocular, and frontal. 
Frontal. — Touches 6 shields, the supraocular suture about three times 
the length of the parietals, and more than twice that of the prefron- 
tals. Supraoculars. — •Length subequal to frontal, breadth about twice 
that of the frontal along an imaginary line connecting the centres 
of the eyes. Nasals. — Single ; in contact with the 1st only of 
the supralabial series. Loreal. — One, rather longer than high. 
Prozoculars. — One or two (rarely three). Postocular. — Two (rarely 
three). Temporals. — Two anterior, in contact with the 6th and 7th 
supralabials, making a longer suture with the 6th than with the 7th. 
Supralabials. — Eight, the 3rd, 4th and 5th touching the eye ; the 6th 
and 7th subequal, and largest. Infralahials. — Four, the 4th largest 
and in contact with two scales behind ; the first three touch the anterior 
and the 4th only the posterior sublinguals. Sublinguals. — Three pairs. 
Costals.— Two headslengths behind the head 17, midbody 17, two 
headslengths before the anus 15 ; the row absorbed is the 4th above 
the ventrals ; no keels ; no apical pits. Ventrals 146 to J 75. Anal. — 
entire. Subcaudals. — 45 to 68 divided. 

Colour. — Theobald speaking of this snake says : "This species is 
somewhat variable in colour and markings." I would go further, and 
say it is very variable, as much so as any snake I know. Some 
specimens are extremely dark, almost black, others very light, the 
prevailing hue being a pale ochraceous, but these extremes cannot 
be considered colour varieties for they are completely connected by 
transitional forms. Moreover one of the embryos I extracted from 



78 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

my gravid 9 was of the light type and the two others of the dark. 
It must not be understood that in either case the snake is uniformly 
coloured for this is not so. It is always more or less obviously 
finely speckled or streaked with hues darker than the ground 
colour. There is very usually a series of large, oval, rufous or 
brown spots on each side of the spine, most noticeable anteriorly, 
and specially in the dark specimens. Sometimes these spots are 
confluent to form crossbars over the back. In many specimens 
there is a more or less distinct dark longitudinal band on the back 
in vol vino- the median five rows and half the sixth row above the 
ventrals, and a similar dark band in the flanks involving the lower 
half of the fourth, the third and the second, and upper half of 
the ultimate row. The flanks are often ornamented with white 
streaks anteriorly which are more or less hidden until the reptile 
dilates itself, and below these is usually a series of bright ochra- 
ceous, yellow streaks or spots, sometimes confluent into a band which 
are very conspicuous and ornamental. The head is usually streaked 
longitudinally on the top, and the upper lip is adorned with a white, 
black-edged mystaceous band. The belly is whitish or yellowish 
streaked, and finely specked with bright ochraceous-yellow anteriorly 
and with darker shades of brown further back. 

Abnormalities. — I have seen the 1st supralabial divided into two 
superimposed parts once, and a similar condition of the loreal twice. 
Three prse and three postoculars less rarely occur. Boulenger says 
the scale rows are rarely 19. 

Dentition* — Maxillary.. — The first 3 (rarely 2) teeth are small 
but progressively increase in size, and are succeeded without any 
edentulous gap by two large subequal fang-like, but solid teeth 
fully twice as long as any of the preceding. Behind these is a 
short toothless gap, and then a series of 5 (rarely 6) small subequal 

*Boulenger's description " Maxillary teeth 9 to 11. third or third and fourth much enlarged 
fang-like, followed by a short interspace, last enlarged and grooved, ant erior mandibular 
teeth strongly enlarged " is not very accurate, and it is therefore not surprising that 
as recently as 1905, the snake was redescribed by Mr. Eosen (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. Vol. 
15, p. 176), as the type of a new getus under the name Anisodon lilljeborgi. It will be 
seen however that the characters of the dentition as shown by him, prefectly agree with 
that given by me from my three skulls, and Mr. Boulenger's remarks on Mr. Bosen's paper 
above alluded to showing that A. lilljeborgi is in reality P. pidverulentus are undoubtedly 
correct. 



A POPULAR TREATISE ON THE COMMON INDIAN SNAKES. 79 

teeth followed by two large, subequal grooved fangs fully twice as 
long as the immediately preceding teeth. 




Maxilla and mandible of Psam : pulverulentus ( x 3.) 

Palatine. — 8 to 11 small and subequal. 

Pterygoid. — 21 to 23 small and subequal. 

Mandibular. — The first 2 or 3 teeth are small, progressively increas- 
ing in size, and succeeded without any gap by two large, subequal 
teeth fully twice as large as any of the preceding. Behind these 
is a short edentulous gap, followed by a series of from 13 to 15 
small, subequal teeth. 



( To be continued.) 



80 



ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE INDIAN 
HEDGEHOGS. 

BY 

R. C. Wroughton, F.Z.S. 

Recently in naming some hedgehogs presented to the National 
Collection, by Major Dunn, R.A.M.C, from Multan, I had occasion tc 
o-o through the whole of the material available for examination in the 
Collection of the Natural History Museum, South Kensington. This 
material is far too incomplete to admit of any revision of the Genus. 
My study of the literature, however, has shown many points on which 
the nomenclature adopted by Blanford in his Fauna requires correc- 
tion, and these I think it well to place on record. 

First however, I would call the attention of members to a few 
points on which information is specially required. 

Two species (spatangus and grayi) were described by Bennett from 
the "Himalayas 5 ' in 1832, and in 1843 Gray founded mentalis on a 
specimen from the same locality. In the latter case there is reason to 
believe that the label-locality was wrong ; was it so also in the former 
case ? Is any species of hedgehog found in the Himalayas ? 

Two species of hedgehog, with the middle upper existing premolar 
(the 5th tooth from the back, the 6th from the front) showing a 
tendency to disappear, are found one in the north (Kach, Rajputana 
and Lower Sind), the other in the south (Madras). Js it a fact that 
in the southern species the zygomatic arch is always imperfect ? 

Is no species of hedgehog found in the Dekhan, i, e., between 
Rajputana and the Madras Presidency ? * 

What exactly is E. collaris ? Specimens of varying ages from the 
type locality, i. e., Doab (this apparently means the area between the 
rivers Jumna and Ganges) can alone satisfactorily settle this question. 

The following are the corrections in the nomenclature of Blanford's 
" Mammalia " which seem to be required. 



* It is hoped that members will respond to Mr. Wroughton' s appeal and send specimens 
of "Hedgehogs to our Museum. Hedgehogs may be easily captured alive and probably a small 
reward offered to cultivators for live specimens would result in many being obtainad. 
They can then be forwarded alive and this Society would convert them into specimens thus 
saving members the trouble of skinning them. — Eds. 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE INDIAN HEDGEHOGS. 81 

"104. ERINACEUS COLLARIS 5 '— 

Type — A coloured plate without description. 

Date— 1830. 

Locality — Doab. 
Synonymy. — Royle, (111. Ind. Zool.) in 1839, gave the name of 
indicus to the Delhi Hedgehog but without description. Bennett in 
1832 described spatangus and grayi from the " Himalayas " (Types 
B. M. Nos. 55, 12, 24, 34 and 55, 12, 24, 82). It must be left till 
further material is available for examination to decide whether these 
names should remain, as Blanford has placed them as synonyms of 
collaris. The name blanfordi must be removed from the synonymy 
of collaris for reasons given below under jerdoni. 

"105. ERINACEUS MEG ALOTIS"— 

Types— B. M. Nos. 79, 11, 21, 515 and 516 (skulls only). 

Date— 1845. 

Locality— Kandahar. 
A well marked species, easily recognizable by its pale head and 
throat and dark underparts. 

" 106. ERINACEUS JERDONI "— 

Co-Type— B. M. Nos. 87, 4, 2, 1. 

Date— 1878. 

Locality — Rohri, Sind. 
This name must give place to blanfordi, which was described at 
the same time, but on an earlier page. Anderson stated that the 
type ofblanfordi(BM. Nos. 87, 4, 2, 2) also from Rohri, Sind, had no 
bald area on the crown, this was an error. Comparison of the types 
shows that they are one species and blanfordi as the older name 
must be used, with jerdoni as a synonym. 

" ERINACEUS MACRACANTHUS "— 
Co-Type— B.M. Nos. 74, 11, 21, 25. 
Date— 1876 (East Persia by Blanford, p. 27). 
Locality — S. E. Persia. 
A large species, with a bald area running backwards over the 
crown of the head, as in blanfordi ; spines long, with four alternate, 
dusky and white rings, 5mm. broad, and a long (10mm.) black point. 
Colouring somewhat in megalotis but the pale area extending back- 
wards at least on to the chest. Hindfoot about 40mm. Blanford 
u 



82 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

records it from Beluckistan and the Natural History Museum has a 
specimen collected at Kandahar by Colonel Swinhoe in 1881. 

" 107. ERINACEUS PIGTUS ; '— 

Type—? 

Date— 1872. 

Locality — Kach. 
This name must give place to micropus, which was described by 
Blyth in 1846 on a specimen (B.M. Nos. 79, 11, 21, 517, skull only) 
collected by. Capt. Hutton at Bhawalpur. The .zygomatic arch is 
complete. The name micropus, therefore, must stand for this species, 
with p ictus as a synonym. 

Synonymy. — In 1843 Gray in his Catalogue named a specimen, 
labelled " Himalaya " (B. M. Nos. 42, 4, 12, 16) purchased from a 
dealer, mentalis, but gave no description. There seems great pro- 
bability, however, that the specimen was from Nasirabad. 

" 108. ERINACEUS MICROPUS "— 

As micropus applies to a northern form, it cannot be used for the 
Madras Hedgehog, which was described by Horsfield in 1851 on a 
specimen (B.M. Nos. 79, 11, 21, 467) collected by Sir Walter Elliot 
under the name of nudiventris. This latter name must therefore 
stand for this " South-Indian Hedgehog." 

Thus corrected, the list of the Indian Hedgehogs is as follows : — 

1. Erinaceus collaris, Gray and Hardwicke 

= indicus, Royle (nomen nudum) 
= spatangus et grayi, Bennett. 

2. Erinaceus megalotis, Blyth. 

3. Erinaceus blanfordi, Anderson 

= jerdoni, Anderson. 

4. Erinaceus macracanthus, Blanford. 

5. Erinaceus micropus, Blyth 

= pictus, Stoliezka 

= mentalis, Gray (nomen nudum). 

6. Erinaceus nudiventris, Horsfield. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 

Plates F. and G., referred to in this paper, will appear in a 
subsequent number. 

Eds. 



83 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 

SUPPLEMENTARY PAPER TO THE VOLUMES IN 

"THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA." 

SERIES IV, PART I. 

By 

Sir G-eorge F. Hampson, Bart., p.z.s., f.e.s. 

( With Plates F. and G.) 

BOMBYCID^. 

The genera Bombyx and Mustilia have the frenulum aborted and 
minute, the other genera have it fully developed. 

41. Gunda Sikkima insert, No. 43, Bombyx lugubris which has precedence. 

45a. Mustilia PHiEOPERA, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 1), 

Head, thorax and abdomen rufous, the shaft of antennae and a band 
between their basis white. Forewing rufous with a greyish tinge, the apical 
area from middle of costa to termen at vein 3 chocolate brown tinged with 
grey towards costa ; antemedial line brown, excurved below costa and oblique 
below submedian fold ; a rather diffused medial line excurved in cell and below 
submedian fold ; postmedial line excurved below costa, then waved, incurved 
to vein 2, then excurved; cilia pale yellow. Hindwing pale greyish rufous, the 
terminal area broadly chocolate brown from vein 6 to tornus ; two oblique 
minutely waved lines from middle of costa to tornus ; cilia pale yellow ; the 
underside greyish with the costal area suffused with rufous ; two obliquely 
curved postmedial brown lines. 

Habitat— Assam, Khasis (Badgley). Exp. #54, 970 mill. Type in B. M. 

Larva. — Draws in its head when alarmed nearly to a level with its 
shoulders, its body wide and flattened at the shoulders, narrowing and cylindri- 
cal at extremity, the anterior segments protrusible ; a horn on anal segment ; 
16 feet, naked, leathery brown, darker on dorsum with a dark olive spade- 
shaped patch towards extremity ; lateral patches of yellow, the whole body 
dotted with green ; five small grey patches dotted with black on back, two 
yellow lines on the neck and two yellow spots on the spade-shaped patch ; 
the ventral surface with a yellow patch on each segment, legs pink ; prolegs 
with bright yellow dot on outer side. Food plant : Camellia caudatu. 

Cocoon.— Strong, silky, dull brown, pointed at one end and truncate at the 
other (Badgley). 

47a. Andraca albilunata, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 2). 

Forewing with the termen strongly excised below apex, angled outwards at 
vein 4, then strongly crenulate ; hindwing with the termen slightly excised 
below apex and strongly crenulate from vein 4 to tornus, the inner margin 
not excised, 

Head, thorax and abdomen dark red-brown mixed with grey, the tarsi with the 



84 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

terminal joint blackish. Forewing dark red-brown mixed with grey ; a deeper 
red-brown antemedial band defined by greyish on inner side and with slightly 
waved edges, oblique from costa to submedian fold ; an indistinct brown 
discoidal bar with grey line in centre ; a waved brownish medial line and waved 
grey postmedial line with somewhat deeper brown band between them ; 
small obliquely placed subapical white lunules below veins 7 and 6 with a 
reddish tinge beyond them. Hindwing red-brown with a greyish tinge , a 
small brown discoidal spot and chocolate brown spots on inner margin before 
and beyond middle with greyish marks beyond them ; cilia with whitish tips 
in the indentations, underside of forewing chocolate brown, the costa grey 
to postmedial line with brown spot beyond middle ; hindwing grey with 
brown discoidal spot, two waved brown postmedial lines with the area 
between them tinged with red-brown and a diffused red-brown patch at 
tornus. 

Habitat.— Assam, Kh&sis (Badgley). Exp. <£40, $46 mill. Type in B. M. 

Larva. — Turns its head down and humps its shoulders in repose ; gregarious, 
long, cylindrical ; pairs of horns on 3rd and 5th somites and a single horn 
on anal somite ; 16 feet ; pubescent ; dull black dusted with grey ; dorsal line 
pale yellow ; subdorsal and lateral lines orange; two ventral yellow lines; broad 
yellow patches between the prolegs ; head black ; horns dusky with orange 
bases and whitish at tips. Food plant : Cudranus javanicus. 

Cocoon. — Strong, silky, blunt in front, pointed behind with long ligaments 
at each end and a hollowed out boat-shaped projection on dorsum (Badgley). 

ElTPTEROTID.-E. 

65a. Apona khasiana, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), xx, p. 75 (1907). 

Head, thorax and abdomen rufous ; antennae with the shaft white, the 
branches brown. Forewing pale rufous, the basal area, the area beyond the 
medial line and the terminal area rather deeper rufous ; an obliquely curved 
antemedial line with a faint line beyond it, somewhat angled outwards below 
costa and bent outwards below submedian fold a black discoidal point ; 
a nearly straight and somewhat oblique medial line followed by a waved 
line; two waved postmedial lines ; an incurved subterminal line followed 
by an indistinct line with greyish patches beyond it at apex and middle, 
excurved to vein 6, incurved at middle, then waved. Hindwing pale rufous, 
the basal inner area and terminal area rather deeper rufous ; a diffused oblique 
rufous antemedial band, two oblique waved medial lines and a minutely waved 
postmedial line ; the underside with the lines more distinct, the antemedial 
line double, three waved lines on medial area, the postmedial line excurved 
to vein 5 and with maculate band beyond it except at middle. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis. Exp. $ 98, $ 110 mill. 

70. Eupterote mollieera., insert (syn.) Eupterote pulchra, Swinh., 
A. M. N. H. (7), XVIII, p. 404 (1906). 

86a. Sa^gatissa arctiades, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 30). 

Antennae of both sexes bipectinate with moderate branches. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 85 

Head and thorax fulvous ; antennae with the shaft whitish, the branches 
brown ; pectus, legs, a,nd abdomen greyish tinged with fulvous. Forewing pale 
cinnamon brown, the veins, discal and submedian folds streaked with white. 
Hindwing white tinged with brown, thinly scaled. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis (Badgley). Exp. 36-46 mill. Type in B. M. 

Larva. — Feeds at night and rests during day in a company on underside 
of leaf, the head and tail curved under in repose ; cylindrical ; hair soft, thick 
with scattered long hairs; dull brown with the long hairs grey ; ventral surface 
dull red ; head black. Food plant : Vitisadnata. 

Cocoon. — Silken mixed with hairs, slight, oval, in a cluster, grey-brown. 

Pupa. — Short, blunt at both ends, a tuft of fine hooks at tail by which it is 
fastened to cocoon ; shining bright brown. (Badgley). 

SPHINGIDiE. 

ACHERONTIAN/E. 

Genus Pentateucha. 

Type. 

Pentateucha, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (8), 1, p. 61 (1908) curiosa. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, slender, reaching about to middle 
of frons, the 2nd joint fringed with long hair in front, the 3rd short ; frons with 
tuft of hair ; antenna? of female ciliated ; thorax clothed with long rough 
spatulate hair ; tibiae fringed with long hair, the hind tibiae with two pairs of 
spurs, the fore tarsi with three large curved claws on 1st joint ; abdomen 
clothed with long rough hair ; frenulum present. Forewing with the apex 
rounded, the termen evenly curved, crenulate, vein 3 from well before angle 
of cell ; 5 from middle of discocellulars ; 6 from upper angle ; 7, 8, 9 stalked : 
10, 11 from cell. Hindwing with vein 3 from well before angle of cell ; 5 from 
well above angle ; 6, 7 from upper angle ; 8 approximated to 7 beyond the cell. 

171a. Pentateucha curiosa, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (8), 1, p. 62 (1908) 
(Plate F., f. 18). 

9. Head and thorax clothed with deep red-brown hair tipped with white ; 
pectus and legs rufous, the tarsi blackish ; abdomen blackish mixed with grey- 
white forming obscure segmental bands, the anal tuft and ventral surface 
rufous. Forewing clothed with dark red-brown hairy scales mixed with white, 
some rufous at base of inner area ; faint traces of a dark antemedial line ; an 
oblique elliptical white discoidal spot ; postmedial line with oblique dark bar 
from costa, then very indistinct, excurved to vein 3, then incurved ; sub- 
terminal line indistinct, double, oblique, waved, bent inwards to costa, where 
there is a white mark on it, a dentate line beyond it arising from apex, white 
and prominent from apex to vein 6, then indistinct and forming white points 
on the veins ; cilia rufous with whitish points at the veins. Hindwing bright 
rufous, the inner area whitish to near tornus, where there is a dark patch with 
whitish bar beyond it ; an indistinct diffused pale postmedial line ; cilia with 
some white scales at tips. Underside of both wings, rufous ; forewing with 
indistinct pale discoidal spot, obliquely curved postmedial band and 



86 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

prominent dentate white band from apex to above vein 6 ; hindwing suffused 
with white to beyond middle and tornus, an oblique slightly waved medial 
rufous line and indistinct postmedial line bent outwards to just above tornus, 
the terminal area irrorated with whitish. 
Habitat.— Assam, Khasis. Exp. 104 mill. 

AMBULICINyE. 

91d. Marumba microta, Hmpsn., Nov. Zool, xiv., p. 327 (1907). (Plate F., 
f. 11). 
Fore tibia with long curved claw at extremity. 

g. Head and thorax red-brown, the head rather paler, except the palpi ; 
antennae whitish ; abdomen red-brown. Fore wing grey- brown suffused with 
purplish rufous and with slight dark irroration ; a black and rufous subbasal 
spot on vein 1 ; an oblique brown medial line diffused on outer side ; post- 
medial area somewhat greyer ; an indistinct slightly curved subterminal line 
with two conjoined red- brown spots on it at inner margin ; a small dark brown 
spot on termen below apex defined by a grey lunule on inner side and with 
a very indistinct triangular brown shade below it from termen to the subtermi- 
nal line ; cilia dark brown. Hindwing purplish red-brown with indistinct 
darker shade on termen near tornus ; cilia dark brown with slight whitish 
tips towards tornus ; the underside rather redder with indistinct medial line 
and curved postmedial line. 

Habitat. — Madras, G-odavery District ; Ceylon, Kandy. Exp. 44 mill. 
Die. Marumba poliotis, Hmpsn., Nov. Zool., xiv., p. 327 (1907). (Plate 
F., f. 23). 

Fore tibia with large curved claw at extremity. 

£. Head and thorax grey white, the head and tegulas tinged with rufous ; 
metathorax with two slight tufts of blackish scales ; tarsi ringed with black ; 
abdomen grey-white dorsally suffused with rufous except at base and with 
fine black dorsal line expanding into a small spot on penultimate segment. 
Forewing grey suffused with reddish brown and irrorated with black, the basal 
and terminal areas browner and the postmedial area whiter ; some blackish 
suffusion before the whitish antemedial line which is defined by blackish on 
outer side, oblique from costa to median nervure, angled inwards in submedian 
fold, then excurved and angled inwards to inner margin ; a dark medial line 
excurved from costa to median nervure, then incurved to near antemedial line; 
a small pale rufous discoidal spot, slightly defined by blackish ; postmedial 
line dark, excurved from costa to vein 5, then incurved and sinuous ; subter- 
minal line indistinctly double, excurved below costa, then oblique, dentate and 
with small somewhat dentate black marks on its outer edge, the mark 
below costa extending as a streak to termen and the mark at vein 4 larger ; 
slight black marks on termen at the extremities of the veins. Hindwing grey 
suffused with brown ; postmedial line excurved and indistinct from costa to 
vein 4, then incurved and with whitish patch beyond it in submedian inter- 
space, ending at tornus ; the underside whitish irrorated with f uscous, the 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 87 

postmeclial line fine, a curved dentate subterminal line with slight brownish 
band beyond it becoming terminal below vein 4. 
Habitat.'— GrANJAM. Exp. 54 mill. 

MACROGLOSSIN/E. 

1186. Ampelophaga obliqoifascia, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 13). 
$ . Head and thorax grey slightly mixed with red-brown, the vertex of 
head and dorsum of thorax red-brown; palpi with white line on 1st joint at 
side, the 2nd joint red-brown at side ; pectus ventrally orange-red ; tibiae and 
tarsi grey-white ; abdomen grey with broad diffused dorsal deep red-brown 
bands, the ventral surface fiery red with segmental brown lines. Forewing 
purplish grey tinged in parts with red-brown ; subbasal diffused red-brown 
marks in cell and on vein 1 ; three rather indistinct and diffused curved waved 
antemedial brown lines ; a slight discoidal point ; a rather broad black-brown 
band from middle of costa to termen at vein 4, expanding somewhat at costa 
and into a large triangular patch on termen extending almost to tornus ; post- 
medial line slight and dentate from costa to the oblique band, then oblique more 
strongly dentate with some fulvous yellow on its outer side, with a waved 
line before it from vein 2 to inner margin and two waved lines beyond it from 
the band to inner margin ; subterminal line double, brownish and slightly 
waved from costa to vein 5, indistinct except toward costa where it is filled in 
with yellowish ; a wedge-shaped brown mark on termen below apex ; cilia 
black-brown. Hindwing dark-brown tinged with red, the inner area greyish ; 
cilia rufous, whitish at tips. Underside of forewing fiery red with the 
termen grey, some dark brown suffusion in and below cell, six indistinct waved 
lines on postmedial area, a pale yellow subapical lunule and two wedge-shaped 
postmedial marks below veins 3 and 2 ; hindwing fiery red, the inner area 
greyish, the terminal area brownish, three indistinct minutely waved red post- 
medial lines. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis (Badgley). Exp. 80 mill. Type in B.M. 

Larva. — Tapering to head, the thoracic somites very protrusible ; head small ; 
green with pale dots ; subdorsal line white shading off to oblique yellow lateral 
stripes tinged with pink above ; spiracles small, pale brown ; horn brown ; 
purple ; feet maroon with a yellow mark above each. Pupates in leaves spun 
together. 

Pupa. — Long with two horns on head and three at tail, the posterior third 
of tail much smaller than the anterior part which forms a prominent ring ; 
dark brown with paler marks (Badgley). 

G-enus Lepchina. 

Type. 

Lepchina, Oberth. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1904, p. 76 Jridens. 

Differs from Acosmeryx in the eyes being small, overhung by lashes; the 
terminal segment of antennas not filiform ; the tibial spines shorter ; the 1st 
segment of mid-tarsi without elongate spines. Forewing with the termen 



88 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

produced to points at and below apex and excurved at middle. Hindwing 
with the termen sinuous. 

116a. Lepchina tridens, Obuth. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1904, p. 76. 

£. Head and thorax violaceous grey ; abdomen brown ; ventral surface 
reddish. Fore wing violaceous grey with velvety brown lines and patches; the 
basal area with three lines followed by a postmedial triangular patch touching 
a discoidal point with its inner edge and extending from costa to termen and 
inner margin ; the apical area with some streaks and marks. Hindwing brown 
with darker medial and terminal shades. Underside ferruginous red ; fore- 
wing with the basal half blackish, two greyish costal patches, a sinuous terminal 
violet grey patch on both wings with medial whitish mark on forewing ; two 
double brown lines on hindwing with greyish costal patch beyond them. 

Habitat. — Sikkim. Exp. about 64 mill. This species is unknown to me. 

181. Macroglossa gyrans. 

Larva. — Velvety black with green and pink lateral stripes faintly striated 
with black ; spiracular stripe interrupted, similar in colour ; the spiracles pink 
with white centres ; head glabrous, green or pale red ; thoracic plate horny ; 
horn black. 

Pupa. — Ochreous with black spots at sides. 5. (W. H. Campbell.) 

198. Macroglossa rectifascia. 

Larva. — Pale yellow with faint blue transverse lines ; dorsal line very dark 
blue edged with pale blue from 3rd to anal somite ; lateral line similar, arising 
from two large black spots on 2nd somite and terminating just before two 
large black spots on anal somite ; below this is a series of black specks; a broad 
sublateral black band spotted with pale blue ; head prominent, dull green ; legs 
black ; clasp ers spotted with black ;horn pale blue with a black ring at base. 
Food plant : Photinia Lindleyana. 5. (W. H. Campbell.) 

PERGESIN/E. 

, I37e. Rhagastis leucocraspis, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 25). 

$ . Head grey ; palpi whitish at sides ; tegulse and patagia chocolate 
brown with grey-white stripe on outer edge ; vertex of thorax grey-brown ; 
pectus and legs pale grey tinged with rufous ; abdomen with the 1st three 
segments chocolate brown, the rest of dorsum greyish tinged with fulvous, 
the sides whitish, the ventral surface tinged with rufous. Forewing purplish 
grey suffused in parts with rufous ; a subbasal rufous shade on costal area, the 
base of inner margin chocolate brown : two obliquely curved antemedial brown 
lines, widely separated at costa, approximated at vein 1 where they terminate ; 
an oblique rufous shade from costa at antemedial line to medial line at vein 3 ; 
medial line double, waved, obliquely curved from costa to vein 2, then slightly 
excurved ; postmedial line obliquely curved, dentate, at veins 4-3 produced 
to points and with slight fulvous marks on it ; a triangular chocolate brown 
patch on costa just before apex, the faint waved subterminal line arising from 
it ; the apex slightly tinged with white ; cilia dark- brown. Hindwing black- 
brown, the inner margin, terminal area in submedian interspace and termen 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 89 

towards tornus whitish ; cilia grey with a hrown line through them. Under- 
side of forewing reddish fulvous, the disk fuscous, a fuscous striga from 
costa towards apex, subtermina! line oblique from costa near apex to below 
vein 7, then dentate, the area beyond it grey ; hindwing reddish fulvous, 
the inner area and termen greyish, an indistinct curved minutely waved 
postmedial line. 

Habitat— -IT. JP. Assam, Dibrugarh (E. C. Ward). Exp. 96 mill. Type in B. M. 

NOTODONTID/E. 

211 b. Dudusa synopla, Swinh.. A. M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 205 (1907). 

$ . Antennee bipectinate with long branches, the apical part serrate. 

Head and thorax rufous mixed with some ochreous scales ; antennge black; 
upper part of frons and vertex of head tinged with fuscous ; thoracic crest 
with some long spatulate black scales ; pectus and legs with fuscous mixed, the 
mid and hind tibise with small tufts of ochreous hair at extremity ; tarsi black- 
ish, fulvous at extemities ; abdomen rufous and ochreous, with broad diffused 
lateral fuscous bands, the anal tuft with some spatulate black hairs. Forewing 
ochreous suffused with rufous and slightly irrorated with brown, the veins 
blackish; a black point below base of cell ; an oblique blackish subbasal dif- 
fused line from costa to submedian fold, with ochreous bar beyond it from costa 
to costal nervure ; antemedial line indistinct, dark, defined by ochreous on 
inner side, waved, angled outwards on median nervure, crossed by a faint 
diffused oblique dark fascia from submedian fold to above inner margin near 
base, a broad diffused oblique blackish fascia from costa beyond it to termen 
between vein 3 and submedian fold ; postmedial line double filled in with 
ochreous, waved, oblique from vein 7 to submedian fold, then excurved, a 
silvery white wedge-shaped mark from its inner edge to beyond it below vein 
4 ; a rather diffused dark subterminal line arising at vein 7, oblique to vein 4, 
excurved to vein 3, then somewhat oblique ; a series of lunules before termen 
defined by blackish on inner side and with slight double lines on iDner side 
cilia with a series of blackish lunules. Hindwing ochreous almost wholly 
suffused with fuscous leaving some ochreous at base of inner margin and 
at tornus ; a terminal series of dark lunules ; cilia pale rnfous with series of 
blackish lunules ; the underside ochreous tinged with rufous and slightly 
irrorated with fuscous, a black discoidal spot, curved waved postmedial line 
and subterminal series of black lunules. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis. Exp. 118 mill. 

215 a. Rachia nodyna, Swinh., A. M. X. H. (7), XIX, p. 206 (1907). 

ft. Head and thorax pale and dark brown ; antennae and tegute blackish ; 
metathorax with blackish dorsal fascia ; pectus and legs with fuscous mixed ; 
abdomen fuscous brown, the sides pale towards base. Forewing purplish 
brown suffused with fuscous ; antemedial line very indistinct, extremely oblique 
from costa to vein 2 well beyond middle, then very oblique and defined 
by a pale fascia above to vein 1 and angled outwards above inner margin ; 
an oblique black streak above middle of inner margin ; a slight pale streak 
12 



90 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

in lower end of cell ; a slight dark streak beyond the cell above vein 4 ; post- 
medial line very indistinct, angled outwards below costa, oblique to anteme- 
dial line at vein 2 where it is angled outwards, then oblique and represented 
by slight black striae defined by ochreous on outer side ; a slight ochreous 
subterminal line, dentate and defined by black towards costa, below vein 4 
very oblique and strongly defined by black on inner side : a fine black termi- 
nal line. Hindwing white tinged with brown, the veins brown, the costal and 
inner areas suffused with brown ; a diffused brown subterminal line with 
whitish line on outer edge, the brown line faint to vein 3, then strong blackish 
and with small black lunule above it at vein 1 ; termen black brown ; a fine 
black terminal line ; cilia brown. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis. Exp. 76 mill. 

220 a. Phaleea goniophora, n. sp. 

Head and tegulaa reddish ochreous, the latter with whitish line near tips ; 
palpi, lower part of frons, antennae and thorax rufous ; patagia silvery grey ; 
pectus and legs whitish mixed with brown, the tarsi banded with white ; 
abdomen with the basal half reddish ochreous, the terminal half brown banded 
with whitish, the ventral surface whitish. Forewing silvery grey suffused and 
irrorated with red-brown ; a waved subbasal line from costa to vein 1 ; ante- 
medial line double, with dark points on the veins, somewhat incurved in subme- 
dian interspace ; three indistinct waved lines on medial area, with dark points on 
the veins ; apical patch yellowish white suffused with reddish ochreous except 
at margins and with three dark striae from costa, ending at vein 5 and with 
its outer edge angled at veins 7 and 6, the double, nearly erect postmedial line 
arising from it and with a series of dark points beyond it ; subterminal line 
oblique from the apical patch to vein 2 and with some dark points beyond it ; 
a crenulate brown terminal line intersecting the cilia which are reddish ochre- 
ous. Hindwing red- brown tinged with greyish; cilia yellowish white inter- 
sected with rufous. Underside whitish, the forewing suffused with brown 
except on apical area ; the hindwing with diffused brown medial band from 
costa to vein 2. 

Habitat. — Punjab, Dehra Dun ; Assam, Khdsis (Badgley). Exp. 66 mill. Type 
inB.M. 

Larva. — -Gregarious; cylindrical; hairy, the hair growing in rings on each 
segment ; black with brown rings interrupted dorsally ; eight white dorsal 
and lateral lines, one ventral line and short lines between the feet ; hairs pale 
brown, nearly white at tips ; feet brown ; head large. Food plant : Quercus 
serrata. 7. 8. 10. (Badgley). 

221c. Phaleea ocheopis, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 8). 

Antennae of male bipectinate, the apex serrate ; forewing with vein 5 from 
middle of discocellulars, 6 from upper angle. 

ft. Head and thorax deep rufous mixed with some ochreous ; pectus, legs 
and abdomen pale ochreous. Forewing pale ochreous, thickly irrorated with 
deep rufous ; a strong black fascia below the cell from base to antemedial line ; 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 91 

subbasal line represented by an oblique black striga from costa ; antemedial 
line indistinct, diffused, double filled in witb whitish and oblique from costa to 
median nervure, then black defined on inner side by whitish, oblique, dentate, 
a black streak beyond it in lower part of cell ; reniform with whitish annulus 
above and below, interrupted at middle; postmedial line black defined by whitish 
on outer side, bent outwards below costa, then oblique, dentate, a black streak, 
from it to subterminal line above vein 3, a shorter streak above vein 6 and 
slight streak above 7 ; subterminal line represented by a series of oblique 
whitish striae defined on outer side by black from below costa to vein 2, angled 
inwards in discal fold ; the terminal area with whitish patches below apex 
and at middle, a terminal series of blackish points ; cilia rufous with whitish 
streaks. Hindwing ochreous white suffused with brown ; cilia pale ; the 
underside ochreous white, the costal area irrorated with rufous. 

Habitat.— Ceylon, Haputale (Alston). Exp. 52 mill. Type in B. M. 

237 h. Pydna brunnea, Swinh., A. M, N. H. (7), XIX, p. 206 (1907). 

£ . Head and thorax ochreous mixed with dull red-brown ; abdomen ochre- 
ous suffused with reddish brown, the extremity and ventral surface slightly 
irrorated with brown. Forewing ochreous suffused with dull red-brown except 
on costal area and below basal half of cell and irrorated with a few black scales : 
claviform represented by a slight blackish streak ; a slight pale streak in lower 
end of cell before the small ochreous-de fined discoidal spot ; postmedial line 
with small blackish spot on costa, bent outwards below costa, then represented 
by a double series of points, oblique below vein 4, a diffused ochreous mark 
beyond it on costa and a diffused patch on tornal area ; cilia fuscous brown. 
Hindwing uniform dark brown ; the underside ochreous tinged with brown 
except on costal area, a black discoidal spot and rather diffused oblique post- 
medial line dentate towards costa. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khisis; Ceylon, Maskeliya. Exp. 60 mill. 

260a. Stauropus inclusa. n. sp. 

Antennas of male serrate and fasciculate, of female ciliated. 

Head and thorax dark red-brown mixed with white ; abdomen grey suffus- 
ed with rufous. Forewing whitish irrorated with dark red-brown, the inner 
half of basal area and the terminal area suffused with red-brown ; a brown 
streak below base of cell ; subbasal line represented by an oblique brown 
striga from costa ; antemedial line strong, brown, inwardly oblique from costa 
to median nervure, then nearly erect and slightly angled inwards on vein 1 ; 
a slight brown discoidal bar ; postmedial line brown arising from costa just 
beyond antemedial line, oblique to vein 6, then inwardly oblique, dentate and 
joining the antimedial line at inner margin ; an indistinct pale waved subter- 
minal line with a dark mark before it on costa and lunulate patches from vein 
3 to inner margin ; a series of indistinct pale lunules just before termen. 
Hindwing greyish suffused with red-brown ; an indistinct curved medial line ; 
cilia whitish at tips. 

Habitat.— Assam, Khdsis (Badgley). Exp. $ 48, 9 52 mill. Type in B. M. 



92 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Larva. — Gregarious ; cylindrical, with a small dorsal hump towards extre- 
mity, short scattered hairs ; yellow with black dorsal line ; two lateral lines ; 
stigmata ringed with black and with black striae near them ; ventral surface 
black with broad yellow ventral stripe and yellow lines between the feet, 
which are black ; head large, red. Food plant : Quercus griffitliii. 4. 5. 

Cocoon. — On or underground ; strong pudding-dish shaped, formed of earth 
lined with silk. 

Pupa. — Somewhat pointed at ends, short, red-brown with black spiracles 
(Badgley). 

260 b. Stauropus diluta, n. sp. 

Antennas of male bipectinate with short fasciculate branches, of female 
ciliated. 

Head, thorax and abdomen rufous mixed with grey. Forewing grey suffused 
and irrorated with rufous ; traces of a waved subbasal line, oblique towards 
costa ; traces of a waved antemedial line, double towards costa ; a slight whit- 
ish point on upper part of cell towards extremity ; postmedial line rufous, 
minutely dentate, bent outwards below costa, incurved at discal fold and 
strongly below vein 4 , subterminal line indistinct, pale, denned by brownish 
suffusion on postmedial area, incurved between veins 7 and 4 and below vein 
3 ; a series of brown stride before termen defined on inner side by slight pale 
lunules ; a terminal series of slight brown striae. Hindwing whitish suffused 
with red-brown ; cilia white at tips ; the underside whitish tinged with red- 
brown. 

Habitat. — W. China, Omei Shan ; Assam, Khasis (Badgley), Exp. 42-G2 
mill. Type in B. M. 

Larva. — Solitary ; tapering to both ends ; bright green with a fine red line 
and white band at sides ; head white with black and red lines and yellow 
cheeks ; fore feet tipped with pink. 

Cocoon. — An oval hollow below the ground with slight papery lining. 

Pupa. — Purplish black, roughened, the extremity paler with slight anal 
projection. Food plant : Ilex exsalca. 7. (Badgley). 

282 b. Chadisra semiferrea, n. sp. (Plate F., f . 35). 

$. Head and thorax grey mixed with rufous ; palpi black at sides ; tarsi 
black ringed with grey ; abdomen grey tinged with brown, the basal crest 
mixed with rufous. Forewing grey irrorated with rufous and fuscous, and 
with deep ferruginous suffusion from near base to middle except on inner 
obsolete on costal half, blackish from submedian fold to inner margin to 
area ; antemedial line obsolete on costal half, blackish from submedian fold 
to inner margin to which it is bent inwards; a blackish medial line, rather 
oblique from costa to vein 2, then strongly bent inwards and erect to inner 
margin ; a deep rufous discoidal bar with some white above it and on outer 
edge ; postmedial line formed of black striae slightly defined by white on outer 
side, oblique from costa to vein 6 and incurved below vein 2 ; a dark patch 
on postmedial part of costa with some whitish points on costa and two slight 
dark streaks above veins 7. 6. before the white subterminal line which is 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 93 

incurved below costa and vein 2 and minutely dentate between those points, 
a series of small black spots defined by white on inner side before termen ; 
a fine black terminal line. Hindwing grey suffused with brown, a rather 
darker terminal line ; the underside rufous, the inner area pale. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Trincomali (Green). Exp. 50 mill. Type in B. M. 

293&. Notodonta collaris, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), XIV., p. 132 (1904"). 

£. Palpi, frons, antennae and thorax red-brown ; vertex of head and 
telugas white, the latter with black tips ; tarsi with pale rings; abdomen 
red-brown with dark dorsal patch at extremity. Forewing pale, almost entirely 
suffused with red brown, leaving the submedian interspace and the area 
below costa towards apex paler; the costal area to beyond middle, the cell, 
and area from below end of cell to near termen below vein 4 and the terminal 
area below apex suffused with fuscous; a white point at base of median neuvure; 
two fine brown streaks in basal half of submedian fold; traces of an 
irregular brown antimedial line ; some dark points in end of cell and a slight 
discoidal bar ; traces of an oblique dentate postmedial line ; the apical half of 
terminal area with dark streaks in the interspaces and short oblique streaks 
below extremities of veins 4 and 3. Hindwing red-brown. 

Habitat. — A&sam, Khasis. Exp. 48 mill. 

iEGEKIAD^. 
Genus Sphecosesia, nov. 

Type. — S. pedunculata. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, fringed with long hair in front at 
base, the 2nd joint reaching to about vertex of head, the 3rd moderate ; anten- 
nas of male minutely serrate and fasciculate, strongly dilated beyond middle ; 
legs without tufts of hairs on the joints; abdomen strongly pedunculate at base 
and narrowing to extremity. Forewing with vein 2 present ; 7*8 stalked. 
Hindwing with the discocellulars erect ; veins 3-4 stalked. 

362a. Sphecosesia pedunculata, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 14). 

$. Head and thorax dark brown mixed with rufous ; palpi yellow suffused 
with rufous ; frons with lateral white lines ; basal joint of antennae white in 
front ; coxae whitish ; tibise with whitish bands at middle and extremity, the 
tarsi whitish at base ; abdomen dark reddish brown with white segmental lines 
on the dilated part, the extremity rufous, the ventral surface with rufous 
segmental lines. Wings hyaline, the veins and margins dark brown. 

Habitat. — Sikhim (Bingham). Exp. 28 mill. Type in B. M. 

367a. iEGERIA cyanopasta, n. sp. (PL F., f. 20). 

Antennae with long cilia. 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen black irrorated with silvery blue scales; 
neck with orange ring. Forewing black shot with purple, and irrorated with me- 
tallic blue green scales ; an orange streak above inner margin before middle, 
a wedge-shaped patch in end of cell and an elliptical patch beyond the cell 
between veins 8 and 3 with slight dark streak on the veins. Hindwing hyaline, 
the veins and margins black-brown ; an oblique discoidal bar. Underside of 



94 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

forewing mostly orange to beyond middle, a patch, beyond cell and maculate 
terminal band from apex to vein 2; hindwing with some orange scales on the 
veins. 

Habitat. — Quetta (Nurse). Exp. 26 mill. 

368a. iE&EKiA pyrodisca, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 26). 

Antennae of male strongly ciliated. 

$ . Palpi orange, yellow in front and with a few black scales at sides ; frons 
yellow, white at sides ; antennae black above, orange below ; vertex of head 
and thorax blue-black mixed with some orange and with fine orange streak on 
dorsum and upper edge of patagia ; pectus mostly yellow ; legs red-brown 
banded with yellow ; abdomen blue-black with narrow yellow segmental lines, 
the anal tuft red-brown and yellowish, the ventral surface with broader 
yellow bands. Forewing hyaline, the veins and margins narrowly brown with 
some yellowish scales ; a slight firey red mark near base ; a narrow fiery 
red band on outer edge of the black discoidal line and a streak above vein 9 ; 
cilia brown. Hindwing hyaline, the veins and margins narrowly black ; cilia 
brown. 

9. Antennae fulvous above beyond middle ; abdomen with the yellow 
bands broad at side3, the anal tuft with much more yellow, the ventral 
surface yellow with reddish orange bands. 

Habitat.— Burma, Maymyo (Barrow). Exp. $ 28, $32 mill. Type in B. M. 

3836. Lepidopoda andrepiclera, n. sp. (Plate F., ff. 15 $, 27 9). 

g. Head and thorax black-brown; palpi in front, sides of frons and neck 
white ; pro- and metathorax, pectus, and legs with some whitish scales ; hind 
tibife bluish silvery at base and with white medial band, the base of tarsus white ; 
abdomen black suffused with brilliant blue. Forewing hyaline, a costal fascia, 
discoidal bar, veins, margins and a series of streaks in interspaces of terminal 
area, blue-black. Hindwing hyaline, the veins and margins black. 

9 . Head and thorax with golden yellow replacing the white except at 
sides of frons ; legs golden yellow ; hind tibiae with black band, the tarsus 
black except 1st joint. Forewing with the interspaces suffused with golden 
yellow, the discoidal bar yellow. 

Habitat— Ceylon, Kandy (Green). Exp. $ 28, 9 32 mill. Type in B. M. 

Genus Scoliomima. 

Type 

Scoliomima, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1885, p. 371 insignis. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head, the 1st 
and 2nd joints clothed with long rough hair, the 3rd moderate; antennae of 
male bipectinate with short branches to apex ; tibiae clothed with long rough 
hair ; mid tarsus with the 1st joint clothed with short hair, hind tarsus with 
it clothed with very long hair : abdomen clothed with rough hair towards 
extremity. Forewing with veins 2-3 from near angle of cell : 4-5 from above 
angle ; 6 from below upper angle ; 7-8 stalked ; 9-10-11 from cell. Hindwing 
with vein 2 from before angle of cell ; 3-5 from angle, 4 absent ; 6 from 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 95 

below upper angle becoming coincident with 5 before termen or separate ; 7 
from angle. 

395a. Scoliomima insignis, Butl., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1885, p. 371, pi. X., f. 10. 

£. Head, thorax and abdomen black, shot with bluish; palpi with the 2nd 
joint golden yellow ; frons white at sides ; tegulss golden yellow ; metathorax 
with some fulvous hairs ; mid tibias with some bluish white hairs at base and " 
on outer side at middle, and extremity ; tarsi with the -terminal joints yellow : 
abdomen with dorsal yellow band on 4th segment, narrowing at middle, some 
yellow hair in anal tuft ventrally. Forewing cupreous brown, the costal and 
inner margins black ; a hyaline streak below base of cell. Hindwing cupreous 
brown ; the inner margin and cilia towards tornus black with a green- 
ish tinge ; a hyaline streak below base of cell and a triangular patch on 
inner area from near base to termen. 

The type from Borneo has a golden-yellow patch on metathorax and sub- 
dorsal yellow patches on 1st segment of abdomen ; wings, darker. 

Ha bitat. —Madras, Palni Hills (W. H. Campbell) ; Borneo. Exp. 52-54 mill. 

syntomid.e. 
442. Syntomis passalis. 

Larva. — Fuscous black clothed with tufts of close downy hairs (W. H. 
Campbell). 

ZyG.ENID/E. 
CHALCOSIAN^i. 

528a. Soritia viridibasalis, Dudgeon, J. Bomb. Soc, XVI., p. 399 (1905). 

$. Head and thorax fuscous brown ; tegulee crimson ; 1st joint of palpi and 
pectus yellowish white, abdomen pale blue, the first three segments fuscous 
brown, the ventral surface yellowish white. Forewing dark brown, the basal two- 
thirds suffused with green, the veins of terminal area defined by blue-green: 
a narrow oblique pale yellow postmedial band from costa above end of cell to 
tornus. Hindwing fuscous brown. Underside of forewing fuscous brown, the 
band broader with a curved pale blue subapical band beyond it ; hindwing 
with the cell, a streak on each side of vein 1. c, and four subterminal lunules 
pale blue. 

Habitat.— Tenasserim, Daunat Range. Exp. 36 mill. This species is un- 
known to me. 

557. Heterusia drataraja is the male of 571. Chalcosia distincta and 
insert (syn.) Eterusia osseata, Wlk., XXXI, 120 (1864). 

590a. Isbarta cyanescens is the male of 591. Isbarta binghami. 

PSYCHID^E. 

CECETICIN.E. 

617a. Clania destructor, Dudgeon, J. Bomb. Soc, XVI, p. 401 (1905). 
Forewing with veins 4-5 stalked to near termen, the veinlets between vein 1 
and inner margin slight ; hindwicg with veins 4-5 strongly stalked; vein 8 



96 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

anastomosing with the cell towards extremity, then again with vein 7, the 
veinlets between it and costa slight. 

Head, thorax and abdomen reddish brown mixed with greyish and dark 
brown ; tarsi whitish. Forewing red-brown mixed with greyish, the veins 
streaked with blackish ; an elleptical whitish mark below veins 4 # 5 and a small 
triangular mark on termen below vein 7. Hindwing reddish brown mixed 
with greyish, the veins blackish. 

Habitat. — Sikhim ; Bhutan ; Assam, Chittagong; Borneo, Kuching. Exp. 
30 mill. 

Larva.' — Food plant : Tea, the larva case formed of twigs of the plant 
placed longitudinally. 

618a. Clania monochroma, n. sp. 

ft. Head, thorax and abdomen dark brown with some greyish hair ; wings 
uniform dark brown. Forewing with three veinlets between vein 1 and 
inner margin. Hindwing with veins 4-5 stalked ; 7 connected with 8 by 6 i 
oblique bar near end of cell ; 8 without veinlets to costa. 

Larva. — Case covered with white silk to which are attached excreta and a 
few pieces of bark and twigs. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Kandy (Green). Exp. 32 mill. Type in B. M. 

618 a. Clania antrami, n. sp. 

ft. Forewing with veins 4-5 from cell ; hindwing with vein 6 absent, 8 not 
sending branches to costa. 

Head, thorax and abdomen greyish fuscous. Forewing ochreous thickly 
irrorated with fuscous, very thickly on terminal half. Hindwing fuscous 
brown, the inner area paler. 

Habitat.— Cachar, Kuttal (C. B. Antram). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B. M. 

Larva. — Case covered with fragments of dry leaves ; Food plant : Tea. 

620 a. Amatissa albitarsia, n. sp. 

ft. Fore tarsus with the terminal joint moderate ; fore and hindwings with 
veins 4-5 stalked ; uniform reddish brown ; the fore tarsi whitish. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Hatiyantota (Green). Exp. 22 mill. Type in B. M. 

Chalian^e. 

633. Manatha scotopepla, n. sp. 

ft. Forewing with veins 4*5 from cell, 11 connected at a point with 12. 
Uniform fuscous brown ; the tarsi pure white. 

Habitat. — Cachar, Kuttal (C. B. Antram). Exp. 14 mill. Type in B. M. 
Larva. — Case covered with scales of bark ; Food plant ; Tea. 

644 a. Mahasena taprobana, n. sp. 
Forewing with veins 8*9 very shortly stalked. 

ft. Uniform red -brown with some greyish hair mixed. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Peradeniya (Green). Exp. 22 mill. Type in B. M. 

Larva. — Case covered with short pieces of stick somewhat spirally attached. 

645 b. Mahasena theivora, Dudgeon, J. Bomb. Soc., XVI., p. 400 (1905). 
Fore and hindwings with veins 4*5 from a point. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 97 

g. Uniform fuscous brown, the tarsi whitish. 

Habitat.— Sikhim. Exp. 30-34 mill. 

Larva. — Food plant : Tea, the larva-case formed of fragments and whole 
leaves attached to a rather soft case. 

645 a. Mahasena poliotricha, n. sp. 

Forewing with veins 4'5 from angle of cell. 

g. Head and thorax clothed with long silky whitish grey hair mixed with 
some fuscous ; abdomen fuscous, the ventral surface whitish grey ; wings 
greyish fuscous, the cilia white. 

Habitat. — Punjab, Kangra Valley, 4,500' (Dudgeon). Exp. 34 mill. Type 
in B.M. 

Larva.— Case formed by short pieces of the stems of grasses arranged in a 
whorl with three or four twists. It has a Hymenopterous parasite of the 
gi a us Chalcis. 

Arbelid/E. 

675 b. Arbela Campbelli, n. sp. (PL F., f. 7). 

£. Head, thorax and abdomen dark brown mixed with grey : antennse 
with the branches rufous. Forewing grey thickly irrorated and striated with 
dark brown, the veins and submedian fold streaked with white ; some white at 
base of inner margin ; antemedial line formed of white stripe, from subcostal 
nervure to inner margin ; two white discoidal strise and a striga below extremity 
of cell ; postmedial stria? between veins 6 and 3, and vein 2 and inner margin ; 
a curved subterminal series of strise placed somewhat in echelon : terminal 
oblique stria? from just above vein 3 to tornus ; cilia white, tinged with brown 
at base and with dark line at middle. Hindwing white suffused and irrorated 
with brown ; cilia brownish at base, white at tips ; the underside white 
striated with brown forming ill-defined lines, a terminal series of small brown 
spots. 

Habitat. — Madras, Horsleyhonda (Campbell). Exp. 36 mill. 

The larva tunnels in the stem of Oclma squarrosa (W. H. Campbell). 

676 b. Arbela theivora, n. sp. (PI. G-.. f. 1). 

$ . Head and thorax dark brown mixed with grey ; abdomen fuscous mixed 
with grey, the basal crest blackish ; pectus, legs and ventral surface of abdomen 
whiter. Forewing dark brown slightly irrorated with grey ; the costal area . 
cell and vein 1 tinged with rufous ; a faint blackish discoidal spot ; the 
terminal area with faint dark striations. Hindwing fuscous brown slightly 
irrorated with grey, the cilia whitish at tips. 

9. Much greyer ; forewing with numerous dark reticulate striations. 

Habitat. — Assam, Sylhet, G-azipur (Antram). Exp. $ 18,9 22 mill. Type 
in JB. M. 

Larva. — Bores in the bark of Tea and the smaller branches of the Mango, 
feeding under a web. 

676 c. Arbela minima, n. sp. (PI. F., f. 24). 
13 



98 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

£. Head and thorax red-brown mixed with some white ; pectus and legs 
mostly white ; abdomen red-brown, the tuft of long hair on basal segment 
white with some spatulate brown scales, the ventral surface white. Fore wing 
fulvous yellow very thickly irrorated with red-brown, the basal half and costal 
area with fulvous yellow spots defined by blackish ; a round blackish discoidal 
spot with a fulvous yellow spot beyond it ; cilia with a dark line through them 
and whitish patches above and below middle and at tornus. Hindwing golden 
brown ; cilia white at tips, the inner margin fringed with long white hair. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Galle (Bainbrigge-Fletcher). Exp. 18 mill. Type ;in 
B.M. 

Hepiaupye. 

678 a. Palpiphokus pellicia, Swinh., A.M.N.H. (7), X, p. 152 (1905). 

Head and thorax red-brown ; abdomen fuscous brown. Forewing red-brown 
with slight greyish irroration ; a white point with some dark scales round it 
in middle of cell and a smaller point rather nearer base below the cell ; traces 
of oblique medial, postmedial and subterminal series of brown spots defined 
at sides by slight whitish strias. Hindwing brown with a purplish tinge ; a 
whitish patch on termen and cilia above middle. 

Habitat— Assam, Khrfsis. Exp. $ 24, 9 28 mill, 

Drepanidye. 

732. Drepana speoularis, insert (syn) Platyptermv oblruncata, Warr., Nov. 
Zool., VII, p. 118 (1900). The locality Bahia is a mistake. 

735. Drepana sad ana, insert (syn) Tridrepana adelpha, Swinh., A.M.N.H 
(7), XVI, p. 620 Khasis. 

735. a. Drepana rubromarginata, Leech, Trans. Ent. Soc, 189S, p. 365. 

£, Orange yellow. Forewing with indistinct somewhat diffused dark 
antemedial line from subcostal nervure to inner margin, strongly excurved 
below the cell ; a small spot in middle of cell and discoidal spot ; blackish 
spots below end of cell above veins 3-2 : a slight oblique waved postmedial 
line from vein 7 to inner' margin ; the terminal area suffused with bright 
rufous obliquely from apex to postmedial line at lower angle of cell and thence 
to inner margin ; a diffused lunulate band beyond the postmedial line from 
vein 5 to inner margin, somewhat incurved below vein 2 ; a diffused subter- 
minal series of lunulate spots, the spot above vein 5 blackish. Hindwing 
with dark point at upper angle of cell and slight diffused medial line from cell 
to inner margin ; diffused spots above bases of veins 32 ; a slight diffused 
waved postmedial line, excurved from costa to vein 3, then bent inward and 
a subterminal series of small lunulate spots from vein 6 to ir.ner margin. 

Habitat. — W. China, Pu-tsu-fong ; Sikhim, Tibet, Yatong. Exp. 40 mill. 

746. b. Phalacra rupa, n. sp. (PL F., f. 28). 

£. Head and thorax rufous slightly irrorated with grey, the vertex of head 
whitish ; pectus and legs fuscous brown ; abdomen rufous slightly banded 
Avith fuscous. Forewing rufous, the costal area suffused with grey and irrora- 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 99 

ted with fuscous ; traces of an autemedial line angled on median nervure, then 
oblique ; two obliquely placed black discoidal points ; an indistinct dark, 
minutely waved postmedial line, slightly excurved below costa, then very 
•oblique ; an indistinct subterminal line with yellowish marks on it, excurved 
from costa to vein 4, then oblique and slightly sinuous -, a series of slight 
black points before termen. Hindwing rufous ; the base yellowish ; an oblique 
subbasal greyish band defined by fine dark lines ; three oblique minutely 
waved medial lines ; a straight subterminal line from below apex to inner 
margin ; cilia grey at tips. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Maskeliya (Alston). Exp. 50 mill. Type in B.M. 

146. c. Phalacra tenkra, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc., 1902, p. 592 (PI. F„ f 
33). 

9 . Head, thorax and abdomen brownish white mixed with brown. Fore- 
wing brownish white irrorated with brown, the medial area suffused with 
brown and bounded by minutely waved lines, on inner side obliquely curved, 
on outer incurved at discal fold and oblique below vein 4 : a black point at 
lower angle of cell ; a minutely waved postmedial line with series of small 
black spots beyond it, oblique below vein 4 ; traces of a subterminal series of 
small pale lunules, incurved below vein 4 and with some fuscous before and 
beyond it towards tornus ; a fine black terminal line ; cilia chequered black and 
whitish. Hindwing suffused with rufous except basal area ; traces of two 
antemedial lines ; a black discoidal point ; an indistinct minutely waved 
medial line ; two waved fuscous postmedial lines ; traces of a greyish lunulate 
-subterminal line ; a slight terminal line. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Kandy ; Borneo, Pulo Laut. Exp. 26 mill. 

Thyrididje. 

764. Steiglina glareola, insert (syns) Striglina conjuncta, Swinh., A. M. 
X. H. (7), XVII, p. 381 (1906) and Striglina mediofascia, Swinh., A. M. X. H. 
.(7), XVII, p. 381(1906). 

766 a. Rhodoneura candidalis, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), XV., p. 504 
(1905.) 

ft. Head and thorax white, suffused with fuscous except behind ; tarsi banded 
with fuscous ; abdomen white. Forewing white, the costa and cell with nume- 
rous fuscous striae and a few on basal, medial and postmedial areas : postmedial 
line formed of a double series of striae, oblique, slightly incurved to costa and 
below vein 4 ; a subterminal series of double obliquely placed striae ; two 
black points just before termen below apex followed by an oblique series of 
striae in the interspaces. Hindwing white ; a double subbasal line not reaching 
inner margin ; a double medial line formed of striaa meeting and terminating 
at vein 1 ; a double subterminal line starting from a single striga below costa. 
the outer line ending at vein 2, the inner at vein 1 ; some strife on apical part 
•of termen. Underside of forewing with some golden suffusion in basal half of 
•cell, below costa to beyond middle, and between medial parts of postmedial 
:ind subterminal lines. 



100 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Habitat. — Assam, Silchar. Exp. 34 mill. 

767 a. Rhodoneura erubescens, Warr., Not. Zool., XV., p. 347 (1908). 
$. Head and thorax brown, the latter whitish behind: pectus and legs 
white suffused with brown and crimson, the tarsi brown ringed with white ; 
abdomen white tinged with crimson. Wings white suffused in parts with 
brownish crimson and thickly reticulated with brown lines, the veins streaked 
with pale crimson on terminal half ; the cilia pale crimson ; forewing with 
blackish points on costa towards apex ; hindwing with the basal area paler. 
Underside with the markings crimson ; forewing with chestnut suffusion in 
and below end of cell and below costa towards apex, some black striae in lower 
part of middle of cell, the veins beyond upper angle of cell streaked with 
black ; hindwing with black stria? from costa. 
Habitat— Assam, Khasis ; Burma, Shan States, Maymyo. Exp. 38 mill. 
777 a. Rhodoneura nox, Druce, A. M. N. H. (7), I, p. 149 (1898). 
9- Black-brown slightly shot with purple ; pectus brown mixed with ochre- 
ous white : legs brown, the tarsi ringed with white ; ventral surface of abdo- 
men ochreous". Forewing with faint dark reticulations ; an indistinct oblique 
greyish line from costa near apex to middle of inner margin ; cilia brownish 
at apex and above tornus. Hindwing with indistinct oblique greyish medial 
line ; cilia whitish with a brown line through them. Underside of both wings 
mottled with ochreous except terminal area, the dark striae forming numerous 
ill-defined lines ; forewing with two dark spots on medial part of costa and 
two on median nervure. 

Habitat. — Burma, Tenasserim. Exp. 22 mill. 

778. Rhodoneura Nitens, insert Pyralis acutalis, Wlk.. XXXIV, 1523 (1865) 
which has precedence, and Pharambarafuhlpicta, Warr., Nov. Zool., XV, p. 34.'! 
(1808). 

784. Rhodoneura atripunctatis insert (syns) 

mollicellalis, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), XV, p. 504 (1905).. 
turbatalis, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), XV, p. 505 (1905). 
Brixia comparalis, Warr., Nov. Zool., XV, p. 329 (1908). 
The second is a variety with the basal half of both wings pale ; a pale patch 
on inner area of forewing towards tornus ; the apical area of hindwing pale 
to submedian fold. 

786. Rhodoneura reticulata, Moore, 1888 (nee. Butl., 1886) will stand a?; 

Rhodoneura moorei, Warr., Nov. Zool., XV, p. 343 (1908). 
786 a. Rhodoneura dissimulans, del. Banisia ordinariu, Warr., which is. 
distinct. 

786 c. Rhodoneura flumbea, Warr., Nov. Zool., XV, p. 344 (1908). 
Head, thorax and abdomen red-brown with a silvery gloss ; pectus, legs and' 
ventral surface of abdomen pale rufous. Forewing red brown with a silver 1 
gloss and numerous brown striae ; two fine well separated antemedial lines : 
postmedial line double, excurved beyond the cell ; subterminal line forkinj 
towards costa and tornus. Hindwing red-brown with a silvery gloss and! 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 101 

numerous brown strife ; a slight antemedial line, a double waved medial line 
and a subterminal line forking towards costa and tornus. Underside paler 
suffused with chestnut red ; forewing with fine black and white streaks in and 
beyond upper part of cell. 

Habitat. — Sikhim. Exp. 28-38 mill. 

786 d. Rhodoneura tjeniata, Warr., Nov. Zool., XV, p. 327 (1908). 

Head, thorax and abdomen rufous with a whitish tinge. Forewing whitish 
tinged with rufous and with numerous red-brown stria? : a rufous subbasal 
band from costa to median nervure ; an antemedial rufous band ; medial band 
rufous, slightly angled outwards in cell and expanding at inner margin ; post- 
medial band rufous, broad from costa to vein 5 where it is angled outwards, 
then narrower, incurved and expanding at inner margin ; an oblique wedge- 
shaped band .from costa towards apex to near termen at vein 5, enclosing a 
pale spot on Gosta ; a patch on tornal area produced above to two points ex- 
tending to vein 4 ; cilia deep rufous. Hindwing whitish suffused with rufous 
and with numerous red -brown stria? ; an indistinct rufous medial band, forking 
above and ending in dark points at and beyond upper angle of cell ; an indis- 
tinct subterminal rufous band from below costa to vein 5 ; cilia deep rufous. 
Underside similar. 

Habitat. — Sikhim ; Assam, Khasis. Exp. 42 mill. 

792. Rhodoneura ferrofusa, trans, ad. 805. b Hypolamprus after H. atro- 
striatus. 

792 c. Rhodoneura ruinosa, Warr., Nov. Zool. XV., p. 344 (1908). 

£. Head, thorax and abdomen whitish tinged with rufous, the vertex 
of head and extremity of abdomen paler. Forewing whitish, with numerous 
rufous stria?, the basal half suffused with rufous ; indistinct curved antemedial. 
medial and postmedial narrow rufous bands, a rufous mark beyond the last; 
below costa on the inner edge of a red-brown line which is excurved from 
below costa to tornus ; an oblique narrow red-brown band across apical area. 
Hindwing whitish with numerous rufous striae, the basal half suffused with 
rufous ; fine red-brown medial and subterminal lines, the former evenly 
curved, the latter excurved, then bent outwards to termen above tornus. 
Underside of forewing with black points on costa and fine black and white 
streaks beyond upper angle of cell, a blackish patch at lower angle of cell 
with band from it to inner margin, the postmedial line and subapical band 
distinct ; hindwing with irregular medial band except towards costa. 

Habitat.— Sikhim. Exp. 30 mill. 

792, d. Rhodoneura discopis, n. sp. (PI. F„ f. 19). 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen pale rufous. Forewing pale rufous with 
numerous lines formed of brown striae, the more conspicuous being an ante- 
medial line oblique from costa to median nervure, then erect, an oblique line 
from lower angle of cell to inner margin, and a postmedial line oblique to vein 
4, then slightly incurved; a brown discoidal annulus. Hindwing pale rufous 
with numerous prominent reticulate lines formed of brown striae : a small 



1 02 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

brown discoidal annulus. Underside with the reticulate lines very distinct - 
forewing with rounded black-brown discoidal patch ; hindwing with black- 
brown discoidal annulus. 

Habitat.— Ceylon, Hapatale (Alston). Exp. 30 mill. Type in B. M. 

793«. Rhodoneura perruginosa, Hmpsn.. A. M. X. H. (7). XVII, p. 121 

(1906). 

X. Bright feruginous red. Forewing with numerous indistinct deep rufous- 
stria? ; a rufous postmedial line, excurved from costa to vein 4, then incurved, 
with some deeper rufous suffusion before it ; the striae on terminal area form- 
ing an ill-defined sinuous subterminal line. Hindwing with numerous deep 
rufous stria? forming ill-defined lines. Underside with a slight silvery gloss, 
the stria? rather more prominent. 

Habitat. — Sikhim. Exp. 30 mill. 

793 b. Bhodoneura fallax, Warr. A. M. N, H. (6), XVIII, p. 229 (1896). 

Head, thorax and abdomen dark violaceous grey tinged with brown ; pectus, 
legs and ventral surface of abdomen whitish. Forewing dark violaceous grey, 
thickly and evenly striated with fine dark lines, some of the stria? forming a 
slight rather oblique medial line, a slightly curved postmedial line and an 
oblique line across apical area ; a slight brownish patch beyond discocellulars. 
Hindwing dark violaceous grey, thickly and evenly striated with fine dark 
lines, some of the stria? forming an obiique line across apical area. Underside 
of forewing with metallic blue and black points in end of cell with some fine 
white streaks above them, some fine white and black streaks beyond upper 
angle of cell and an orange-red fascia below apical half of costa ; hindwing 
whitish with the stria? prominent, a forked rufous line from costa before 
apex to termen at vein 2. 

ab. 1. Medial area of forewing and apical area of hindwing suffused with 
black above. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis ; Bali ; New Guinea, Fergusson I. Exp. 22 mill. 

797. Rhodoneura e-ract'eata, insert (syn.) 798. Rhodoneura rufareta. 

797 a. Rhodoneura intimalis, insert (syns). 

Rhodoneura canidentalis. Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), XVIII, p. 381 (1906). 
Mkrobelia fascial*, Warr. Nov. Zool. XV., p. 341 (1908). 
privata, Warr. Nov, Zool. XV., p. 341 (1908). 
uniformis Warr. Nov. Zool. XV., p. 341 (1908). 
Rhodoneura giulia, Swinh. A. M. N. H. (7) X. p. 50 (1902 j. 

7976. Rhodoneura nephelopera, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XVII p. US 
(1906). 

Head, thorax and abdomen deep rufous ; front of thorax and dorsum of 
abdomen with a purplish-silvery gloss : pectus, legs, and ventral surface of 
abdomen rather paler ; wings rufous with a golden gloss, thickly and nearly 
evenly reticulate with pale and deep rufous lines. Forewing with the base, 
costal area, and area beyond the cell to apex and down to vein 3 deep rufous 
suffused with purple ; cilia with two white patches at tips below apex snd two 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 103- 

above tornus. Hindwiag with the extreme base deep rufous ; cilia with the tips 
chequered white and rufous. Underside of forewing with the subcostal 
nervure and base of veins beyond upper angle of cell finely streaked with black 
and white, the terminal &rea between veins 8 and 2 suffused with purple, with 
a curved white streak below extremity of vein 8. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis. Exp. 24 mill. 

797 c. Rhodoneura lactiguttata, n. sp. 

ft. Head and thorax white mixed with some rufous ; fore tibias and the 

tarsi brown ringed with wbite ; abdomen white with rufous segmental lines. 

Forewing white thickly reticulated with rufous ; a brown-defined antemedial 

annulus in and below cell with a forked line from its outer edge to inner 

margin, and a streak from its upper edge to a small quadrate brown spot at 

upper angle of cell, giving off two lines to inner margin, the inner excurved. 

the outer angled outwards at vein 4, then incurved and forked towards inner 

margin, also a streak to apex intersected by an oblique line across apical area ; 

the reticulations of terminal area forming small round spots. Hindwmg white 

:hickly reticulated with red-brown forming small round spots not forming 

definite lines ; a dark brown point at upper angle of cell ; cilia of both wings 

rufous. Underside of forewing with the costal area red-brown and with 

flight streaks of metallic and black scales in cell and on the veins below costa. 

to apex. > 

i 

Habitat .— Bhutan, 3,U00' (Dudgeon). Exp, 20 mill. Type in B. M. 

S00 b. Rhodoneura dorilusaljs, Wlk., XIX, 890 (1859;. 
Pijralh imbutalis, Wlk., XXXIV ; 1524 (1865). 

Siculodes acutipennis, Pag.. Naas. Jahrb. f. Naturif., XXXIX, p. 160- 
(1886). 

Head, thorax and abdomen whitish mixed with red-brown. Forewing 
whitish tinged with rufous and striated with dark brown; traces of an oblique 
medial band ; a more distinct postmedial band from costa to discal fold and 
lower angle of cell to inner margin ; a curved subterminal series of striae forking 
towards costa. Hindwing whitish tinged with rufous and striated with dark 
brown ; an oblique postmedial band formed of dark strise ; a subterminal 
line formed of striae and a spot at tornus. Underside of forewing with white 
-ubterminal band from below apex to vein 5. 

Habitat. — Nicobars, Nancowry ; Borneo : Pulo Laut ; Mysol ; Aru. 
Exp. 26 mill. 

800 c. Rhodoneura cuprizona, n. sp. 

ft. Head, thorax and abdomen greyish largely suffused with bright rufous. 
Forewing greyish white, the basal half of inner area with some rufous and 
>ilvery strife ; an oblique diffused cupreous red postmedial band bent inwards to 
costa confluent with a large diffused patch from apex and leaving a triangular 
whitish patch on costa beyond middle ; a blackish discoidal Iunule, a small spot 
beyond lower angle of cell and two points in discal fold ; a subterminal series of 
slight blackish points : two slight subapical whitish lunules defined by blackish 



104 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

on inner side. Hindwing whitish tinged with rufous, the basal area striated with 
rufous and silvery ; an oblique rufous medial band with silvery striae on its inner 
and outer sides ; traces of a subterminal series of dark points and striae ; the 
underside with medial and subterminal rufous bands. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis (Badgley). Exp. 36 mill. Type in B. M, 

801 a. Hypolamprus subumbrata, Warr. , Nov. Zool., XII, p. 7 (1905). 

9 . Head, thorax and abdomen pale rufous irrorated with a few glistening 
scales. Forewing pale rufous with a silky gloss and thickly striated with 
brown, some of the striae forming indistinct antemedial, medial and double 
postmedial and subterminal lines. Hindwing pale rufous with a silky gloss and 
thickly striated with brown, the terminal half rather paler and with double 
curved postmedial and subterminal lines filled in with rather darker rufous ; a 
slight waved line before termen. Underside of forewing with deeper rufous 
shade on costal half to beyond cell. 
Habitat.— Burma, Shan States, Maymyo. Exp. 36 mill. 

802 a. Hypolamprus simplex, Warr., Nov. Zool. XV, p. 337 (1908). 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen whitish tinged with rufous. Wings 
whitish suffused with pale pinkish rufous and faintly striated and irrorated 
with brown. Underside of forewing with blackish points on costa, black and 
opalescent streaks in, below and beyond the cell, the terminal area with 
blackish reticulations ; an apical white patch with black point on it; hindwing 
with diffused dark medial band and blackish reticulations on terminal area. 

Habitat. — Burma, Shan States, Maymyo ; Borneo, Kuching. Exp. 20 mill. 

805 b. Hypolamprus ocellipenistis, Warr., Nov. Zool., XV, p. 327 (1908). 

Both wings with the termen excised below apex and strongly excurved at 
middle. 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen whitish suffused with rufous. Forewing 
rufous to well beyond middle leaving a series of small whitish spots on inner 
margin and a reticulate elliptical medial patch between the cell and vein 1, the 
outer edge of the rufous area angled at veins 5 and 2 ; terminal area yellowish 
white with red brown reticulations ; an oblique rufous line from costa towards 
apex to termen at vein 5, then strongly incurved to a small spot just below 
vein 5 and bent outwards to a small spot at tornus. Hindwing yellowish white 
with red-brown reticulations ; a medial rufous band with irregular edges ; the 
reticulate lines of terminal area forming an oblique line across apical area and 
enclosing some elliptical spots on postmedial area. Underside similar. 

Habitat. — Lower Burma. Exp. 38 mill. 

805 c. Hypolamprus lepraota, n. sp. (Plate F., f . 1 7). 

9 . Head, thorax and abdomen ochreous white mixed with rufous. Forewing 
yellowish white thickly reticulated with rufous ; the costal area suffused with 
rufous expanding into the cell before middle ; a postmedial line angled out- 
wards at veins 5 and 2 and incurved between those points, with a broad rufous 
band on its inner edge ; a fine subterminal line arising from a triangular mark 
on costa, then oblique to a quadrate spot on termen at vein 5, then strongly 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 105 

incurved and ending in a quadrate spot on termen above fcornus. Hindwing 
yellowish white thickly reticulated with rufous ; a small rufous spot at lower 
angle of cell conjoined to a spot on vein 2 ; the terminal area with stronger 
reticulate lines. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Madulsima (W. Vaughan). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B. M. 

806. Hypolamprus sttbkosealis, insert ab. rubicunda, Warr., Nov. Zool. XV.. 
p. 336 (1908). 

806 c. Hypolamprus albipunctula, Warr.. Nov. Zool., XV, p. 335 (1908). 

ft. Head, thorax and abdomen whitish tinged with rufous ; tarsi brown 
ringed with white. Forewing whitish suffused with rufous and with numerous 
rather indistinct brown striae ; two indistinct antemedial lines ; an indistinct 
oblique brownish postmedial band with three white points beyond it above 
vein 6. Hindwing white with brown reticulations and slight rufous suffusion 
leaving numerous small round white spots ; a black point in discal fold just 
beyond the cell and a postmedial point. Underside of both wings with black- 
ish reticulations : forewing with minute black streaks in, below and beyond the 
cell with opalescent suffusion between them. 

Habitat. — Manipur ; Lower Burma. Exp. 24 mill. 

Genus Symphleps. 

Symphleps, Warr., Nov. Zool., IV., p. 383 (1897). Type cochracea. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, not reaching vertex of head : 
antennas laminate ; hind tibiae with the inner medial spur very long, the 
outer minute. Forewing with vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 5 from above 
angle ; 6*7 from below upper angle ; 8, 9, 10 stalked ; 11 from cell. Hindwing 
with vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 5 from above angle ; 7 from upper 
angle, anastomosing with 8. 

8086. Symphleps ochracea, Pag., Nass. Jahrb. f. Naturf., XXXIX, p. 139 
(1886). 

Rhodoneura alomosalis, Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1897, p. 621. 

Head and thorax bright rufous ; antennae ringed with white ; tarsi 
■slightly ringed with white ; abdomen paler rufous with slight whitish 
segmental lines ; wings pale rufous thickly and evenly striated with deep 
rufous. Forewing with series of white points on costa ; a slight white 
discoidal bar with some black scales at its lower extremity ; cilia deep rufous 
with series of black points at base. Hindwing with series of black points at 
base of cilia. Underside of forewing with two small white discoidal spots 
ringed with black. 

Habitat. — Assam, Khasis ; Andamans ; Singapore ; Pulo Ladt ; Java ; 
Ambonia ; Mysol ; Aru ; Queensland. Exp. 26 mill. 

809a. Camadena polystacta, Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1906, p. 494, Plate. 36, f. 7. 

ft . Head and thorax dark-brown suffused with greyish ; abdomen red- 
brown suffused with dark greyish brown. Forewing red-brown thickly 
striated with dark-brown, on terminal area forming numerous annulate spots : 
14 



106 JOORNA L, BO MB A Y NA TOR A L HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XX. 

the costal and inner areas suffused with dark-brown to the medial band : two 
indistinct, somewhat irregular dark antemedial lines ; a broad oblique dark 
medial band before the indistinct postmedial line which is bent outwards 
below costa, excurved to vein 5, then oblique ; an indistinct subterminal 
line excurved from costa to vein 5, then oblique. Hindwing red-brown 
thickly striated with dark-brown, on terminal half forming numerous annulate 
spots ; a small black discoidal spot and slight medial line excurved between, 
veins 5 and 2 ; the termen strongly excurved at middle. 
Habitat. -Sikhim, Gantok. Exp. 32 mill. 

LlMACODIDJK. 

817a. Scapelodes tantula, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), XIV., p. 132 ( 19U4). 
dinawa, Beth-Baker, Nov. Zool., XX, p. 382(1904). 

£ , Head and thorax grey mixed with fulvous, and fuscous ; palpi black 
at tips ; abdomen fulvous, dorsal ly mixed with fuscous except at base. Fore- 
wing fuscous thickly irrorated with grey, and tinged with fulvous on disk ; a 
diffused fulvous streak below base of cell ; cilia tinged with fulvous. Hind- 
wing fuscous, the basal and inner areas and veins fulvous ; cilia fulvous mixed 
with fuscous. 

Habitat. — Assam. Khnsis ; British New Guinea, Dinawa. Exp. 42 mill. 

823a. Oxyplax pulvata, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 16). 

ft . Antennas much thickened and flattened, simple ; metathorax with 
spreading crest of scales ; forewing with the inner margin lobed before middle 
and with tuft of scales. 

Head and thorax fulvous mixed with some blackish ; abdomen fuscous.. 
Forewing fulvous with a cupreous tinge and brown suffusion ; the basal area 
suffused with dark brown to the obliquely curved diffused medial line ; the 
terminal area suffused with black, broadly at costa and narrowing towards 
tornus ; cilia chequei'ed fulvous and black and with black tips. Hindwing 
fuscous, cilia grey, fuscous at base and with fuscous line through them. 

Habitat— Ceylon, Maskeliya (Pole). Exp. 18 mill. Type in B. M. 

835/a Thosea flaviceps, n. sp. 

Male with the palpi extending about length of head, female about three 
times length of head. 

Head and thorax yellow with slight rufous dorsal streak, the terminal half 
of thorax suffused with rufous ; pectus, legs and abdomen rufous slightly 
mixed with yellowish. Forewing deep rufous, the area beyond the post- 
medial line browner to submedian fold ; some silvery suffusion on median 
nervure and vein 1, on terminal half of costal area, and on terminal area : 
an indistinct very oblique brown postmedial line from costa just before apex 
to middle of submedian fold ; an indistinct somewhat oblique brown sub- 
terminal line. Hindwing red-brown with a slight pinkish tinge. 

Habitat.— Assam, Khasis (Badgley). Exp. ft 34, $ 40 mill. Type in B. M. 

Larva. — With long pointed prominences bearing stinging hair ; solitary : 
rolls itself up and drops when alarmed ; very dark maroon with fine red and 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 107 

yellow lines ; sides green with yellow lines and a series of brown dots ; ventral, 
surface semi-transparent yellow. In the young larva the red and yellow- 
markings on back are absent. Food plants : Andromeda ovalifolia, Photima, 
eugenifolia and Camellia caudata. 

Cocoon. — Oval, slight, dark red-brown. 

Pupa.— Short, rounded, light brown with paler rings on dorsum of abdomen,, 
the shoulders shining (Badgley). 

836a. Natada fulvidorsia, n. sp. (Plate F.. f. 9). 

$. Head and thorax fulvous, vertex of head, patagia on outer edge and 
at extremity with some black scales : abdomen fuscous brown ; pectus, legs, 
and ventral surface of abdomen pale fulvous, Forewing fuscous brown, 
slightly tinged in parts with grey ; a few fulvous scales below costa and on 
medial area below r the cell. Hindwing fuscous brown : both wings with fine 
pale line at base. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Maskeliya (de Mowbray). Exp. 26 mill. 

8366. Natada ftjlvimixta, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 21). 

£. Head and thorax dark brown mixed with pale fulvous ; antenna; 
whitish : abdomen fuscous brown ; pectus, legs and ventral surface of abdomen 
ochreous. Forewing dark brown slightly irrorated with greyish and faintly 
tinged with fulvous in parts ; an oblique whitish line defined by black on inner 
side from just below apex to inner margin beyond middle. Hindwing fuscous 
brown ; both wings with fine pale line at base of cilia. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Paltipolla (Alston). Exp. 30 mill. 

847a. Tetraphleps ferreogrisea, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 10). 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen iron-grey mixed with black-brown espe- 
cially at tips of tegulpe and patagia. Forewing iron-grey irrorated with black- 
brown ; an oblique black subbasal line, arising below costa and bent outwards 
to inner margin, emitting a streak below the cell to the oblique sinuous black 
antcmedial line ; a black discoidal lunule : a brown shade from below end. 
)f cell to tornus ; an incurved black line from costa towards apex to termen 
at vein 2, and a black shade on terminal area from just below apex to vein 4 :: 
cilia chequered grey and black- brown. Hindwing grey suffused with broWn. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Mankulam (Mackwood). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B. M. 

853a. Miresa thermistis, n. sp. 

Forewing with vein 10 from well before end of cell. 

Head and thorax bright rufous, the vertex of head and tegulas yellowish : 
pectus and legs with some yellowish hair ; abdomen deep rufous with seme 
yellowish hair at base and on ventral surface. Forewing bright rufous, "bhe 
interspaces of discal area thinly scaled ; a diffused brownish patch beyond end 
of cell and a faint curved postmedial line. Hindwing rufous tinged with 
brown. 

Habiiat.—A^AU, Khasis (Badgley). E.rp. 24 mill. Type in B.M. 

Larva. — Slug-like with short stinging hairs ■ head retractile, usually con- 
cealed under collar when feeding, the hairs from small prominences : gregari- 



108 JOURNAL, B021BAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

ous ; green with a blue dorsal stripe-edged by fine black lines ; two small black 
dots on the neck and four black spots at anal extremity ; ventral surface 
semi-transparent green. Food plant: Buclclandia populnea. 

Cocoon. — Oval, slight, fastened to the ground and covered by a slight semi- 
transparent grey papery cover. 

Pupa. — Bounded, pale brown (Badgley). 

853 b. Miresa pyronota, n. sp. (PL F., f. 22). 

£. Head and thorax fiery red with a few red-brown scales mixed : palpi 
dark at sides ; pectus and legs more rufous ; abdomen yellow slightly tinged 
with red and with rufous dorsal patch at base. Forewing rufous with a slight 
silvery gloss, some fiery red and yellow on basal half of inner margin ; some 
silver scales at upper angle of cell and a triangular silver spot just beyond lower 
angle ; a postmedial series of silver points on the veins, oblique below vein 7 : 
the terminal area with slight silvery irroration. Hindwing yellow tinged with 
red and with a slight silvery gloss. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Trincomali (Green). Exp. 38 mill. Type in B. M. 

855 a. Miresa metathermistis, n. sp. (PI. F., f . 6). 

£. Head and tegulse yellow, the palpi except at tips and antennas rufous ; 
thorax and abdomen yellow suffused with rufous, the metathorax with deep 
rufous tuft of hair. Forewing bright rufous, the basal half of inner area 
yellowish ; an indistinct deep rufous discoidal spot with a few silvery scales on 
it ; postmedial line deep rufous with silvery white scales on and before it and 
silvery white spots on it in submedian interspace and on inner margin, oblique 
from vein 6 to middle of inner margin ; a slight rufous terminal line ; cilia 
yellowish at base deep rufous at tips. Hindwing silky rufous, the cilia 
yellowish at base. 

Habitat. — Bombay, Kanara, Karwar (T. R. Bell). Exp. 30 mill. 

Larva. — Food plant : Blachia. 

856 b. Miresa phocea, n. sp. (PL F., f . 5). 

Antennas of male bipectinate with short branches to apex. 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen very dark brown, the hairs slightly tipped 
with grey ; tarsi pale below. Forewing very dark brown with a leaden grey 
gloss, the scaling of medial and postmedial areas except towards costa ribbed 
like seal-skin ; a very oblique grey line defined on inner side by blackish from 
middle of costa to inner mai'gin before middle ; an elliptical blackish discoidal 
spot ; an obscure diffused dark subterminal line from costa to termen at vein 
.2, angled outwards below costa, then incurved. Hindwing dark glossy red- 
brown. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Trincomali (Green). Exp. 32 mill. Type in B. M. 

862 a. Parasa metathermes. n. sp. (PL F., f . 4). 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen chocolate brown; patches on back of 
head, tegulas except at middle and sides and patagia except outer edges bright 
grass-green. Forewing with the basal area chocolate brown, its outer edge 
angled outwards at median nervure and vein 1 and with slight yellowish line ; 



TEE MOTES OF INDIA. 109' 

medial area bright green ; the terminal area pale chocolate brown with darker 
curved line on its inner edge, slightly incurved in submedian interspace 
Hindwing pale chocolate brown. 

Eabitat.— Ceylox, Ohiya (de Mowbray). Exp. 28 mill. Type in B. M. 

G-enus. Epipyeops. 

Epipyrops, Westw., Proc. and Trans. Ent. Soc., 1876, pp. xxiv Type 
and 522 anamola. 

Proboscis absent ; palpi extremely minute ; frons smooth ; eyes large 
antennae bipectinate with long branches in both sexes ; tibiae without spurs. 
Forewing with the apex somewhat produced and acute, the termen evenly 
curved ; vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 4'5 from angle ; 6"7*8-9-10-ll from 
cell. Hindwing with vein 3 from before angle of cell, 5 from above angle : 
6 from below upper angle. 

The larvte and pupae are covered with masses of floculent white waxy 
secretion. 

873a. Epipyrops poliogeapha, n. sp. (PI. F. ; f. 12). 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen very dark olive brown mixed with grey. 
Forewing very dark olive brown thickly and evenly reticulated with indistinct 
silvery grey markings. 

Hindwing uniform very dark olive brown. 

Eabitat. — Ceylon, Maukulam (Mackwood), Yatiyantota (Green). Exp. 16-26 
mill. Type in B. M. 

879a. Ceeatoxema pusca, Swinh., A M. N. H (7), XV., p. 498 (1905). 

Head rufous suffused with fuscous ; thorax and abdomen ochreous tinged 
with rufous. P'orewing rufous, the costal half suffused with purplish fuscous 
to the postmedial line ; the terminal area pale ochreous tinged with rufous and 
irrorated with large fuscous scales ; the postmedial line diffused incurved at 
discal fold and more strongly at submedian ; cilia pale at base, dark at tips. 
Hindwing pale ochreous. 

Eabitat. — Sikhim ; Assam, Khasis. Exp. $ 22, $ 26 mill. 

8805. Ceeatoxema caustiplaga, n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax deep chestnut-red glossed with silvery scales : 
abdomen pale red-brown. Forewing chestnut- brown suffused with purplisl. 
silvery scales ; a bright chestnut-red patch between veins 5 and 2 with an 
oblique band from its inner edge to inner margin ; a chestnut-red apical patch 
Hindwing red-brown, the cilia greyer with a brown line near base. 

Eabitat.— Assam, Khasis (Badgley). Exp. 28-34 mill. Type in B.M. 

Larva. — With long spines bearing stinging hairs ; pale yellow green with 
diagonal yellowish marks at sides ; a blue-edged white dorsal line with an 
orange-red band on each side of it ; the anterior spines and the spines or 
shoulders and tail pink, with two black dots between the pair on shoulders :. 
hairs on spines black with yellow tips or yellow with black tips. Food plants : 
Andromeda ovalifolia .Euryja japonica^ Viburnum punctatum and Simlax ovalifolia 



110 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Cocoon. — On a leaf under rubbish, oval, dull purplish mottled with grey - 
: brown, fastened to leaf by some fluffy pale brown silk. 

Pupa. — Short, blunt at both ends, pale brown (Badgley). 
881a. Ar.eogyta ph.eopasta. Hmpsn., P.Z.S., 1906, p. 492, PI. 3G, 

f. 22. 

Forewing with veins 7. 8, 9, 10 stalked ; fore and mid tibia?, the 1st joint of 
fore tarsi and the 1st two joints of mid and hind tarsi fringed with long scales. 
£ . Head and thorax grey irrorated with dark brown, the tufts of scales on 
the lews black ; abdomen ochreous tinged with rufous. Forewing ochreous 
thickly irrorated with dark brown leaving an indistinct oblique ochreous line 
from lower angle of cell to inner margin, an elliptical spot between basis of veins 
5-4, some ochreous on costa towards apex and on termen from vein 5 to tornus; 
cilia fuscous with an ochreous line at base. Hindwing uniform silky brown : 
cilia ochreous at base, brown at tips. 

Habitat.— Sikhim, Darjiling (Atkinson), Gantok. Exp. 22 mill. 
888a. Altha peralba, Swinh., Trans. Ent. Soc. 1904, p. 153. 
9 . White : patagia at extremity, pectus and forelegs in front, abdomen at 
base and extremity and on ventral surface irrorated with brown and black. 
Forewing with the basal area irrorated with black, a slight streak of scales on 
extremity of median nervure and some diffused scales on apical area. 
Habitat. — Bombay, Poona. Exp. 26 mill. 
894a. Belippa cyanopasta, n.sp. 
Hindwing with veins 6*7 strongly stalked. 

9. Head and thorax rufous with some silvery blue scales on outer edge 
■of patagia and sides of thorax ; abdomen rufous with some silvery blue scales. 
Forewincr rufous, the basal area and terminal half except towards costa irrorat- 
ed with dark brown and silvery blue scales ; numerous waved striae of raised 
scales ; traces of diffused rufous antemedial and medial bands ; a diffused 
blackish streak from upper angle of cell to the rufous subterminal band which 
as oblique towards costa, incurved at discal fold, then with some blackish 
triangular marks before it. Hindwing dark reddish brown. 
Habitat.— Burma, Bhamo (Fea). Exp. 34 mill. 

Lasiocampidje. 

910 a. Metanasteia vitta, Moore, Lep. E.I.C. p. 424, PI. xii. a, f. 4 (1859.) 
Bright brick-red with slight greyish irroration ; abdomen rather more 
ochreous. Forewing with indistinct dark antemedial line angled in submedian 
fold, then oblique ; a small discoidal white spot denned by fuscous ; an indis- 
tinct dark minutely waved postmedial line, angled outwards at vein 7 and 
•oblique below .vein 2 ; a minutely dentate subterminal line angled outwards 
at veins 4*3 ; termen tinged with fuscous. Hindwing with traces of diffused 
maculate postmedial band angled outwards between veins 4"3. 

Habitat. — Bengal, Calcutta ; Borneo. Kuching ; Java. Exp. $ 40, 9 54 
mill. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. Ill 

Genus Chrostogastria. 

Type 

Ckrostogastr/a, Hiibn. Verz., p. 189(1827) pruni. 

Proboscis absent ; palpi porrect to well beyond frons and thickly clothed 
"with hair; frons with tuft of hair ; eyes small, hairy ; antennae of male pecti- . 
nate to apex with long decumbent branches, the basal joint with tuft of hair, 
of female with shorter branches; head, thorax and abdomen clothed with woolly 
hair, the tibiae and tarsi fringed with long hair on outer side, the tibiae with 
terminal pairs of small spurs. Forewing with the costa highly arched towards 
apex, the termen rather oblique and strongly crenulate ; vein 3 from long 
before angle of cell ; 4" 5 from angle ; 6*7 stalked ; 8 from angle, 9-10 stalked; 
11 approximated to 12 towards costa. Hindwing with the costa strongly lobed 
at base ; the termen crenulate; vein 3 from close to angle of cell ; 4*5 hardly 
stalked; 7 from long before angle of cell, bent upwards and touching 8 at a 
point. 

922a. Chrostogastria pruni, Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 498 (1758) ; Esp. Schinett, 

III, p. 72, PI. 10. Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. Bomb., 
f. 186. Godt. Lep. Fr., IV, p. 87, PI. 8, ff. 3-4. 
Staud. Cat. Lep. pal., p. 124. 
■Odoneslis prunoides, Staud. Cat. Lep. pal., p. 69 (1872). 

Orange yellow suffused with red ; antennae with the branches brown. Fore- 
wing irrorated and suffused with red ; an indistinct antemedial line, oblique 
below the cell ; a rounded silvery white discoidal spot ; a prominent very 
obliquely curved postmedial line, approximated at inner margin to the ante- 
medial line ; a rather diffused red subterminal line, slightly dentate at the 
veins, incurved between veins 6 and 4. Hindwing with traces of irregular post- 
medial line, the area beyond it usually yellower. 

Habitat. — Europe ; Asia Minor, Bithynia ; E. Siberia, Ussuri ; Japan ; W. 
'China ; Assam, Khasis. Jaintia Hills. Exp. 46 — 76 mill. 
Larva.-— Kirby, Butt, and Moths, Eur..p, 137. 

Bluish grey spotted with whitish and with the lines yellow, the 3rd somite 
with red dorsal band ; the 12th somite with dorsal hump defined by reddish : 
stigmata ringed with black. Food plants various forest and fruit trees 9*5. 
929. Alampra ferrdginea, insert (syn.) Taragama indicus, Conte. Rapp. 

Lab. Et. Soie XIII. p. 24, PI. vi., f. 1 (1909). 

The hindwing of male has the termen squarely truncate, the figure represents 
a female, not a male. 

951a. Gastropacha khasiana, Swinh., A.M.N,H. (7), XV., p. 499 (1905). 

$ . Head and thorax rufous mixed with whitish ; abdomen ochreous white 
tinged with rufous. Forewing rufous suffused with whitish, especially on 
terminal area which is tinged with ochreous , the lines formed of small rufous 
lunulate marks ; two antemedial lines; a black discoidal point ; two postmedial 
lines, bent inwards and diverging towards costa, then oblique, with another line 
beyond them from costa to .vein 6; a subterminal line bent inwards to costa 



1 12 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

with an oblique striga beyond it from costa to vein 8: a terminal series of 
ill-defined lunules with the cilia beyond them white. Hindwing with the 
termen angled at vein 6 and 2, rufous, the terminal half tinged with greyish 
ochreous ; a medial line incurved at discal fold ; two less prominent minutely 
waved postmedial lines incurved at discal fold : cilia white in the excisions ; 
the underside suffused with whitish. 
Habitat. — Assam, Khdsis. Exp. 50 mill. 

LYMANTRIADiE. 

979&. L^elia pulvata, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 29). 

$. Orange fulvous. Forewing with subterminal series of prominent black 
spots, the spot above vein 6 slightly displaced outwards and those below veins 3 
and 2 bent inwards parallel to inner margin. Hindwing paler. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Galboda (Mackwood). Exp. 52 mill. Type in B. M. 

1011a. Dasychiea dudgeoni, Swinh., A. M. X. H. (7), XIX, p. 203 (1907). 

£. Head and thorax brown mixed with grey, the metathorax with patch of 
black scales with a metallic gloss ; tarsi whitish fringed with dark brown hair :: 
abdomen pale, dorsally suffused with brown. Forewing dull brown, the inner 
maroin and a patch beyond postmedial line in submedian interspace dull 
ochreous ; sub-basal line black defined by ochreous on outerside, slightly waved, 
from costa to vein 1 ; antemedial line indistinctly double, the inner line black 
in submedian interspace, waved, with some black irroration before it, filled 
in with greenish white and with greenish irroration beyond it except on inner 
area ; a slight whitish lunule at lower angle of cell ; postmedial line blackish, 
oblique from costa to vein 7, then dentate, very oblique and defined by ochreous 
lunules on inner side below vein 5 ; a series of minute indistinct ochreous 
dentate marks from costa to vein 3, bent inwards to costa, before the sub- 
terminal series of slight dark lunules on faint ochreous spots. Hindwing 
uniform dull grey-brown ; the underside ochreous whitish suffused with brown, 
an indistinct curved postmedial line from costa to vein 5 and traces of a diffused 
subterminal line. 

Habitat.— Sikhim. Exp. 40 mill. 

101 lb. Dasychera cymata, Swinh., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 204 (1907). 

ft. Head and thorax reddish brown mixed with grey ; forelegs blackish 
brown, the pectus behind and mid and hind legs paler ; abdomen reddish brown, 
Forewing reddish brown suffused with fuscous and irrorated with black and 
some grey ; a small sub-basal whitish spot defined by black scales below the 
cell ; antemedial line rather indistinct, blackish, highly waved, with whitish 
points before and beyond it in submedian fold ; a pale discoidal lunule defined 
by black ; postmedial line blackish, excurved from just below costa to vein 4, 
then waved ; traces of a pale waved subterminal line crossed by short black 
streaks m the interspaces between veins 8 and 5. Hindwing uniform pale 
greyish brown ; the underside brownish white with traces of a diffused curved, 
brownish postmedial band. 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 113 

Habitat. — Sikhim. Exp. 40 mill. 

1036a. Lymantria postfusca, Swinh.,A. M.N.H. (7), XVII, p. 546 (1906). 

g. Head and thorax white ; palpi and antennas black ; tegulae and patagia 
edged with black ; pectus yellow and black ; legs black with some white spots, 
abdomen yellow with dorsal and sublateral series of black spots, the anal tuft 
black. Forewing white with subbasal black band from costa to submedian 
fold, angle outwards in cell, a point beyond it above vein 1 and oblique striga 
above inner margin ; a waved antemedial line expanding into a spot on costa, 
excurved at median nervure, then incurved ; a small spot in middle of cell and 
discoidal spot ; two dentate postmedial lines, bent outwards below costa, in- 
curved at discal fold and below vein 5 ; a dentate subterminal line ; a terminal 
series of black lunules. Hindwing whitish suffused with fuscous, leaving a 
whitish postmedial patch between veins 4 and 2 and a streak in submedian 
fold ; a lunulate white terminal band from below apex to vein 2 with black 
points on termen. 

9. Forewing with the subbasal marks above and below vein 2 absent, the 
antemedial and two postmedial lines conjoined by two streaks below cell and 
a patch on inner margin. Hindwing whitish, the basal area tinged with yellow ; 
a broad terminal blackish band with sinuous inner edge and some white spots 
on termen. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Kandy. Exp. $ 48, 9 64 m:M. 

1098a. Ecproctis xanthoceps, n. sp. (Plate F.,f. 31). 

$. Head and legs pale yellow ; antennas whitish with rufous branches ; 
thorax and abdomen red- brown with a greyish tinge. Forewing uniform red- 
brown, the cilia pale at tips. Hindwing fuscous brown, the cilia pale at tips. 
Underside of forewing with the costa yellowish. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Haldamulla (Mackwood). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B. M. 

1105«. EuPROCTIS DIPLAGA, U. sp. 

$. Head, thorax and abdomen chocolate brown mixed with yellowish ; 
the pectus, legs and ventral surface of abdomen yellow. Forewing yellowish, 
almost wholly suffused with chocolate brown ; a large quadrate antemedial 
deep chocolate patch defined by yellowish white from cell to vein 1 and follow- 
ed by the curved brown antemedial line ; a brown postmedial line excurved 
from costa to vein 6, then dentate and oblique to submedian fold ; an elliptical 
deep chocolate patch from vein 7 to below vein 6 before the subterminal line 
which is whitish and excurved round its outer edge, then indistinct, brown, 
waved, oblique ; a slight yellowish terminal line with small brown spots before ■ 
it from apex to vein 4. Hindwing dark chocolate brown with the base and 
costa to beyond middle orange-yellow ; cilia yellow at tips ; the underside 
orange-yellow with the terminal area suffused with chocolate brown. 

Habitat.— Assam, Khasis (Badgley). Exp. 24 mill. Type in B. M. 

Eggs. — Spheroidal ; smooth, shining pale dull green ; laid in lines with dark 
dull greenish-grey hair. 

Larva. — Solitary ; cylindrical ; pubescent with a few long grey hairs ; black 
15 



114 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX.. 

with Sve yellow rings ; collar red ; two red tubercles near tail ; ventral surface 
dark olive-grey ; head black, small, retractile. Food plant : Schima Wallichii. 

, Cocoon.— Oval, silken, strong, grey, clustered together in a shallow hollow of 
bark of tree stem. 
Pupa. — Entire, naked, dark brown, with a spike at tail (Badgley). 

, 1116a. Leucomathyridoptera, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 3). 

£ . White. Forewing hyaline except marginal areas ; the costal and inner- 
areas slightly tinged with fuscous ; four irregular oblique lines of raised scales 
on antemedial area ; a discoidal patch of white scales with some striae beyond 
it ; the terminal band with its inner edge angled inwards above veins 5-2*1 , 
with striee of raised scales on it and ill-defined fuscous subterminal line. 
Hindwing hyaline except inner and terminal areas ; an antemedial patch 
of scales from middle of cell to inner area ; a discoidal lunule ; the terminal 
hand with its inner edge angled inwards above veins 5 and 2 and with a 
diffused fuscous subterminal line on it. 
Habitat. — Ceylon, Habarama (Mack wood). Exp. 48 mill. Type in B. M. 

. 1125. ClSPIA PUNCTIFASCIA. 

In the typical form from N. India the orange band of forewing extends to 
the costa and inner margin. 

Subsp. 1. Forewing with the orange band extending from upper angle of 
cell to vein 1 only. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, low country, X. Central Province (Pole), Anaradpma. 
Kandy ^Green). 

Subsp. 2. Larger and darker : abdomen with the dorsal and lateral black 
spots much more developed ; hindwing with the curved medial band much 
more developed, the terminal area tinged with rufous, leaving yellow streaks 
on the veins. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Hill country, Maskeliya (Pole, de Mowbray). Exp. $ 62, 
$ 76 mill 

Aectiad^. 

XOLIN^E. 

1529a. Celama leucoscopula, Hmpsn., A. M. X. H.(7), XIX, p. 227 (1907). 
(Plate G.,f. 2.) 

Head, thorax and abdomen white, slightly tinged with pale rufous ; anal tuft 
pure white. Forewing white, tinged in parts with pale brown ; antemedial 
line black, strong, angled outwards in cell, then oblique, with brownish suffusion, 
before it : medial and postmedial oblique elliptical patches from costa ; post- 
medial line very ill-defined, bent outwards below costa, then oblique ; traces of 
a sinuous subterminal line. Hindwing white, slightly tinged with brown and 
with faint discoidal spot. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Ambalangoda, Peradeniya, Matale.Pattalam, Hambantota.. 
Exp. 12 mill. 

1530c/. Celama mesotherma.. Hmpsn., A. M. X. H. (8), IV, p. 349 (1909).- 
(Plate (3c., f . 3). 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 115 

Mead, thorax and abdomen white, tinged with rufous ; palpi with the scales 
fringing the joints tipped with black ; tibiae and tarsi ringed with blackish. 
Forewing white, irrorated with rufous and some fuscous ; a subbasal black 
point on costa ; antemedial line brown defined on inner side by white, 
angled outward below costa, then oblique ; medial area sufiused with rufous,- 
the tufts of scales at middle and upper angle of cell daik with oblique ellip- 
tical brownish stigmata above them from costa ; postmedial line blackish 
and somewhat punctiform, denned on outer side by white, slightly bent 
outwards below costa, oblique to vein 4, then incurved and again excurved 
above inner margin ; subterminal line white, defined on inner side by blackish 
scales with rufous suffusion before them, angled outwards at vein 7, excurved 
at middle, and ending at tornus ; a punctiform dark terminal line ; cilia white, 
mixed with some rufous and fuscous. Hindwing white, tinged with ochreous 
brown, especially towards termen ; cilia white, faintly tinged with brown ; 
the underside white, the costal area irrorated with brown. 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Rambakkhana, Colombo ; Borneo, Sarawak, Sandakan. 
Exp. 14 mill. 

1530e. Celama rufijiixta, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (8), IV, p. 350 (1909). 
(Plate G.,f.4). 

Head and thorax white ; palpi rufous ; antennae tinged with rufous ; 
thorax with some rufous behind ttgulas ; taisi rufous ringed with white ; 
abdomen white, tinged with rufous. Forewing white, with some blackish 
irroration on basal area and before postmedial line ; antemedial, medial and 
postmedial rufous patches on costa ; the terminal area suffused with rufous 
except at apex ; antemedial line white, defined on inner side by rufous and 
on outer by black from cell to inner margin, excurved in submedian inter- 
space ; large tufts of rufous and white scales in middle and end of cell ; an 
indistinct oblique waved line from lower angle of cell to inner margin ; post- 
medial line white, defined on inner side by brown, slightly bent outwards 
below costa and incurved below vein 4, subterminal line white, slightly 
defined on inner side by black scales, excurved below cosfca, at middle and 
above infier margin. Hindwing white, the terminal area tinged with brown ; 
the underside with the costal area irrrorated with brown, a dark discoidal 
striga. 

Habitat.—- Ceylon, Yatiyantota, Matale, Wattegama. Exp. 18 mill. 

I530/. Celama dentilinea, Hmpsn., A, M. N. H. (8), IV, p. 350 (1909). 
(Plate G.,f.5). 

$ . Head, thorax and abdomen white, tinged with ochreous brown ; fore 
tibiae and the tarsi fuscous brown ringed with ochreous white. Forewing 
white, tinged with ochreous brown and slightly irrorated with fuscous ; ante- 
medial line blackish defined on inner side by white, curved, angled outwards 
in submedian fold ; the tufts of scales at middle and upper angle of 
cell dark, with oblique elliptical brownish stigmata above them from costa ; 
a waved dark line from lower angle of cell to irner margin; postrmdia] line 



116 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

blackish, punctiform, oblique from costa to vein 6, then inwardly oblique ; 
terminal area suffused with ochreous brown, the subterminal line white ; 
strongly and evenly dentate ; a brown terminal line ; cilia wlite, tinged with 
ochreous brown. Hindwing white, the costal area tinged with ochreous 
brown. , ' : 

Habitat. — Ceylon, Exp. 18 mill. ! 

1534. Raselia negrita, insert (syn.) 1407a. Galleridia fuscizonea. 
1539&. Bceselja pallidiceps, Hmpsn., A.M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 229 (1907). 
(Plate G.,f.6). 

$. Head and tegulas ochreous white ; palpi and lower part of frons black- 
brown ; thorax grey mixed with fuscous ; abdomen grey. Fore wing grey 
tbickly irrorated with fuscous brown, the terminal half slightly paler ; a 
dark slightly curved medial line - a black discoidal bar,' the postmedial line 
conjoined to its upper and lower extremities and excurved beyond cell, an ill- 
defined line from costa beyond it, joining the subterminal line at vein 4 and 
with a dark striga from costa between them ; the subterminal line ill-defined, 
slightly angled outwards at vein 7 and inwards at vein 2. Hindwing grey 
thickly irrorated with fuscous ; cilia with a fine pale line at base. 
Habitat — Ceylon. Exp. 14 mill. 

15436. Zia ectrocta, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 229 (1907). (Plate 
G.f.7). 

£. Head and thorax white ; legs blackish, the tarsi ringed with white : 
abdomen white, tinged with fuscous. Forewing pure white ; a small black 
spot on costa near base ; a medial triangular black patch from costa to origin 
of vein 2. its outer edge excised in cell ; two small discoidal tufts of raised 
scales with a few dark scales round them ; postmedial line black, with small 
tufts of raised metallic scales on it, oblique and obsolescent from costa to 
vein 6, slightly incurved at discal fold and strongly below vein 4, the area 
beyond it rufous except at apex ; subterminal line represented by a dark 
point on costa, then on the rufous area white defined on inner side by black 
from below apex to vein 3, excurved* below vein 7 and at middle, and below 
vein 2 angled inwards to near postmedial line ; cilia rufous, intersected With 
white. Hindwing white, the terminal area slightly tinged with brown from 
apex to vein 3. 

ab. I . Forewing with ohe postmedial line more angled inwards below vein 4 
and with large black patches beyond it on inner area and at middle, the latter 
connected with the termen below apex by an oblique black fascia. 
Habitat. — Ceylon, Hapufcale, Maskeliya. Exp. 20-24 mill. 

Lithosian/e. i' v/ '■-■-, 

1340a. Ilema atrifrons, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 231 (1907) 
(Plate G., f. 8.) 

£. Head, tegula?, patagia, pectus and legs fulvous yellow ; palpi: frons and 
forelegs in front fuscous ; dorsum of thorax and base of abdomen grey 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 11T 

white, the rest of abdomen yellow. Forewing yellow with a whitish suffu- 
sion. Hindwing whitish yellow. 

Habitat. — Nicobars. Exp. 26 mill. 

1386c. Haloxe flavinigra, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX., p. 232 
(1907). (Plate G., f. 9.) 

£. Head, thorax and abdomen fuscous, the vertex of head, base of shaft of 
antennae, and tegulaa yellow. Forewing orange yellow ; a black patch at base 
with irregular oblique outer edge ; a postmedial black band angled inwards 
below cell and with rather dentate edges ; some diffused fuscous before 
termen. Hindwing pale fuscous. 

Habitat.— S. India, Palni Hills, 6,000', Exp. 20 mill. 

14025. Eugoa crassa, Wlk., Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., VI, p. 114 (1862); 
Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M., II., p. 547, Plate 34, f. 28. 

Tospitis indeclaratana, Wlk., XXVIII, 427 (1863). 

Tospitis inconspicua, Wlk., XXVIII, 430 (1863). 

fi. Head and tegulae pale yellow ; palpi and lower part of frons blackish : 
thorax brown ; abdomen yellowish. Forewing yellowish, thickly irrorated and 
suffused with reddish brown ; a rather darker patch at base of costa ; a minute 
black point at lower angle of cell ; faint traces of an oblique band from costa 
near apex. Hindwing pale yellow. 

9 • Hindwing pale brown, the cilia pale yellow. 

ab. 1. inconspicua. Frons blackish ; forewing with the patch on base of costa 
more prominent ; the oblique postmedial band more prominent. 

Habitat— Assam, Khasis ; Borneo, Sarawak. Exp. 20-22 mill. 

14216. Mcltochkista ocellata, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 234 
(1907). (Plate F„ f. 32.) 

$ . Head and thorax orange-yellow; patagia and prothorax with black spots, 
tibiae banded with black, last joint of tarsi black ; abdomen greyish ochreous 
the ventral surface blackish. Forewing orange yellow ; small black spots at 
base of costa and cell ; fuscous spots below costa and cell and above vein 1 
before the antemedial line which is interrupted at submedian fold and angled 
inwards above inner margin ; a large annulus at end of cell ; postmedial line 
strongly bent outwards below costa, then highly and irregularly dentate 
strongly incurved below vein 4 and conjoined to antemedial line above and 
below submedian fold ; a subterminal series of small spots on the veins, 
Hindwing yellow. 
Habitat. — Ceylon, Ohiya. Exp. 40 mill. 

1461a. Asura phantasma, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX. p. 233 (1907). 
(Plate G., f . 10.) 

$ . Whitish ochreous ; antennas and forelegs in front fuscous. Forewing 
with the base of costa black ; a small black spot in base of cell ; an indistinct 
antemedial series of spots strongly excurved in cell and less so below it, some . 
times almost conjoined into a line ; a medial line oblique from costa to sub- 
costal nervure, then excurved, often almost obsolete; a small discoidal spot ; 



118 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

a posfcmedial series of points, sometimes almost obsolete, those on veins 6 and 4 
nearer termen ; one or two points on termen sometimes present. Hindwing 
pale ochreous, the apex sometimes faintly tinged with fuscous. 

Habitat. — Andamans. Exp. 18 mill. 

1462a. Asura tonodes, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H.(7), XIX., p. 233 (1907). 
(Plate G.,f. 11.) 

$ Head and thorax pale ochreous slightly mixed with fuscous ; antenna) 
and extremities of tibiae fuscous ; abdomen ochreous white. Forewing pale 
ochreous, the costal edge blackish on basal and terminal areas ; a black point 
in base of cell ; some fuscous in submedian fold ; a highly curved antemedial 
line; a medial line angled inwards in cell ; postmedial line confluent at costa 
and inner margin with the medial line with which it forms a bow-shaped mark, 
very oblique from costa to vein 6 and from vein 4 to inner margin ; a very 
irregular subterminal line, angled outwards at veins 6 and 4 : a fine black 
terminal line. Hindwing pale semi-hyaline ochreous. 

Habitat.— Andamans, Exp. 24 mill. 

148ia. Asura fulvimarginata, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (8), IV, p. 357 
(1909). (Plate G.,£. 12.) 

9- Head, tegulae and patagia orange yellow ; the vertex of head with slight 
dark streak ; antennae brown ; thorax and abdomen pale brown, the hind tibiae 
and tarsi yellowish. Forewing pale red-brown, the costal and inner margins 
reddish yellow. Hindwing pale semi-hyaline red-brown. 

Habitat. — Madras, Horsleykonda Exp. 26 mill. 

1485a. Neascra taprobana, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7) XIX, p. 232 (1907). 
(Plate G.,f. 13.) 

$. Ochreous yellow ; antennas at tips, forelegs in front and extremities of 
mid and hind tibiae fuscous. Forewing with black point in base of cell; the 
costa fuscous to the curved diffused antemedial line ; a blackish discoida] point 
on some fuscous suffusion ; postmedial line very diffused and ill-defined, waved, 
emitting streaks inwards on the veins and outwards on veins 7'6'4. Hindwing, 
with slight fuscous suffusion below apex. 

Habitat.— Ceylon, Maskeliya. Exp. 24 mill. 

AECTIANiE. 
1175a. DlACRISIA ALBICORNIS. 

$. Head and thorax dull brown ; antennae black ; pectus, legs, except 
femora above, and ventral surface of abdomen brown. Forewing uniform 
dull brown, Hindwing brown, suffused with scarlet ; a black discoidal spot ; 
Underside brown, suffused with scarlet ; forewing with slight discoidal 
lunule ; hindwing with black discoidal spot. 

Habitat.— Ceylon, Haldamulla (Mack wood). Exp: 50 mill. 

Genus Prepaectia. 
Preparctia, Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. Ill, p. 219 (1901) Type mirifica. 
Proboscis fully developed ; palpi porrect, extending about the length of 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 119 

head ; antennas of female serrate ; tibiae with the spurs moderate. Porewing 
with vein 3 from before angle of cell ; 4"5 from angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 
7'8"9'10 stalked ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3 and 5 from close to 
angle of cell ; 6*7 from upper angle ; 8 from middle of cell. 

1243a. Preparctia hannyngtoni, n. sp. (Plate F., f. 34."). 
$ . Head black ; tegulae yellow ; thorax black with white streaks at sides 
and small crimson spots behind tegulas ; coxae crimson, the femora and base of 
hind tibiae above with crimson streaks ; abdomen crimson with dorsal series of 
black bars, the ventral surface black with series of slight crimson bars. Fore- 
wing black ; a subbasal creamy white striga from costa and antemedial bar 
both connected with a streak on median nervure from base to origin of vein 2, 
dilated and enclosing a slight black streak below tbe antemedial bar and met 
at origin of vein 2 by a down curved streak from base in submedian inter- 
space ; a creamy white striga from middle of costa ; a curved band from costa 
beyond middle to lower angle of cell where it is produced outwards to a point, 
the band giving off an oblique bar from its outer edge below costa ; postme- 
dial line creamy white, excurved from costa to vein 4, then oblique and 
slightly sinuous ; a narrow creamy white subterminal band, excurved from 
■costa to vein 5, slightly incurved at vein 3, and at submedian fold, forming a 
wedge-shaped patch connected with the postmedial line ; the cilia and the 
inner margin narrowly creamy white. Hindwing crimson ; an oblique black 
band from costa before middle to vein 1 ; a large discoidal lunule and spot 
above it on costa ; postmedial band black, obliquely curved from below costa 
where it arises, to vein 1 where it terminates in a quadrate patch connected 
with the medial band, with which it is also connected by a wedge-shaped 
patch at vein 2 ; subterminal band black, curved, from costa to submedian 
fold, dilated at discal fold and vein 2 ; a triangular patch above tornus ; a fine 
black terminal line from apex to vein 2 ; cilia yellow ; the underside with 
the costal area yellow. 

Habitat.— Kumaon, Niti Pass, 10,000' (Hannyngton). Exp. 58 mill. Type in 
B.M. * 

12796. Utetheisa pulchelloides, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 239 
(1907). (Plate G-., f. 19). 

Differs from U. pulcliella in the antennae of male being serrate instead of 
ciliated and in the hindwing having a fold and tuft on inner area. 

It varies much in the same way as U. pulchella but never seems to lose the 
black spots of fore wing which usually has the ground colour rather white ; in 
specimens from the New Hebrides and Solomons the black terminal band on 
hindwing is largely developed. It appears to be confined to Oceanic and other 
Islands and to N. Australia. 

Habitat. — Seychelles ; Cargados Carejoz ; Coetivy ; A3iiraNtes ; Chagos 
Is. ; Ceylon, Kandy, Peradenyia, Hambantota, Trincomali ; Cocos Keeling 
Is ; Christmas Is. ; Singapore ; Formosa ; Loo-Choo Is. ; New Guinea ; 
N. Australia; Queensland -Solomon Is.; Gilbert Is.; Marshall Ibj 
Fllice Is. Exp. 34-44 mill. 



120 JOURNAL, BO MBA Y NA TUBAL HISTOBY SOCIETY, Vol XX\. 

NOCTUID,E. 
AGROTINyE. 

For Ala Staud.1882 Nee. Lock. Crust. 1877 insert Anartomorpha, 
Alph. Rom. 

Mem. vi., p. 39 (1892) Type potamni.- 

1669&. Anartomorpha plavescens, Hmpsn., P. Z. S. 1906, p. 486, Plate 
36, f . 3. 

ft. Head and thorax clothed with black, brown and grey scales and hair ;: 
palpi whitish banded with brown ; lower part of frons whitish ; fore tibiae 
and tarsi with white rings ; abdomen ochreous white, irrorated with fuscous. 
Forewing black-brown, suffused with greyish ; subbasal line indistinctly double 
filled in with grey, angled inwards in cell and extending to vein 1 : antemedial 
line indistinctly double filled in with grey, oblique from costa to submedian fold, 
then erect ; claviform moderate, defined by black ; orbicular and reniform 
with brown centres and slight whitish annuli defined by black, the former 
oblique elliptical, the latter angled inwards on median nervure and touching 
the former ; an indistinct dentate whitish mark below end of cell on vein 2 ; 
postmedial line double filled in with greyish, bent outwards below costa, 
oblique to vein 5 where it is angled, then inwardly oblique and minutely 
waved ; subterminal line whitish, slightly defined by black on outer side, 
angled outwards at vein 7 and to termen at veins 4 - 3, incurved at discal and 
submedian folds ; a terminal series of slight black lunules ; cilia whitish and 
brown with a blackish line through them. Hindwing white, strongly tinged 
with ochreous ; the basal area suffused with fuscous ; a black discoidal lunule ; 
a terminal fuscous band, rather broad at costa, narrowing to a point at tornus ; 
some black striae on termen ; cilia pure white, the underside ochreous white, 
the costal area slightly irrorated with fuscous, a slight discoidal lunule and 
diffused subterminal bands. 

Habitat. — Sikhim, Tungu. Eorp. 28 mill. 

1948a. Isochlora metaph/ea, Hmpsn., P. Z. S. 1906, p. 488, Plate 36, f. 2. 
ft. Head and thorax emerald green ; palpi and sides of frons purplish red : 
antennae fulvous ; pectus and legs greyish ochreous, the front of pectus and 
fore and mid legs in front purplish red ; abdomen pale ochreous, the ventral 
surface suffused with purplish red, the anal tuft fulvous. Forewing emerald 
green, the costal edge white ; cilia white at tips, Hindwing ochreous white,, 
uniformly suffused with pale brown ; cilia yellowish white. The underside 
of forewing pale purplish red, the termen greenish ; hindwing brownish white,, 
the costal area tinged with purplish red. 
Habitat. —Sikhim. Exp. 42 mill. 

1633&. Euxoa confusa, Alph. Hor. Ent, Soc, Ross., XVII., p. 61, Plate 2, 
ft. 47 (1882) ; Staud. Cat. Lep. Pal., p. 136. 

Head, thorax and abdomen grey, mixed with brown and fuscous ; palpi 
blackish at sides ; tarsi blackish with grey rings. Forewing grey, suffused in 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 121 

part with brown and irrorated with fuscous; sub-basal line represented by 
double black striae from costa and cell ; antemedial line double, oblique, 
slightly waved, and angled inwards on median nervure; clavifoim slightly 
defined by black scales ; orbicular and reniform with white annuli defined by 
black, the former round ; postmedial line indistinctly double, slightly bent- 
outwards below costa, then minutely waved, incurved below vein 4, some grey 
points beyond it on costa : subterminal line indistinct, whitish, defined on 
inner side by a blackish bar from costa and blackish dentate maiks at middle, 
slightly angled outwards at vein 7 ; a terminal series of black points ; cilia 
grey with a fuscous line at base. Hindwing grey, uniformly tinged with fus- 
cous brown ; cilia Avhite : the underside white, slightly irrorated with brown, 
a small discoidal spot and indistinct curved postmedial line. 

Habitat. — W. Turkistan ; E. Turkistan; Mongolia; Sikhim. Exp. Sft 
mill. 

16276. Episilia clavata, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7J, XIX, p. 244 (1907). 
(Plate G-., f . 20). 
Antennse of male bipectinate with moderate branches; the apical part serrate. 
£. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark reddish brown mixed with grey ; tarsi 
with pale rings. Forewinggrey tinged with red-brown, the. medial area red- 
brown except towards costa and inner margin ; sub-basal line represented by a 
black striga from costa ; a strong sinuous black streak below base of cell with 
yellow streak above it to the claviform, which has a yellowish annulus defined 
by black and intersects the oblique sinuous antemedial line ; orbicular and 
reniform grey with brownish centres and defined by black, the former oblique 
elliptical, open above, the latter a narrow lunule very strongly angled on median 
nervure to below orbicular, some blackish in cell before and between them - 
postmedial line strongly bent outwards below costa, then dentate, strongly 
incurved below vein 4 ; subterminal line very indistinct, greyish, slightly angled 
outwards at vein 7 and excurved at middle, the veins beyond it with slight 
dark streaks ; a terminal series of slight brown lunules ; cilia with fine brown 
line near base. Hindwing grey suffused and irrorated with brown, a dark 
terminal line : the underside with dark discoidal lunule and diffused curved 
postmedial line. 

Habitat.— Punjab, Kulu. Exp. 30 mill. 

16.34a. Episilia aeenacea, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX., p. 245 (1907) . 
(Plate G.,f. 21). 

Antennae of male serrate and fasciculate. 

$. Head and thorax pale brownish ochreous, tarsi fuscous with pale rings - 
abdomen pale ochreous, dorsally irrorated with fuscous. Forewing pale brown- 
ish ochreous, slightly irrorated with fuscous; a double waved sub-basal line from 
costa to submedian fold : antemedial line indistinctly double, oblique, strongly 
waved, interrupted; orbicular and reniform with slight yellowish annuli in- 
completely defined by fuscous, the former round, the latter large ; postmedial 
line double at costa. then indistinct, t outward below costa, tben dentate and 
16 



122 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

produced to a series of black points on the veins, oblique below vein 4, some 
pale points beyond it on costa; subterminal line ochreous white, slightly defined 
by fuscous on inner side at costa, then by slight dentate marks, angled outwards 
at vein 7 and slightly excurved at middle ; a terminal series of black points. 
Hindwing whitish suffused with pale brown ; cilia yellowish white ; the under- 
side white, the costal area tinged with ochreous, a small discoidal spot and 
punctiform postmedial line. 

Habitat. — Beloochistan, Quetta. Exp. 46 mill. 

1632a. Lycophotia poliochroa, Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1906, p. 489. Plate 36, 
M. 16-17. 

Antennae of male strongly serrate and fasciculate. 

ft. Head and thorax grey-white mixed with some brown and fuscous ; abdo- 
men ochreous white. Forewing grey and white tinged with ochreous and slightly 
irrorated with brown ; sub-basal line represented by black striae from costa and 
cell ; antemedial line single, black defined by whitish on inner side, interrupted 
at the veins, erect from costa to vein 1, and angled outwards above inner 
margin ; claviform moderate, defined by black ; orbicular and reniform defined 
by rather diffused black, with its inner edge produced inwards as a streak to 
antemedial line ; traces of a diffused medial line touching orbicular and clavi- 
form ; postmedial line single, black slightly defined by whitish on outer side, 
bent outwards below costa, then dentate and produced to short streaks on the 
veins, confluent with outer edge of reniform, oblique below vein 4 ; faint traces 
of a whitish subterminal line slightly defined by fuscous on inner side, excurved 
at vein 7 and middle ; a terminal series of slight black lunules ; cilia ochreous 
white with two slight dark Jines through them. Hindwing white tinged with 
pale brown, the cilia pure white ; the underside white with slight discoidal spot 
and indistinct postmedial line from costa to vein 4. 

$. Wing aborted, small, the forewing elongate, narrow, the termen, rounded, 
the hindwing triangular ; forewing with the lines browner, the antemedial 
line excurved below cell and above inner margin ; claviform absent ; orbicular 
reduced to a point, the reniform a slight lunule well separated from post- 
medial line ; the subterminal line more distinct and dentate. Hindwing 
whiter. 

Habitat.— Tibet, Kamba Jong; Sikhiji, Teesta Valley, Lhanak Valley. 
Exp. ft 36, $ 12 mill. 

16326. Lycophotia poliades, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX., p. 248 (1907). 
(Plate G., f . 22). 

Antennae of male ciliated ; pro-and meta-thorax with spreading crests. 

Head and thorax white with a few fuscous hairs; tarsi banded with black; abdo- 
men white with tufts of long ochreous hairs from lateral stigmata. Forewing 
grey-white slightly tinged with pale rufous in parts and irrorated with fuscous, 
the veins with dark streaks ; a slight black streak below base of cell ; sub- basal 
line represented by black striae from costa and cell ; antemedial line represent- 
ed by a black point on costa ; claviform defined by a few black scales ; orbicular 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 123 

-represented by a short black streak defined by white, the reniform by an 
undefined white lunule with fuscous spot at lower angle of cell ; medial and 
postmedial black points on costa with some slight white points beyond them ; 
subterminal line indistinct, whitish defined on inner side by slight dentate 
rufous marks, angled outward at vein 7 and inwards at discal fold ; a terminal 
series of slight black lunules. Hindwing pure white. 
Habitat. — Beloochistan, Quetta. Exp. 36 mill. 

Genus Metalepsis. Type 

Metalepsis, Grote, Check. List. Noct., p. 25 (1875) cornuta. 

Spinipalpa, Alph. Hor. Ent. Soc, Boss., xxvi, p. 444 (1892) maculata. 

Proboscis well developed ; palpi oblique, fringed with long hair in front 
and with some spinous hair mixed ; frons smooth ; eyes rounded, strongly 
ciliated ; antennae of male typically pectinated with rather short branches ; 
frons and vertex of head with tufts of hair ; thorax clothed with hair ; tegulsa 
forming a dorsal ridge, pro-and meta-thorax with crests ; tibiae strongly 
spined ; abdomen fringed with long hair at sides, Forewing rather narrow, 
the apex produced ; veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper 
angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell, 
Hindwing with veins 3-4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of 
discocellulars ; 6"7 shortly stalked ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near base 
only. 
Sect. (Spinipalpa) Antennas of male ciliated. 
1624a. Metalepsis maculata. 

Spinipalpa maculata, Alph. Hor.'Ent. Soc, Ross., XXVI, p. 445 (1892) ; id. 
Bom. Mem., IX, p. 12, plate 1, f. 1 ; Staud. Cat. Lep. Pal. 154. 
Metalepsis aletes, Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1906, p. 488, plate 36, f. 6. 
$. Head and thorax pale rufous with a few black hairs ; patagia with a 
white fascia edged on each side by black ; pectus, legs and abdomen brownish 
grey, the anal tuft ochreous. Forewing pale rufous, the veins streaked with 
white and defined on each side by grey ; a slight black streak below base of 
costa ; a black streak below base of cell and another above basal half of inner 
margin ; two black streaks in cell, the upper interrupted beyond middle, the 
lower not reaching lower angle ; an obliquely curved postmedial series of 
wedge-shaped black streaks in the interspaces from above veins 7 to above 1, 
the streak above vein 5 displaced inwards and the streak above vein 1 longer ; 
a terminal series of wedge-shaped black streaks in the interspaces. Hindwing 
pale brownish grey. 
Habitat.— Tibet ; Sikhim. Exp. 30 mill. 

Genus Ufeus. 

Type 

Ufeus, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., 1, p. 101 (1873) satyrica 

Proboscis fully developed, palpi short, porrect, clothed with long rough 
hair ; frons smooth ; eyes large, overhung by cilia ; antennas of male ciliated ; 



124 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

head and thorax clothed with rough hair ; mid and hind tibiae spined -.■ 
abdomen dorsally flattened, the anal tuft large. Forewing rather narrow, the 
apex rounded ; veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle or 
from areole ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. 
Hindwing with veins 3-4 from angle of cell, 5 obsolescent from middle of 
discocellulars ; 6*7 from upper angle or shortly stalked. 

1654a. Ufeus carnea, Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), XIX, p. 249 (1907). 
(Plate G.,f. 23.) 

$ . Head and thorax pale flesh colour mixed with brown ; abdomen pale 
grey-brown. Forewing pale flesh pink slightly irrorated with fuscous, the 
medial area (except towards costa) and a patch on costa beyond postmedial 
line suffused with fuscous ; sub-basal line represented by double striae from 
costa and cell ; antemedial line rather indistinct, waved, incurved to costa 
and angled inwards on vein 1 ; claviform minute, defined by blackish ; orbicular 
and reniform pale pinkish defined by fuscous, the former rather oblique 
elliptical, the latter with some brownish in centre and angled inwards on 
median nervure ; traces of a waved medial line ; postmedial line indistinct, 
bent outwards below costa, then minutely waved, incurved below vein 4, some 
pale points beyond it on costa ; a subterminal series of small dentate black 
marks, angled outwards at vein 7, then oblique ; a terminal series of minute 
dark points ; a fiae pale line at base of cilia. Hindwing ochreous suffused 
with brown ; the underside whitish tinged with flesh colour and irrorated with 
brown, a small discoidal spot and indistinct sinuous postmedial line. 

Habitat. — Kashmir, Narkundah, Exp. 44 mill. 

Genus Anytus. 

Type 

Anytus, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., 1, p. 144 (1873). privata 

Fishia, Grote, Can.. Ent. IX., p. 21 (1877) enthea 

Proboscis fully developed; palpi upturned, reaching vertex of head, the 
2nd joint fringed with hair in front ; frons smooth, rounded ; eyes large, 
overhung by long cilia ; antennae of male typically ciliated ; head and thorax 
clothed with hair and scales, the pro-thorax with spreading crest, the meta- 
thorax with ridge-like crest ; tibiae fiinged with hair, the mid and hind tibia? 
spined ; abdomen with slight dorsal crests and rough hair towards base.- 
Forewing with the apex rectangular, the termen crenulate ,- veins 3 and 5 from 
near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to 
form the areole ; 1 1 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3-4 from angle of 
cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars; 6-7 from upper angle or 
shortly stalked ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near base only. 

16546. Anytus leucocyma. Hmpsn., A. M. N. H. (7), xix, p. 250 (1907.) 
(Plate G.,f. 24.) 

$. Head and thorax red-brown mixed with fuscous ; frons with lateral black 
bars ; tegulae with slight medial black line ; abdomen grey- brown. Forewing 
red-brown irrorated with grey and black on basal half, the veins streaked with 



THE MOTHS OF INDIA. 125 

'black ; a sinuous black streak below base of cell ; subbasal line absent ; ante- 
medial line represented by two black striae from costa, then very indistinct, 
strongly dentate, oblique ; claviform narrow, defined by black and with blackish 
streak from it to postmedial line ; orbicular defined by black, oblique wedge- 
shaped ; reniform indistinctly defined by black and with slight whitish lunule 
on its outer edge, its lower extremity produced ; postmedial line double at 
costa, bent outwards below costa, then dentate and produced to streaks on 
the veins, oblique to vein 5, then inwardly oblique and angled inwards in sub- 
median fold, some white points beyond it on costa ; subterminal line white, 
waved, angled outwards at vein 7 and to termen at veins 4 - 3, with black streaks 
beyond it in the interspaces ; a fine waved black terminal line ; cilia greyish 
;ind fuscous intersected with white, Hindwing whitish tinged with brown, 
the veins and terminal area suffused with brown ; traces of a waved white 
subterminal line ; cilia white with a slight dark line through them ; the 
underside white irrorated with fuscous, a discoidal spot, slight waved post- 
medial line and traces of subterminal line. 
Habitat. — Kashmir, Nubra. Exp. 50 mill. 



( To be continued.) 



12S 



ORCHIDS OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 

BY 

G. A. Gammie, f.l.s. 
Part X. (With Plate X.) 
(Continued from page 626 of Volume XIX.) 
21. SACCOLABIUM. 
Epiphytes. Leaves two-ranked, leathery, keeled, peduncles from 
lateral axils ; /lowers small, in spikes, sepals and petals adnate to the' 
base of the column, spreading, subsimilar, free ; lip sessile at the base 
of the column, spurred, lateral and midlobes small, spur neither 
septate within nor with calli, column short, broad, truncate, rarely 
beaked, foot 0, anther one-celled, pollinia 2, bipartite. 
* Stems long and stout, erect, leaves rigidly- 
leathery, flowers corymbose, sepals and 

petals with transverse red bands 1. S. wightianum. 

** Stems very short, leaves few, lax and 

leathery, floioers racemose. 
Sepals and petals greenish, midlohe and spur 

of lip .white tinged with pink 2. S. viridifiorum. 

Sepals and petals yellow, each with a purple 
spot in the centre, lip white, tinged with 

pink #• S. maculatnm. 

1. Saccolabium wightianum, Hook., f. Fl. Br. Ind., VI., p. 72 
S. pnemorsum, Hook, f. Fl. Br. Ind., VI, p. 62 ; S. papillosum, 
Dalz. and Gibs. p. 264 ;' Acampe Wightiana, Lindl., T. Cooke, Fl. oj 
Bombay, II, p. 705 ; JFrides prcemorsum, Grah. Cat., p. 204. 

Steins 12 to 18 inches long, stout, clothed with the sheaths of 
fallen leaves. Leaves strap-shaped, 4 to 8 inches long, irregularly 
2-lobed at the apex. Peduncles stout, green, 1^ inch long, bracts 
brown, very broadly ovate. Floioers, each about |- inch in 
diameter, crowded, subcorymbose, fragrant, texture thick, sepals : 
subequal, ovate-oblong obtuse, slightly keeled on back towards 
apex, yellow mottled with brown on the outer surface, the inner 
surface yellow with irregular, reddish brown, transverse bands, p>etals 
similar in coloration but smaller and narrower, being oblanceolate, 
lip small, very fleshy, white, dotted and streaked with pink, spur very" 



Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate X. 




:tvjamin del. 












n 







iC^ 






J . &re en , CHromo . 



SACCOLABIUM WIGHTIANUM, Hook. f. 

(Life Size) 



ORCHIDS OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. \2T 

short, obtuse, side Jobes shallow, rounded, dish with crisp, white hairs,- 
midlohe ovate, margins orenulate. 

Flowers appear from April onwards throughout the rains. 

Distribution. — Western Ghats and Konkan to Ceylon. This is one of the 
commonest orchids of the Konkan, always easily recognized by its stiff erect " 
growth and red banded flowers. 

Plate X. — Saccolabium Wightianum, Hook. f. — Part of plant (life 
size), a. pollinia X 3. b. a flower seen from the front X 2, c. a 
root. d. two fruits (natural size). 

2. Saccolabium vieidiflorum, Lindl., Fl. Br. Ind. VI, p. 63 ; 
Sarcochilus viridiflorus, T. Cooke, Fl. of Bombay, II, p. 697 ; Dalz. 
and Gibs. jy. 263. 

A small epiphyte, roots long. Leaves flaccid, strap-shaped, up to 
oi inches long by \ inch broad, usually in single pairs on each plant, 
base narrowed, apex retuse. Racemes up to 2| inches long, from 
lower axils, usually two on each plant, racliis stiffly erect, mam- 
flowered. Flowers ^ inch in diameter, sepals and petals greenish 
white, latera 1 - sepals obovate obtuse, dorsal similar but more pointed, 
petals as large as and similar to the sepals, lip with a very broadly 
conical, short, blunt spur, lateral lobes small, triangular, terminal 
spreading fan-shaped, margins crenulated with a triangular projection 
on the centre, column green, pollinia 2, lobed, caudicle long, gland 
large. 

Flowers during the rains. 

Distribution. — Forests of the Konkan and Western Ghats and moist parts of 
the Western Peninsula generally. 

3. Saccolabium maculatum. Hook., f. Fl. Br. Ind. VI, p. 64 ; 
Sarcochilus maculatus, Benth, T. Cooke, Fl. of Bombay, II, p. 698 ; 
Micropera maculata, Bah. and Gibs. p. 263. 

Almost stemless. Leaves up to 6 inches long, linear or cuneately- 
oblong, obliquely 2-lobed at apex. Racemes almost twice as long as 
the leaves, rachis erect, stout, laxly many flowered, bracts short, broad. 
Flowers ^ inch in diameter, subsessile, sepals and petals similar, 
obovate, each yellow with a central purple spot, lip white and pink, 
spur short, obtuse, villous within, side lobes small, erect, triangular, 
midlobe very leathery, described by Dalzell as being like a side saddle, 
margins membraneous, 3-lobed at the apex. 

Floivers appear in May. 

Distribution. — Moist forests of the Western Ghats, Peninsula and Konkan. 



128 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

22. SARCANTHUS. 

Epiphyte, stems pendulous, elongate, leafy. Leaves fleshy. Flowers 
small, in racemes shorter than the leaves, bracts small, sepals subequal, 
petals rather smaller than the sepals, lip adnate to the foot of the 
column, spur conical, with the cavity divided by a vertical septum 
and with a dorsal 2-lobed callus, lateral lobes small, midlobe small, 
incurved, column short, anther beaked, poliinia 2, bipartite, caudicle 
slender, gland small. 

1. Sarcanthus peninsularis, Dalz. Fl. Br. Ind. VI, p. 67; 
Dale, and, Gibs. p. 264 ; T, Cooke, Fl. of Bombay, II, p. 706, 
(by error peduncularis). 

Stem as thick as a duck's quill, flexuous, green, invested by the 
leaf sheaths, up to a foot in length. Leaves 4 to 6 inches long by I 
inch broad, fleshy, curved, linear — lanceolate acuminate, narrowed at 
the base. Racemes about 11? inch long, leaf opposed, flowers deflexed, 
scattered, J inch in diameter, bracts minute, rachis slender, pedicels 
very short, sepals and petals spreading, yellow with intramarginal 
red bands, lateral sepals elliptic obtuse, dorsal a little longer and 
narrower than these, petals subequal to the lateral sepals, spathulate, 
lip with violet lateral lobes and a pink, incurved, acute midlobe, spur 
conical, septate, dorsal callus small. 

Floivers during the rains. 

Distribution. — This species only occurs in North Kanara within our area, 
from thence it extends southwards to Travancore and Ceylon. 

23. CLEISOSTOMA. 

This differs from Sarcarithus only in the spur not being septate 
and from Saccolabium in having a dorsal scale or callus within he 
spur beneath the column. 

1. Gleisostoma (sp. nov. ? ). 

Stem about 3 inches long, as thick as a goose quill. Leaves sheath- 
ing, greenish brown, coriaceous, keeled, iinear-oblong emarginate, up 
to 14 inches in length. Inflorescence shortly racemose, peduncle 
slender, stiffly erect, bearing pink flowers, each ^ inch in diameter, in 
clusters of l> towards the apex ; sepals broadly ovate, semi-patent, 
broader than the petals, lip, base spurred, continuous with the column, 
spur obtuse, incurved, with two colli at its mouth, blade 3-lobed, 
lateral lobes shallow, pointing forwards, midlobe broadly triangular 
obtuse, column short, broad, joot 0, anther 1, poliinia 2, each bilobed. 



ORCHIDS OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY. 129 

The above is the description, written at the time of collection, of an orchid 
found on the Divimona Ghat in North Kanara, before 1902, when my specimens 
and drawings were destroyed by fire. The plants flowered at the beginning of 
the rains. I lost these some years ago and have nevei had an opportunity of 
collecting them again. Dr. Cooke, in his " Flora of Bombay " does not include 
this genus in his account of Orchidacese. I have never been able to identify 
the plant with any that are described or figured so that it is probably new. 

24. DIPLOCENTRUM. 

Epiphyte with a short, leafy stem. Leaves few, two-ranked, linear, 
fleshy, unequally 2-lobed at apex. In florescence a pendulous raceme, 
branched near the base. Flowers small, rather crowded, bracts 
minute, pedicels and ovary short, sepals spreading, connivent at base, 
lateral falcate, larger than the dorsal, all obtuse, petals shorter and 
narrower than the dorsal sepal, acute, lip thick entire, fixed on the 
base of the column, with two short blunt spurs, column short, thick 
and blunt, 2-auricled, anther 2-celled, pollinia 2, ovoid, furrowed or 
bipartite, attached by a broad strap to a broad gland. 

1. Diplocentrum CONGESTUM, Wight. Fl. Br. Ind., VI., p. 78 ; 
T. Cooke, Fl. of Bombay, II, p. 704. 

Leaves in 2 or 3 pairs, recurved, about 3 inches long. Peduncles 
stout, simple or with a few branches near the base. Floioers crowded, 
especially so towards the tips of the spikes, each about \ inch in 
diameter, bracts minute, triangular-ovate, pedicels very short, sepals 
greenish brown, tinged with pink, lettered falcately oblong obtuse, 
dorsal elliptic oblong, petals also greenish brown, tinged with pink, 
lip pink suffused with brown, about \ inch long, fleshy, oblong 
obtuse, column white, auricles pink. 

Floioers appear during the commencement of the rainy season. 

Distribution. — On trees in the forests of North Kanara and also recorded 
from the Iyemally Hills in Travancore by R. Wight, who figured it in his 
Icones, Plate 1682. 

It is a mean looking plant rising so little above the moss in which it grows 
that it usually remains unnoticed. In Poona, where some plants were kept 
alive for a few years the spikes became very short indeed. 

{To be continued.) 



17 



130 
THE BUTTERFLIES OF KUMAUN. 

BY 

F. Hannyngton, I.C.S. 

(With a Map.) 

Introduction. 

The Kumauu Division, comprising the Districts of Almora, Naini 
Tal and Garhwal, is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the south by 
the Pilibhit, Bareilly, Moradabad and Bijnor Districts, on the east by 
Nepal, and on the west by the Native State of Tehri Garhwal and the 
Dehra Dun and Bijnor Districts. For entomological purposes it may 
be roughlv divided into 3 areas : — 

(1) Tropical from 1,000-2,000 ft. above sea-level. 

(2) Sub-Tropical and Temperate from 2,000-9,000 ft. above 

sea-level, comprising the greater part of Kumaun and 
consisting of a series of ranges and peaks intersected by 
deep valleys. 

(3) Alpine and Sub-Alpine from 9,000 ft. up to the snow- 

line. 

The first region with a purely artificial boundary on the south 
abounds with forms to be met with in the plains together with a fair 
number of endemic forms ; the second contains by far the larger 
number of species herein enumerated while the third is the home of 
the palsearctic forms dependent for their food-supply on the shrubs 
and grasses between the. tree-limit and the region of perpetual snow. 

While containing so far as -I have been able to determine, no 
species of butterfly peculiar to itself, Kumaun forms a most interesting 
connecting link from an entomological point of view between the 
Sikkim forms on the one hand and the purely N. W. Himalayan forms 
on the other. Of the three districts, Garhwal has been far less 
thoroughly worked than Naini Tal or Almora and parts of it are still 
more or less a terra incognita to the naturalist. The only previous list 
of the butterflies of this region extant to my knowledge is the one 
compiled by Doherty in 1886 and published in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume LV, part 2. This list is probably 
inaccessible to the majority of readers of this Journal: it includes a 
number of species now generally recognised as local races of more 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF KUMACN. 131 

Widely distributed forms and more than one species of whose occur- 
rence in Kumaon I am still doubtful, while it omits a fair number of 
forms which have since been found commonly in the district. Seeing 
that this list, which enumerates 271 species, was the result of a stay 
of less than six months in Kumaun with only two trips into the 
interior, one of which Doherty himself confesses to have been a 
failure, degenerate entomologists of the present day cannot but 
admire the author's wonderful energy and accuracy of observation. 

Treating of the question of local distribution, Doherty remarks that 
the Kali Valley — the Eastern boundary of Kumaun — " forms a 
" genuine zoological boundary. 

•' Among the species that seem to extend no further west are : — 
" Papilio paris, Melanitis zitenius, Elymnias lencocyma ( = malelas), 
" Symbrentliia hypselis, Neptis vikasi, Euihalia appiades and E. 
" lubentina and such genera and sub-genera as Dyctis, Rohana, 
■" Dichorrhagia, Moduza, Haridra, Zemeros, Chersonesia, Chliaria, 
" Remelana and Cherkra." 

The danger of hasty generalisation of this nature is well borne out 
by the present list, nearly all the genera enumerated above being 
represented in West Kumaun and in some cases by more than one 
species, while at least two of the species — S. hypselis and E. lubentina — 
are to be met with in the extreme west. 

The fact is that it is almost impossible to lay down hard and fast 
geographical boundaries when dealing with Himalayan species. 
Kumaun is a " debateable area " between the south-east and south- 
west monsoon currents and receives rain from both. When the south- 
east or Bay current is stronger than that from the Arabian Sea, strag- 
glers from Sikkim like Arhopaia centaurus or Euthalia lepidea may 
be found as far west as Naini Tal at all events, while conversel)', a 
strong Arabian Sea current will bring in stragglers from the N. W. 
Himalayan area like Nytha parisatis and Erebia hyagriva. 

Leaving aside the chief factor which is, of course, the presence of 
the food-plant which supports the larva, the distribution of Himalayan 
species will, I think, be found to depend chiefly upon the relative 
strength or weakness of these two currents and as this is a variable 
phenomenon, it is next to impossible to lay down specific geographical 
boundaries ; this too probably accounts for the fact that Kumaun con- 
tains no species peculiar to itself. 



132 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

In compiling the present list I have had constant access to the fine 
collection of Mr. Peake at Jeolikote which includes a most represen- 
tative Kumaun collection made by the late Mr. Vanrenen of Binsar 
throughout a number of years. I have also embodied my own two 
years' experience, though I have been compelled through force of 
circumstances to depend very largely on native agency for the collec- 
tion of specimens. The total number of separate forms recorded is 
371. 

Thanks to Mr. P. Mackinnoirs generous help in identification of 
doubtful species, I hope that the list will be found fairly complete and, 
if it should prove of assistance to future workers over the same ground, 
its purpose will have been served. 

I have marked with an asterisk any form that has not come under 
my personal observation. In classification and nomenclature I have, 
where possible, followed Bingham, whose firm stand against the 
ultrasectionist tendencies of some latter-day entomologists entitles him 
to the gratitude of posterity. That he did not live to complete his 
work is nothing short of a calamity. 

A word as to seasons and localities. As in most parts of India, the 
greatest number of varieties are on the wing just after the rains in 
September and October, but the early summer (March and April) is 
only slightly less prolific in species of interest to the collector. 
Taking the whole year round, the wooded ravines at from 2,000-5,000 
feet elevation will be found the best hunting grounds, especially in 
the dry months. 

At high elevations above 12,000 feet, the season is late and short, 
beginning in July and ending in September, the rarer forms not 
appearing till August. The commoner varieties will, however, be 
found encroaching on the snow line even as early as May. 

Butterflies are so easily influenced by vicissitudes of season that it is 
not surprising to find many species common in one year, and scarcely 
visible in the next. For instance, a very dry season like 1907 re- 
sulted in a " miraculous draught " of Dophla patala around Naini Tal 
in May 1908, while in 1909 this butterfly did not appear till June 
and was comparatively rare in all its favourite haunts. Not only so, 
but the early rains in July caused the few that were on the wing to 
disappear with disconcerting suddenness. As a rule, however, the 
converse holds good and heavy rains result in great abundance of in- 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF KUMAUN. 133 

dividuals not only on the cessation of the monsoon, in September, but 
in the following March and April. This is doubtless to be explained 
by the abundance of food-plants for the larvse ; the exceptions will 
only be in the case of larva like Dophla patala which feed on oaks 
and hardy trees but little affected by drought. Forest fires, too, must 
destroy myriads of larvae in a dry year. 

Family -NYMPH ALID^. 
S ub-f amity— Danain^e. 

1 . DanaiS limniace, Cramer.— Common. April-October. 2,000 to 5,000 ft. 

2. Dauais aglea BXelanoicleS Cram. (Paralitica melanoides, Moore ). — 
Common in April and May and from July to October at from 3,000 to 5,C00 ft. 

3. DanaiS sePtentrioaiS, Butler.— Common. May and September. 
1-5,000 ft. 

4. DanaiS tytia, Gray. — Fairly common in wooded nullahs in April and 
May and again in September and October at 3-5,000 ft. 

5. DanaiS mclanca, Cramer.— Rare in the Tarai in January. 

6. DanaiS Plesippus, Linn. — Common everywhere up to 5,000 ft. 

7. DanaiS ChrysippilSj Linn. — Common everywhere up to 5,000 ft. 
The Euplaince are only represented in Kumaun by three species, two 

endemic and the third a rare visitor from Nepal. 

S. Euploea CO?©, Cram. — Very common at 2-5,000 ft. especially in July 
and October. 

9. s Euploea SPloadens, Butler (rogenhoferi, F elder). —Recorded by 
Bingham from Eastern Kumaun. I have not met with it from this locality 
into which it appears to come as a rare straggler from Nepal. 

10. EuPloea mulciber, Bingham (midamus, Linn.).— Rare at Nalena, at 
3-4.000 ft. in April and May. Common in Kali and Sarju Valleys in August. 

SATYRIN^. 

The Satyrinoi are well represented throughout Kumaun, fifty-two forms 
being recorded. 

11. MycalesiS sanatana, Moore.— Rare at Binsar and Askot, 6-8,000 ft. in 
May and October. The wet-season form {gopa) may be looked for in August 
at 6,000 ft. at Ramgarh, Takula, etc. 

12. MycalesiS perseuS, Fabr.— Common. 1-6,000 ft. in March, April, 
May and October. The wet season form (M. blasius) occurs plentifully at 
Ranibagh and elsewhere from July to September. 

13. MycalesiS mineilS, Linn. — With its dry-season form (otrea) occurs in 
the same localities as M.perseus, but is not so common. 



134 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

14. MycalesiS visala, Moore. — Common in the Tarai in October. I have 
not come across the wet-season form which is almost indistinguishable from 
the wet-season form of M. mineus {vide Bingham, Vol. I, p. fO). 

15. MycalBSiS malsara lepcha, Moore.— Common from March to October 
at 3-5,000 ft. in shady ravines. It has been usual hitherto to regard M. lepclia 
as the dry form of M. ?nalsara. Bingham, however, classes both forms as a 
race of M. malsara. 

16. Hycalesis DiCOtia, Hewitson. — And its dry season form (.1/. langi, 
de Niceville) occur sparingly at 2-5,000 ft. 

17. MycaleSlS heri, M^uore.- — Doherty took a dry-season form at Jhulaghat 
2,000 ft. and 2 wet-season specimens at Kapkot and Baghrighat 3-7,0u0 ft. 
J. S. B. 1886, p. 115. I have never come across it. 

18. Orsotriaena Bieda, Fabr. — A single male from Kichha on the Southern 
border in September. 

19. LethO europa, Fabr. — Rare at Ranibagh, 2,000 ft. in December. 

20. Lethe rohria, Fabr. (L. dyrta, Felder).— Common. April to October 
at 2-7,000 ft. 

21. Lethe ihsana, (L. hyrania), Kollar. — Common throughout Kumaun at 
7,000 ft., June to October. — The darker dinarbas form occurs from Binsar 
eastwards. 

22. Lethe COnfusa, Aurivillus (L. rohria, Fabricius). — Common from June 
to October at 2-7,000 ft. 

23. Lethe venaa, Kollar. — Not uncommon at Binsar and Naini Tal, 
6-8,000 ft. in August and September. 

24. Lethe SlcLoiiiS, Hewitson. — I am doubtful whether this is not really the 
dry season form of L. vaivarta as described by Doherty (J.A.S.B. 1886, p. 115). 
Both forms are to be found throughout Kumaun at about 7,000 ft., but 
L. vaivarta is only on the. wing during the rains. It seems questionable 
whether the latter is even a local race. . 

25. Lethe vaivarta, Doherty.— Dhakuri, Khati 7-11,000 ft. (Doherty). 
Fairly common at about 7,000 ft. from July to September. 

26. Lethe nicetas, Hewitson.— Common at 3-6,000 ft. from June to 
October. 

27. Lethe maitriya, de Niceville.— ^ot common at 6-10,000 ft. in May and 
October in higher river valleys. 

28. Leth© kansa, Moore.— Common on Cheena, Naini Tal at 8,000 ft. and 
less so at Nalena, 4,500 ft. in April and May. Apparently not recorded before 
so far west. The underside is much paler than in specimens from Sikkim 
and Assam and the three white subapical spots on the upperside of the fore- 
wing are more prominent, thus approaching L. sinorix. The specimen from 
Nepal in the British Museum exhibits the transition to the Kumaun form. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF KOMAUN. 135 

29. Lethe (Zophoessa) jalaurida, de Nicevitte. — Dhakuri. Khati, Pindari 
Valley, 7-11,000 ft. (Doherty). Evidently rare outside the Pindari Valley 
I have only received specimens from that locality, and it is not in the Vanrenen 
collection. 

30. Lethe (Zophoessa) baladeva, Moore. — Common in Pindari Valley, ■ 
7-9,000 ft. in May and August. Flies fast and is difficult to capture owing to 
its habit of settling in clumps of bamboo on which its larva doubtless 
feeds. 

31. Lethe (ZoPhoessa) COalpara, Moore.— Habitat recorded by Bingham as 
the Himalayas from Simla to Sikkim. I have only received specimens in 
Kumaun from the Sarju Valley 4,000 ft. in September. 

32. Lethe (ZoPhOOSsa) Yama Moore. — Not uncommon at Naini Tal and 
Binsar at 7,000 ft. in May and June. 

33. Lethe (ITeope) Pulaha, Moore. — Rare at Binsar and on the Eastern 
border in September. 

34. Orinoma &anaaris, Gray.— Decidedly rare at Nalena and at the third 
mile on the Ratighat Road below Naini Tal in September at about 4,000 ft. 

35. EhaPhicera XOOrei, Butler.— Not uncommon in the Pindari and other 
interior valleys at 7-11,000 ft, in August and September. De Niceville records 
Bhaphicera satrlcus, Doubleday, as occurring ." in the wooded hills beyond 
Almora in Kumaun" (r:lde Atkinson). It is not in the Vanrenen collection 
and B. moorei occurs considerably to the East of Almora. Though there is no 
reason why it should not stray over the Eastern border, I hesitate to include 
it in the absence of recent evidence. 

36. Satyms (Amecera) SChakra, Kollar - -Common in May to October 
on stony ground at from 4,500 to 11,000 ft. 

37. Nytha (EiPParchia) parisatlS, Kollar. — Rare in the extreme west of 
Garhwal on the borders of Tehri in September. 

38. * ManiOla daven&ra, Moore.— (vide Bingham, Vol. I. p. 119. "Re- 
corded also by Felder from Kumaun.") 

39. Maniola PUlchella, Felder.— To be found at and above 12,000 ft. in 
inner ranges in August. 

40. Aulocera brahaiiailS, Blauchard. — Not uncommon at the same 
altitude and season as the foregoing. 

41. Alilocera STv"aha, Kollar.— Very common from August to October at 
6,000-10,000 ft. The commonest butterfly on the wing in Naini Tal in 
September. 

42. AUlOCOra Padma, Kollar,— Occurs sparingly from May to October ta 
5/)00 to 8,000 ft. at Binsar and on the inner ranges. A rare visitor on Cheena 
in May, June and July. 



136 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

43. Alllocera saraswati, Kollar. — Rare in August and September on the 
grassy slopes between 6,000 and 10,000 ft. frequented by its congener, A, 
swalia. 

44. *iEaeiS BUmiliS, F elder.— " One male, Chinese Tibet 17,000 ft.' 
(Doherty). Probably very rare on the Kumaun side of the Passes. 

45. Ypthima Philomela indeCOra, Moore. — Common in the valleys up to 
6,000 ft. from June to October. 

46. YPthima baldUS, Fair. — This, the Y. philomela of de Niceville, is 
fairly common from June onwards up to 5,000 ft. Its dry season form 
( Y. marshalli, Butler) is common at Haldwani from December to March. 

47. Ypthima sakra, Moore.— Common at 2,000-7,000 ft. May to October. 

48. Ypthima nare&a, Kollar.— Common at 2,000-7,000 ft. April to 
October, especially in the vicinity of Naini Tal in August. 

49. Ypthima avaata, Moore (= Y. singala, Felder). — Wet-season form 
common at 2-6,000 ft. from June to August and dry-season form common in 
Tarai in cold weather. 

50. Ypthiltta huebaeri, Kirby. — With its dry-season form (F. hovjra) 
common at same times and places as the last. 

51. Ypthima asterope, Klug. — Rare in the low river valleys at about 
3,000 ft. from August to October. 

52.* Erebia kalin&a. Moore. — Has been taken at 10,000 ft. in the interior 
of Garhwal. I have not come across it. 

53. Erebia airmala, Moore. — Very common from May to September, ab 
4,000-8,000 ft., sometimes swarming at Naini Tal in damp, cloudy weather. 

54. Erebia annada, Moore. — Common in May and again in August to 
October at Naini Tal and hills from 6-8,000 ft. The wet-season form (E 
hybrida) is almost indistinguishable from E. nirmala. 

55. Erebia SCaada, Hollar. — Fairly common between 7 and 11,000 ft. 
May and October. 

56. Erebia (Ypthima) hyagriva, Moore. — Common during the rains at 
3-7,000 ft. 

57. Mfilaaitis ismeao, Cramer. — Common up to 7,000 ft. May to 
November. 

58. Helaaitis bsla, Moore.— Not common in the river valleys from 
2-4,000 ft. August to October. 

59.* MelaaitiS zitoaius, Herbst. — Rare in the Kali Valley in the extreme 
East in August. 

60. Elymaias uadulariS, Drury. — The males are common at 2-5,000 ft. 
July to October in shady ravines. The females do not appear till September 
and are comparatively scarce. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF KUMAUN. 137 

61. El^mnias malelas, Hewitson (= E. leucoeyma, de N.) — Fairly com- 
mon, August to October, in river valleys bordering on Nepal. 

62.° Slyianias (Dyctis) Pataa, Westwood. — "Two males at Junction of 
Kali and Gori Eivers" (Doherty). 

Sub-family — Nymphalin^e. 

63. Oharases marmas Clunawara), Westwood. — Eare in Kali Valley in 
the extreme East in August and September, 

64. C harases Pclyseaa aoaaaaa, Butler. — Rare at Kapkot on the Sarju 
and in Kali and Gori Valleys in August. 

65. Cliarasss fabiUS, Fabr. — Fairly common in river valleys debouching 
on the plains up to 2,000 ft. in July and August, 

66. EulePis athamas, Drw^.-Comraon up to 3,000 ft. from July to 
October on outer hills. 

67. BulSPis eudamipPaS, Doubleday. — Rare in low river valleys, Septem- 
ber to November. 

68. EulePis dolon, Westwood. — Has been taken at Kilberry near Naini Tal 
in September. Very rare. 

69. APatura ambiea, Kollar. —Occurs sparingly in outer ranges up to 
5,000 ft. from April to October. 

70. °Apatura arpisatlS, Westwood. — " One male seen at Jhulaghat." (On 
the extreme eastern border) Doherty. It is evidently a rare visitor on the 
extreme east and I have not heard of its being actually taken in Kumaun up 
to date. 

71. Dilipa morgiaiia, Westwood. — Very rare in Kumaun. A single male 
was brought to me from the Pindari Valley by a native catcher in August. 
It is said to occur at Bhim Tal. 

72. Hestiaa aama, Doubleday. — Rare at Binsar in June and on eastern 
border in the rains. 

73. Ferliestiaa persiUilis zellas, Butler.— Common at Naiena, 4,500 ft . 
from June to October and more sparingly up to 7,000 ft. 

74. Euri&US C0n3imiliS, Westwood. — Rare along outer ranges up to 3,000 ft. 
in April, July and August. 

75. Sepnisa dichroa, /Collar. — Common at Takula, Binsar, Naini Tal, etc., 
6-8,000 ft. in May and October. 

76. 3ePhisa Chandra, Moore.— Rare in eastern valleys at 4,000 ft. in May. 

77. Dicliorragia aeslmacaus, Boisduval. Rare in river valleys on extreme 
East and at Binsar and Nalena at about 4,000 ft. in April and August. 

78. Stit)0Caiaaa aicaea, Gray. — Occurs sparingly in ravines at 
4,000-7,000 ft. in May, June and July. 

18 



13S JO VRNAL, BOMB A Y NA TOR A L HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. XX . 

79. DoPkla Patala, Kollar.— Common at Naini Tal and Bhowali, 4-8,000 
f fc. in May and June. The larva may be found on oak trees (Quercns incami) 
in May. 

80. *ElltIialia lOPliea, Butler. — A single male was taken by Mr. de Rhe 
Philippe in April 1902 at Eanibagh, 2,000 ft. (vide Volume XIV, No. 3, page 
595, of the Society's Journal.) 

81. EtLthalia aPPiad.es, Mendtries.— Not common in river valleys on the 
extreme East. 

82. E atkalia robeatiaa, Cramer. — Scarce near Nalena, at 4,000 ft. in 
October and November and in Kali Valley in August. 

83. Eutkalia gamda, Moore. — Fairly common in April and again in 
October in valleys at 2-4,000 ft. throughout Kumaun. 

84. Eutkalia (Symphae&ra) Hais, Forster. — Has been taken at Haldwani 
1,000 ft. and Bhim Tal 3,000 ft. in March, but is only a rare visitor along the 
outer ranges. 

85. Moduza PrOCriS, Cram. — Rare at Haldwani in Tarai from October to 
January. Its occurrence so far north is unusual. Bingham gives its habitat as 
Peninsular India. 

86. *Ll53lillitiS darasa, Doubleday. — Recorded by Atkinson from Kumaun 
(de Niceville, Volume II, page 158.) I have never met with it. 

87. Auzakia (Liminitis) daaava, Moore. —Common in shady ravines at 
4,000 to 8,000 ft. April, May and again from August to October. 

88. PaatOPOria cama, Moore. — Common, April to October at 2,000-5,000 ft. 
near streams. 

89. FantoPOria SSlenOPllOra, Kollar .—Not common at 6,000 ft. in April 
and May. 

90. PaatOPOria zerOCa, - Moore. — Rare at Nalena 4,500 ft. and Binsar, 
8,0l)U ft. in May and June; 

91 . PaitOSOria 0Palin.a s Kollar.— Common from April to October in 
wooded nullahs at 3,000-7,000 ft. 

92. Atkyma PeriUS, Lm.-Common in April and October in the same 
localities as the last-named. 

93. At&yma asura, Moore. Rare at Binsar 8,000 ft. in August. 

94. NePBiS eurynom©, Westwood. — Common all over Kumaun from 2- 
7,000 ft. This form includes N. astola, emodes, varmona and eurymem as 
recorded from Kumaun by Doherty. 

95. NePtis columella, Cram.-— Not common at Haldwani and Ranibagh in 
December and January. 

96. NoptiS mahendra, Moore.— Common from May to October at 
3-9,000 ft. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF KUMAVN. 139 

97. HeptiS yerlatirii. Butler (=N. nandina, Moore). — Common in April 
and May at 3-60CO ft. 

98. NePtis soma, Moore (=N. susruta, J/oore).— Common in the rains at 
2-5,000 ft. 

99. NePtis sankara, Kollar (=N. amba, Moore).— Common from April to 
July at, 4-9,000 ft. 

100. ITeptis narayana, Moore. — Very rare at from 5-6,500 ft. in May. 

101. JTeptiS vikasi pseu&OVilsasi, Moore. — Not common in wooded ravines 
at 3,000 ft. in August and September. Doherty found it rare at Kapkot. 
4,000 ft. 

102 ITePtlS zaida, Doubleday. Not uncommon at Nalena, 4,500 ft., in 
June and July. 

103. NePtXS radaa, Moore.— Not common at Naleua, 4,500 ft., in May and 
at Bageshwar 3,200 ft. in October. 

104 ITeptis anaata, Moore.- Fairly common 3.000 ft. in August and 
September. 

105. NePtiS viraja, Moore. — Not uncommon at Nalena, 4,500 ft. in June. 

106. Rahinda hordonia, Stall. — Common in April and May at 3,000-5,000 ft. 
near wooded streams. 

107. Cyrestis thyodamas, Boisduval — Common everywhere up to 8,000 ft. 
April to October. The pale yellow form appears to be peculiar to higher 
elevations in the dry season, in Kumaun at all events. 

108. Ckersonesia risa, Doubleday.— One male, Kapkot, Sarju Valley, 
3,700 ft. in May. Doherty took it at 2-3,000 ft. in the Kali Valley in August, 

109. Juttoaia iPhita, Cram.— Common everywhere up to 7,000 ft. 

110. Juaonialemoaias, Linn, — Common everywhere up to 7,000 ft. 

111. JuUOnia oritaya, Linn. — Common on open hill-sides up to 9,000 ft. 

112. Juaoaia aicrta, Fabr. — Not quite so common and confined to open 
hill-sides. 

113. Juaoaia alaiaaa, Linn. — Common in river valleys up to 4,000 ft. 
Its wet-season form (asterie) is very common at Eanibagh in the rains. 

114. JaaOnia atlites, Johannsen.-. — Rare in the Tarai in January and 
February. 

115. Vanessa cardui, Linn.— Common from June to Octoberiat 6-10,000 ft. 

116. Vaaessa iadica, Herbst.— Very common, 3,000-11,000 ft. March to 
November. 

117. Vaaessa kasamireasis, Kollar.— Very common 2-18,000 ft. March 
to October. I have a curiously melanized specimen taken on Cheena in 
May. 



140 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

118. Vanessa rizaaa. — Occurs in inner ranges above 10,000 ft. in July 
and August. 

119. *VaB.essa la3.a&ensis, Moore. — "Near Kalapani, Nepalese Tibet, 
14.000 ft." (Doherty). 

120. Vanessa, santhomslaeaa, Denis. — Common on Cheena, Binsar, and 
Dhakuri from March to May and again in October at 8,000 to 11,000 ft. The 
life-history of this butterfly as described by de Niceville (Vol. II, p. ) is very 
strange. It is certainly double -brooded but I do not believe that the second 
brood " disappears" from June till the following March as I have it from the 
Pindari Valley in October. It seems more probable that it passes the winter 
as an imago like so many of its congeners, emerging early in the following 
spring and producing a second brood in September. I obtained the larvse 
from Bmsar early in October, but tbey unfortunately died before pupat- 
ing. 

121. Vanessa canacSj Johannsen. — Common in May and June and again 
in September and October at 5,000 to 10,000 ft. 

122. Vanessa C. aVbam, Linn. — Not uncommon in the Pindari Valley at 
8.000-12,000 ft. in May and August. 

123. Symbreathia lucina, Cram. (= S. hippoclus, de N .) Common 
in April, May, August, September and October in wooded nullahs from 
3,000-6,000 ft. 

124. SynVbrenthia hypsellS, Godart. — Not uncommon throughout Kumaun 
in April and May and again in September, October at 2,000-6,000 ft. often 
along with the last-named. 

125. SynVbreathia "brabira, I\Ioore.~- Doherty separates the wet and dry- 
seasun forms of this species (as hysudra and S. asthala). It is fairly common 
in the inner valleys at 7-9,000 ft. in May and August. 

126. Hypoliianas "bolina, Linn. — This fine butterfly appears on the wing- 
in July, and may be found from the plains up to 8,000 ft. till December. 

127. HvPOlimnas misiPPUS, Linn. — Not so common and confined to the 
outer ranges up to 4,000 ft. in April and again from August to November. 

128. Kallima iaacaus, Boisduval. — Common in nullahs from 2,000 to 
6,000 ft. April to October. 

129. *Cetaosia cyane, Drury. — Though recorded from Kumaun, I have 
not yet come across any specimens. It doubtless occurs on the Eastern border 
as it is common in Sikkim. 

130. Atell^. Paalantna, Drury.- — Very common from June to December 
up to 7,000 ft. 

131. IsSOria Sinaa, Kollar.— Rare at Nalena 4,f,00 ft. in May and again in 
September. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF KUMAUN. 141 

132. CuPha eryfiaantllis, Drury. — Common in May, June and October in 
valleys up to 4,500 ft. 

133. A rgynilis jainacLeva, Moore. — Rare in minor ranges above 9,000 ft., 
July to October. 

134. ArgynalS kamala, Moore, — Fairly common on the inner ranges, 
8,000—10,000 ft., May to September. 

135. Argynnis children!., Gray.— Common from June to October at 
5,000-10,000 ft. Most of the specimens from Naini Tal are true childreni. 
The sukantala type occurs further west. 

136. Argyaais hyPerbius 5 Johamsen — Common up to 7,000 ft. in April 
and May and from July to October. 

137. "ArgyaniS geramata, Butler.— Recorded by Bingham from Kumaun. 
I have not come across it in any local collection. 

138. Argyaais lat&ODia issaea, Doubleday. — Very common, April to 
October, 5,000-10,000 ft. 

139. *ArgyaaiS Clara, Blunchard.—Yery local in interior of Tehri Garh- 
wal in August in high river valleys. 

140. Melitaea Sindura, Moore,— Rare at 12,000 ft., June to August. 

141. ErgOliS aria&ae, Johamsen.— Not uncommon at 2,000-5,000 ft. in 
September and October. 

142. Ergolis merione, Cram.— Common up to 6,000 ft. May to Decem- 
ber. Its conspicuous larva makes little attempt at concealment on the leaves 
of the Castor Oil plant on the underside of which it pupates. The butterfly 
is mimicked by the $ of Apatura parisalis and is undoubtedly protected, 
though I am unable to determine precisely what form the protection takes. 

143. TsoudergOliS wedak, Kollar.— Common up to 8,000 ft. March to 
October. 

ACR^INiE. 

144. Fareba vesta, Fair. — Very common in the rains at 3-6,000 ft. in 
the neighbourhood of its food-plant, Bcehmeria salicifolia. 

145. Telchinia Violae, Fabr. — A single male taken at Bhim Tal, 3,000 ft. 
in October. It probably occurs sparingly in the Tarai as it is common in 
Oudh in the Rains. 

LIBYTHiEIX^. 

146. LiTjythea celtiS lePita, Moore. — Very common, May to October, at 
4,000 to 7,000 ft. 

147. Llbythea myrrlia, Godart. — Very common, May to October especi- 
ally at 4,000 ft. in August after heavy rain. 



142 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Family— NEMEOBID^E. 

148. Do&oaa. durga, Kollar. — Very common, May to October especially at 
Ramgarh, 6,000 ft. 

149. Dodo&a dipaea, Hewitson. — Common at 4-7,000 ft. 

150. DodO&a ©Ugeaes, Bales. — Fairly common, March to October at 
3,000-7,000 ft. 

151. Sodona OTlida, Moore. — Rare and local on Binsar and Cheena at 
7,000 ft. in May and October. 

152. Aliisara fylla, Doubleday. — Not common at 4,000 to 8,000 ft., 
Nalena, Binsar, Naini Tal, etc., in April and again in September. 

153. Abissara eckeriUS, Stall (= Abisara suft'usa, Moore). — Common from 
July to October at 2-4,000 ft. in river valleys. 

154. ZemerOS flegya*, Cram.— Common from March to October at 3,000 
to 5,000 ft. in valleys near water. 



{To be continued?) 



143 
DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

BY 
E. MEYEICK, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S. 

XL 

(ECOPHORID.'E. 

• Macrobathra eque&tris, n. sp. 

9 . 18 mm. Head and thorax dark bronzy-fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, 
rather obscurely lined with ochreous-whitish. Antennae white spotted with 
blackish. Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins mixed with ochreous- 
whitish. Forewings elongate-lanceolate ; fuscous, towards base dark fuscous ; 
a broad transverse yellow fascia extending from | to middle, edged with a few 
black scales : cilia bi*ownish. Hindwings dark grey ; cilia fuscous. 

Khasis, in April ; one specimen. In every respect a characteristic member 
of this distinct genus, which is largely developed in Australia, but has not 
hitherto been recorded elsewhere. 

BorJchauseuia pseiulospretetta, Stt. 

Newera Eliya, Ceylon ; Khasis ; in April, May, and September. A domestic 
pest. 

Borhliausenia obolcea, n. sp. 

9. 13h-14 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, slightly whitish-sprinkled. Palpi 
yellow- whitish, second joint externally suffused with dark fuscous irroration 
except more or less beneath and at apex. Antenna; fuscous. Abdomen grev. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen extreme- 
ly obliquely rounded ; fuscous, faintly purplish-tinged, irrorated with dark- 
fuscous ; a small pale greyish-ochreous spot close above tornus : cilia grey, some- 
what sprinkled with whitish. Hindwings and cilia grey. 

Nilgiris, 3,500 feet (Andrewes), N. Coorg (Newcome) ; in May and Septem- 
ber ; three specimens. 

Anchonoma, n. g. 

Head with loosely appressed scales ; ocelli absent ; tongue developed. 
Antenna) £, in $ moderately fasciculate-ciliated (l-£), basal joint moderately 
elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint thickened 
with dense somewhat rough scales beneath, terminal joint as long as second, 
slender, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, filiform, appressed to tongue. 
Posterior tibia) clothed with rough hairs above. Forewings with 2 and 4 long- 
stalked, 3 absent, 5 closely approximated at base, 8 and 9 out of 7, 7 to apex, 
11 from middle. Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia £ ; 3 and 4 stalked, 5-7 
tolerably parallel. 

Belongs to the group of Eulechria, but specially distinguished by the peculiar 
nervation of forewings. 



1 44 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Auchouoma xeraula, n. sp. 

$ 9 • 21-28 mni. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous or pale greyish- 
ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous. Paipi whitish-ochreous, second and 
terminal joints variably sprinkled or suffused with dark fuscous except towards 
apex. Abdomen pale ochreous, sides tinged with fuscous. Forewings elon- 
gate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen rounded, 
oblique ; lower margin of cell sinuate and somewhat ridged beneath towards 
base, especially in $, a space above this tending to be thinly scaled; pale 
greyish-ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with dark fuscous : a small spot of dark 
fuscous suffusion on base of costa ; stigmata cloudy, dark fuscous, first discal 
somewhat elongate, plical hardly beyond it, second discal approximated, in 
middle of wing ; a cloudy pale subterminal line, sharply indented beneath 
costa, edged posteriorly with dark fuscous suffusion : cilia pale greyish-ochre- 
ous, with broad somewhat interrupted antemedian shade of dark fuscous 
suffusion. Hindwings light grey, paler and somewhat ochreous-tinged ante- 
riorly ; cilia grey-whitish, with grey subbasal line. 

Khasis, in September ; also from W. China ; four specimens. Superficially 
very like Borkhauseuia pseudospretella, and might be overlooked accordingly, 
though structurally very distinct, 
Nephogenes fugax, n. sp. 

f?9- 21-22 mm. Head, palpi, antenna;, and thorax grey. Abdomen 
brownish-ochreous, segmental margins pale greyish-ochreous. Forewings 
elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen extremely 
obliquely rounded ; light grey, slightly brownish-tinged, irregularly sprinkled 
or irrorated with dark fuscous, sometimes forming lines on veins towards costa 
posteriorly ; a spot of blackish irroration on base of costa ; stigmata blackish, 
plical rather beyond first discal ; a subterminal bent series of dots of black 
irroration close to termen and posterior part of costa : cilia light greyish, 
towards base sprinkled with dark fuscous. Hindwings light grey ; cilia ochre- 
ous-grey- whitish. 

Palni Hills, 6,000 feet (Campbell) ; three specimens. The genus Nephogenes 
is of some extent in Australia ; this is the first species recorded elsewhere, but 
seems normal in every way. I have however a nearly allied species fun- 
described) from Celebes. 
II ypercaWa pyrarcha, n. sp. 

$ 9. 17-18 mm. Head yellow, a line on crown and spots on side of face 
and collar orange-reddish. Palpi pale yellow, second joint except towards 
apex ferruginous-orange sprinkled with fuscous, terminal joint with median 
band of orange and dark fuscous scales. Antennae pale yellowish, suffused with 
grey towards apex, ciliations, in $ 3. Thorax yellow, irregularly streaked with 
orange-red. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate-oblong, costa moderately 
arched, apex obtuse, termen sinuate, somewhat oblique ; yellow, reticulated 
with orange-red ; basal third of costa orange-red with three oblique dark 
fuscous streaks; two fasciae of dark purplish-grey suffusion, first median, dilated 
towards dorsum so as to reach \ and coalesce posteriorly with second, second 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 145 

broad, terminal, united with first by bar beneath costa so as to enclose in disc 
an orange-red roundish patch containing a yellow spot marked with a dark 
fuscous dot : cilia pale yellowish, with partial interrupted grey subbasal shad?, 
at apex and towards tornus suffused with dark purple-grey. Hindwings 
grey, lighter anteriorly ; cilia yellow-whitish, with pale greyish subbasal 
shade. 

Khasis, in July ; two specimens. 
Therapiiis, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. Antennas l, 
in $ serrulate, minutely ciliated (|), basal joint moderately elongate, without 
pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint thickened with appressed 
scales, terminal joint shorter than second, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi 
short, filiform, oppressed to tongue. Posterior tibiae clothed with rough hairs 
above. Forewings with 2 from angle, 7 to costa, 8 absent, 11 from middle. 
Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia i ; 4 absent, 5-7 tolerably parallel. 
Apparently allied to Sphyrelata. 
Therapnis parorma, n. sp. 

£ 12-13 mm., $ 14-16 mm. Head, antennae, and thorax dark fuscous 
Palpi dark fuscous, slightly whitish-sprinkled, apex of joints whitish. 
Abdomen fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex rounded- 
obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; dark fuscous, base of scales ochreous- 
whitish ; a curved blackish transverse line at ^, followed by more or less 
whitish -ochreous suffusion often marked or tinged with reddish-ochreous, in £ 
expanded into a broad fascia not quite reaching costa ; stigmata lar^e, blackish, 
sometimes edged with whitish-ochreous or yellowish, plical rather beyond 
first discal, usually an additional smaller spot between and above discal, in <£ 
obliterated with reddish-ochreous and merged in the pale costal patch 
following ; a blackish interrupted line rising from costa at f, sinuate downwards 
and running to near apex, thence very near termen to dorsum before tornus, 
on costa preceded by a suffused whitish-ochreous patch, larger in g, and 
preceded in discal angulation by a smaller spot of whitish-ochreous or reddish- 
ochreous suffusion : cilia light fuscous, basal half sprinkled with dark fuscous 
or blackish. Hindwings rather dark grey : cilia grey. 

Kegalle, Madulsima, Haputale, Kalutara, Matale, Ceylon (Alston, Pole 
Vaughan) ; from May to August, six specimens. 
Erotis, n. g. 

Head small, with appressed scales , ocelli present ; tongue developed. 
Antennae £, in £ serrulate, simple, basal joint moderate, with pecten of short 
scales. Labial palpi long, recurved, widely diverging, second joint reaching 
base of antennae, somewhat expanded towards apex with rather rough scales, 
terminal joint shorter than second, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi short, 
filiform, appressed to tongue. Thorax rather swollen. Anterior tibiae dilated 
with rough scales ; posterior tibiae clothed with rough hairs above. Forewings 
with 2 from about £, 3 from angle, 4 absent, 5 rather approximated to 3, 7 and 
19 



146 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

8 stalked, 7 to costa, 9 from near 7, 10 remote, rising from § of cell. 1] from ^. 
Hindwings |, elongate-ovate, cilia \ ; 4 absent, 5 somewhat approximated to 3, 
6 and 7 tolerably parallel. 

A peculiar genus, of which the position must at present be considered quite 
doubtful. It can be regarded as an aberrant genus of Oecophorida, but it is 
possible that it should form a new family ; the small head and swollen thorax, 
widely divergent palpi, and peculiar position of veins 10 and 11 of forewings 
are discordant characters which cause it to stand isolated. 

Erotis phosphora, n. sp. 

$ $ . 13-20 mm. Head, palpi, and antennas ochreous-whitish. Thorax 
rose-pink spotted with dark grey irroration. Abdomen dark grey, sides and 
apex ochreous-whitish, basal segment suffused with pink. Forewings elongate, 
rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen strongly rounded, 
oblique ; rose-pink, irregularly strewn throughout with small spots of dark 
grey irroration ; a streak of dark grey suffusion along costa from before 
middle to f ; somewhat larger dark grey spots in disc at § and §■, and on 
dorsum at f : cilia rose-pink, with two lines of black points, basal third barred 
with dark grey irroration. Hind wings grey, thinly scaled and subhyaline in 
disc and towards base ; cilia light grey. 

Matale, Kegalle, Maskeliya, Kalutara, Ceylon (Alston, Pole) ; in July, 
November, and December ; four specimens. 

Macrosaces, Meyr. 

The generic definition may be extended in the following points : labial palpi 
with second joint sometimes expanded towards apex, terminal sometimes 
longer than second ; forewings with 3 sometimes present, stalked with 2 or 
separate ; hindwings seldom with 5 absent. 

Macrosaces negatella, Walk. 

(Gelechia negatella, Walk, Cat. XXIX, 631.) 

$$. 11-16 mm. Variable in depth of colouring, but always recognisable 
by the transverse blackish blotch on costa at ^, reaching § across wing. Hind- 
wings varying from pale, to dark grey. 

Maskeliya, Pattipola, Ceylon (Pole, de Mowbray, Fletcher) ; from Septem- 
ber to May. 

Macrosaces amphiterma, n. sp. 

$Q. 10-14 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, irrorated with grey. 
Palpi ochreous-whitish, second joint considerably expanded with scales toward 
apex, sprinkled with dark fuscous, with a dark fuscous subapical band, 
terminal joint longer than second, with two dark fuscous bands. Antennas 
whitish-ochreous ringed with fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish- 
ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termen very obliquely rounded ; 3 absent ; whitish-ochreous, variably irro- 
rated with fuscous, with some scattered blacktscales ; a small blackish spot at 
base beneath costa, with a raised blackish tuft of scales beyond this : a 
somewhat oblique-transverse line of raised blackish scales at ?, edged posteriorly 



, 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 147 

with whitish-ochreous, on costa expanded into a triangular spot, in middle with 
a slight angular projection posteriorly ; second discal stigma raised, blackish, 
more or less distinctly edged with whitish-ochreous or yellowish; and a similar 
dot beneath and rather beyond it ; an indistinct cloudy waved whitish-ochreous 
line from § of costa to dorsum before tornus, more or less edged anteriorly with 
dark fuscous irroration, its central third strongly curved outwards ; a waved 
line of dark fuscous irroration running round posterior part of costa and 
termen : cilia whitish-ochreous mixed with fuscous and sprinkled with dark 
fuscous. Hindwings and cilia grey. 

Maskeliya, Ceylon (Pole) ; in January and February, five specimens. 

JMacrosaces pendula, n. sp. 

$ $. 10-13 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous irrorated with fuscous. 
Palpi ochreous-whitish, second joint moderately thickened, dark fuscous except 
apex, terminal joint as long as second, with dark fuscous band below middle. 
Antennae whitish-ochreous ringed with fuscous. Abdomen fuscous. Forewings 
elongate, narrow, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely 
rounded ; 3 absent ; whitish-ochreous more or less irrorated with fuscous and 
dark fuscous ; a blackish subcostal tuft towards base ; a rather oblique 
transverse gently curved blackish line at 2, tufted beneath costa and above 
dorsum, edged posteriorly with whitish-ochreous, expanded into a triangular 
blackish spot on costa and slightly sinuate near dorsum ; second discal stigma 
raised, blackish, and a similar dot beneath and somewhat beyond it ; an 
indistinct line of dark fuscous irroration or suffusion from ^ of costa to dorsum 
before tornus, acutely angulated in middle ; some indistinct dots of dark 
fuscous suffusion on posterior part of costa and termen ; cilia pale fuscous, 
sprinkled with ochreous-whitish points and a few dark fuscous scales. Hind- 
wings and cilia grey or pale grey. 

Khasis ; in October, five specimens. Very similar to ampldterma, but with 
the lines differently formed, and readily distinguished by the different marking 
and structure of palpi. 

Macrosaces icteropa, n. sp. 

<J$. 11-14 mm. Head ochreous-yellow. Palpi light yellowish, second 
joint moderately thickened, somewhat sprinkled with dark fuscous except 
towards apex, terminal joint as long as second, with a dark fuscous ring near 
base. Antennas pale yellowish ringed with dark fuscous. Thorax ochreous- 
yellowish sprinkled with fuscous. Abdomen rather dark fuscous, anal tuft 
pale ochreous mixed with fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly 
arched, apex obtuse; termen very obliquely rounded ; 3 absent ; light ochreous- 
yellowish densely irrorated with dark fuscous ; a blackish subcostal tuft 
towards base ; stigmata raised, black, plical obliquely before first discal, these 
two with a spot on costa and a mark on dorsum appearing to form a rather 
curved oblique line interrupted in disc, an additional dot beneath and rather 
beyond second discal ; a very indistinct transverse line of darker irroration 
from a black dot on costa at f, acutely angulated in middle : cilia fuscous 



1 48 JO URNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX 

suffused with whitish -ochre ous at base, with three indistinct darker lines. 
Hindwings and cilia dark grey. 

Khasis ; in August and September, six specimens. Nearly allied to the two 
preceding, but the markings of the palpi are different from either : also 
characterised by the yellow head, dark general colouring, and discal interrup- 
tion of first transverse line. 
Macrosaces lucubrata, n. sp. 

$ $ . 9-10 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous irrorated with grey 
and fuscous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint moderately thickened, 
irrorated with dark fuscous except at apex, with a blackish subapical ring, 
terminal joint as long as second, with a black band below middle. Antennae 
whitish-ochreous ringed with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish- 
ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, 
termen very obliquely rounded ; 3 absent ; dark fuscous, base of scales 
whitish-ochreous ; a small blackish spot at base beneath costa, and a black 
scaletuft beyond it edged posteriorly with whitish-ochreous ; a nearly straight 
direct transverse raised black line at §, somewhat enlarged on costa, slightly 
sinuate above and below middle, strongly edged posteriorly with whitish- 
ochreous or yellowish ; second discal stigma raised, black, strongly edged with 
whitish-ochreous or yellowish, and a similar spot beneath it, their pale margins 
usually confluent ; a whitish-ochreous spot on costa at f, whence proceeds a 
very indistinct whitish-ochreous angulated transverse line, preceded by some 
blackish irroration ; a cloudy waved line of blackish irroration along posterior 
part of costa and termen : cilia fuscous, sometimes mixed with dark fuscous, 
sprinkled with whitish-ochreous points, sometimes faintly barred with whitish- 
ochreous suffusion. Hindwings in $ grey or rather dark grey, in $ blackish 
grey ; cilia grey. 

Maskeliya, Peradeniya, Matale, Ceylon (Pole, Green ) ; in July, August, 
December, and January ; five specimens. 
Macrosaces glebaria, n. sp. 

$ $ . 11-14 mm. Head ochreous-yellowish, crown irrorated with dark 
fuscous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint moderately thickened, dark 
fuscous except apex, terminal joint" as long as second, with blackish subbasal 
ring. Antennas whitish-ochreous, ringed or suffused with dark fuscous. Thorax 
dark fuscous. Abdomen ochreous-yellowish suffusedly banded with fuscous. 
Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 
very obliquely rounded ; 2 and 3 short-stalked ; dark fuscous, more or less 
sprinkled with whitish-ochreous ; a small black spot at base beneath costa, and 
one on dorsum near base ; a black subcostal tuft towards base ; stigmata 
moderately large, raised, black, plical slightly before first discal, these two 
together with costal and dorsal black spots tending to form an interrupted 
rather bent transverse line, second discal sometimes pale-edged, with an 
additional spot beneath it ; a pale ochreous-yellowish subtriangular blotch on 
costa about f , whence proceeds a very indistinct whitish-ochreous angulated 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN M1CR0-LEPID0PTERA. 149 

line to dorsum before tornus : cilia fuscous somewhat mixed with dark fuscous, 
base suffused with whitish-ochreous. Hindwings in £ light fuscous, in 9 
rather dark fuscous ; cilia light fuscous. 

N. Coorg, 3,500 feet (Newcome) ; in June, October, and November, four 
specimens. 

Macrosaces Jiemilyca, n. sp. 

$$. 11-13 mm. Head and thorax rather dark fuscous, somewhat sprin- 
kled with whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish-ochreous sprinkled with blackish, 
second joint moderately thickened, terminal joint as long as second, with two 
broad blackish bands occupying nearly all of it. Antennae whitish-ochreous 
more or less suffused with fuscous, and ringed with dark fuscous. Abdomen 
fuscous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, ter- 
men very obliquely rounded ; 3 separate or short stalked with 2 ; dark fuscous 
base of scales whitish-ochreous ; a blackish subcostal tuft near base ; a cloudy 
blackish raised rather curved direct transverse shade at ± edged posteriorly 
more or less widely with whitish-ochreous suffusion ; second discal stigma 
raised, cloudy, blackish, with an additional less marked dot below it ; a rather 
large spot of whitish-ochreous suffusion on costa about £, whence an indistinct 
anguiated cloudy whitish-ochreous line runs to dorsum before tornus, edged 
anteriorly with blackish irroration : cilia fuscous mixed with darker, sometimes 
sprinkled with whitish-ochreous points, base whitish-ochreous. Hindwings 
rather dark fuscous, anterior half sometimes pale whitish-ochreous ; cilia 
fuscous. 

Palnis, 6,000 feet (Campbell) ; four specimens. The variation in the colour 
of hindwings is singular ; it is not sexual, as the specimens include male and 
female of each form ; and as the two forms agree in other respects, especially 
in the characteristic markings of the palpi, and are from the same locality, it is 
improbable that they are specifically distinct. I regard the form with the basa 
half of hindwings pale as being the type, and think the other form with 
hindwings wholly dark deserves a varietal name ; I therefore name it var. 
ecliptica. 

Macrosaces orphania, n. sp. 

$ 15-16 mm. Head pale ochreous, crown irrorated with dark fuscous. 
Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint moderately thickened, irrorated with dark 
fuscous except at apex, terminal joint as long as second, with dark fus- 
cous subbasal and subapical rings. Antennae whitish-ochreous ringed with 
dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous, base of scales whitish-ochreous. 
Abdomen pale ochreous mixed with fuscous. Forewing elongate, narrow, 
posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely 
rounded ; 2 and 3 short-stalked; whitish-ochreous more or less densely irrorated 
with fuscous and dark fuscous, sometimes suffused with fuscous ; a dark 
fuscous subcostal tuft towards base ; a rather curved cloudy dark fuscous 
transverse raised line at f , indistinctly edged with whitish-ochreous posteriorly 
nearly straight from below costa to below middle ; second discal stigma 



150 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

blackish, raised, obscurely pale-edged, and a similar spot beneath and hardly 
beyond it ; a faint cloudy line of darker irroration from ? of costa to dorsum 
before tornus, posteriorly faintly pale-edged, angulated in middle and indented 
above this : cilia fuscous, with pale base and darker subbasal shade. Hind- 
wings and cilia grey. 

9. 15 mm. Palpi with second joint dark fuscous except apex, dark rings 
of terminal joint broader. Forewings with ground colour dark fuscous, 
markings blackish, first line posteriorly edged with whitish-ochreous. Hind- 
wings becoming dark grey posteriorly. 

Palnis, 6,000 feefc (Campbell) ; five specimens. Immediately distinguished 
from hemilyca by the absence of the pale blotch on costa posteriorly ; the 
distinct dilation of the forewings is also a special characteristic. 

Macrosaces crocozona, n. sp. 

$9- 9-10 mm. Head, thorax and abdomen dark grey. Palpi dark grey 
anterior edge and apex of joints yellowish. Antennae dark grey, obscurely 
dotted with pale yellowish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently 
arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; 3 present, separate : 
ashy-grey irrorated witb blackish ; a short yellow subcostal dash towards base • 
three ochreous-yellow direct transverse fascias, first at 5-, moderately broad, 
usually narrowed on costa, posterior edge rather prominent in middle, second 
narrow, enclosing raised black second discal stigma and a similar dot beneath 
it, and reaching dorsum, but not costa, third narrow, running from about £ of 
costa to tornus, sometimes somewhat dilated in disc : cilia grey, sprinkled witb 
black on basal half. Hindwings with 5 absent ; grey ; cilia grey. 

Khasis, from July to October ; five specimens. This species differs from all 
the rest in the absence of vein 5 of hindwings, but, though very distinct, it 
is at the same time so obviously allied that generic separation is not called for. 

Eutorna, Meyr, 

A distinct genus, hitherto represented by ten Australian and two New Zea- 
land species, with which the following species has close affinity. 

Eutorna insidiosa, n. sp. 

$9- 10-13 mm. Head and thorax ochreous, face whitish-ochreous. Palpi 
pale ochreous, scales of second joint loosely expanded above towards apex. 
Antennas whitish-ochreous, dotted with dark grey. Abdomen grey, segmental 
margins suffused with ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, 
costa anteriorly moderately, posteriorly slightly arched, apex rounded-obtuse, 
termen extremely obliquely rounded ; deep ochreous ; costal edge blackish 
towards base ; a broad ferruginous-brown streak beneath fold from base to 
tornus, suffused beneath and posteriorly, edged above with some black scales 
and then with whitish suffusion ; a triangular patch of ferruginous-brown 
suffusion extending on costa from § to near apex and reaching half across 
wing, edged anteriorly by a very oblique ochreous-whitish streak preceded 
towards costa by some blackish irroration, and enclosing a shorter similar 
streak from costa at f , second discal stigma round, black, edged with ochreous- 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN M1CR0-LEPID0PTERA. 151 

whitish : some blackish scales along termen : cilia ochreous-whitish, -with two 
suffused brown shades. Hindwings rather dark grey ; cilia grey. 
Khasis, from August to October ; ten specimens. 
Pxeudodoxia melanoima, n. sp. 

A $. 12-13 mm. Head, palpi, antennae, thorax, and abdomen dark purplish- 
fuscous. Forewmgs elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, ter- 
men very obliquely rounded ; dark purplish -fuscous : cilia rather dark fuscous. 
Hindwings dark fuscous ; cilia rather dark fuscous. 
Khasis, in July and August ; six specimens. 
Pseudodoxia placida, n. sp. 

$9. 13-16 mm. Head and thorax light fuscous, forehead sometimes 
tinged with whitish-ochreous. Palpi fuscous, apex of joints more or less 
tinged with whitish-ochreous. Antennas fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft, 
ochreous- whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately arched, 
apex tolerably pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; light fuscous 
sprinkled with darker, sometimes suffused with darker along costa ; stigmata 
blackish, plical beneath first discal ; sometimes some indistinct dark fuscous 
marginal dots round apex : cilia fuscous, sprinkled with whitish points, base 
paler. Hindwings grey ; cilia rather light grey, base pale ochreous. 
Madulsima, Ceylon (Vaughan) ; from April to June, ten specimens. 
Pseudodoxia triastis, n. sp. 

£. 17-21 mm. Head whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second 
joint suffused with dark fuscous except apex, terminal joint sometimes with 
some dark fuscous scales towards base. Antennae whitish-ochreous tinged 
with fuscous. Thorax whitish-ochreous suffused anteriorly with fuscous. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, rather 
narrow, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded; 
whitish-ochreous, sometimes tinged with fuscous, more or less irregularly and 
suffusedly irrorated with fuscous and dark fuscous ; stigmata rather large, 
blackish-fuscous, plical beneath first discal ; some more or less marked large 
cloudy blackish-fuscous dots round posterior part of costa and upper part of 
termen : cilia whitish-ochreous more or less suffused with light fuscous. 
Hindwings grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous more or less suffused with grey. 

9 • Head and thorax usually suffused with fuscous. Palpi with terminal 
joint more or less irrorated with dark fuscous except towards apex. Forewings 
usually almost wholly suffused with light fuscous and irrorated with dark 
fuscous ; markings as in $ . Hindwings and cilia grey. 

Madulsima, Maskeliya, Patipola, Ceylon (Vaughan, Pole, Alston) ; from 
December to June ; twenty-five specimens. There is considerable variability 
in the development of the dark suffusion, and the sexes are normally dissimi- 
lar, the $ being so much darker, but the darkest $ is hardly distinguishable 
from the lightest 9 • Nearly all my examples are from Madulsima, where 
Mr. Vaughan takes the species in plenty. P. placida, which occurs with it, 
is smaller, and can always be distinguished by the pointed forewings. 



152 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCTETY, Vol. XX, 

Pseudodoxia pinarodes, n. sp. 

£. 14-16 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous or pale greyish-ochreous. 
Palpi dark fuscous, terminal joint ochreous-whitish towards apex. Antennae 
whitish-ochreous, more or less suffused with fuscous. Abdomen whitish- 
ochreous sprinkled with fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, 
apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; pale greyish-ochreous, sprinkled 
with fuscous and dark fuscous, especially towards costa and posteriorly ; 
stigmata large, blackish, plical beneath first discal ; sometimes some cloudy 
dark fuscous dots round posterior part of costa and upper part of termen : cilia 
pale greyish-ochreous, sometimes mixed with fuscous, Hind wings varying 
from pale fuscous to grey ; cilia pale greyish-ochreous, sometimes with suffu- 
sed fuscous subbasal shade. 

Maskeliya, Ceylon (Pole) ; in January, ten specimens. Smaller than 
P. triastis, with the forewings shorter and broader, and costa somewhat more 
arched. 

Pseudodoxia cryptias, n. sp. 

$ 9. 14-16 mm. Head and thorax grey. Palpi whitish-ochreous suffusedly 
irrorated with dark grey except at apex of joints. Antennae dark grey. 
Abdomen dark grey, sides of anal segment suffused with ochreous-whitish. 
Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, 
termen extremely obliquely rounded ; grey, irrorated with dark grey ; second 
discal stigma sometimes perceptible, dark grey : cilia grey, sometimes mixed 
with darker, sprinkled with pale points. Hindwings and cilia in $ grey, in 9 
dark grey. 

Madulsima, Ceylon (Vaughan, Green) ; in May and June, five specimens. 

Pseudodoxia agorwa, n. sp. 

<J. 14 mm. Head whitish-ochreous. Palpi ochreous-whitish, second joint 
blackish-grey except apex. Antennae pale greyish-ochreous becoming grey 
towards base. Thorax grey suffused with blackish anteriorly. Abdomen 
whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, very narrow, costa slightly arched, 
apex round-pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; grey, sometimes 
slightly whitish-sprinkled, or posteriorly sprinkled with fuscous ; base of costa 
suffused with blackish ; stigmata rather large, black, plical rather before first 
discal ; sometimes some cloudy blackish marginal dots round apex : cilia pale 
grey, sprinkled with darker and whitish points. Hindwings grey, rather thinly 
scaled in disc and towards base ; cilia pale grey. 

Maskeliya, Ceylon (Pole) ; in February, two specimens. Allied to seposi 
tella, but distinguished by the small size and very narrow forewings. 

Pseudodoxia pier ophcea, n. sp. 

$ $ • 17-21 mm, Head and thorax dark fuscous, irrorated with whitish, 
Palpi whitish, suffusedly irrorated with dark fuscous except towards apex of 
joints. Antennas fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous irrorated with grey. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen 
extremely obliquely rounded ; fuscous, more or less irregularly sprinkled with 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 153 

darker, sometimes finely irrorated with whitish ; stigmata large, dark fuscous, 
plical rather before first discal ; some cloudy dark fuscous marginal dots round 
apex : cilia pale fuscous, more or less mixed with darker, and irrorated with 
pale points. Hindwings grey ; cilia pale greyish-ochreous, with faint fuscous^ 
subbasal shade. 

Hakgala, Ceylon .(Green) ; in March and April, three specimens. Larva 
feeding in a portable case on lichens growing on trunks and rocks (Green) ; 
case 27-31 mm. long, formed of silk covered with fragments of lichen, acutely 
tapering posteriorly, anterior half covered by an ovate hood, 10-12 mm. broad, 
extending as a ragged edge to below middle. The hood in this species is 
larger and more extensive than in seposilella, in which it does not reach mid- 
dle of case, and much more so than in limulus and cretata, in which the hood 
bears only a small proportion to the length of the long slender acute posterior 
portion. 

Pseudodoxia sepositclla. Walk. 

I was in error in referring limulus Durr. to this species as a synonym ; the 
two names indicate two very closely allied but distinct species ; my previous 
note referred to the true limulus. P. sepositella is larger (18-21 mm.), grey or 
dark grey, without dark irroration but often somewhat whitish-sprinkled, with 
a black spot beneath costa near base, stigmata large, black, plical rather before 
first discal, with faint pale nearly straight subterminal line indented in middle, 
and black marginal dots ; head pale ochreous-yellowish, thorax grey suffused 
with blackish anteriorly. 

Maskeliya, Ceylon (Pole) ; in January, February, and July, seven speci- 
mens. Larva feeding like limulus ; case intermediate in character between 
those of limulus and 2ncropluea. 
Pseudodoxia iclincea, n. sp. 

$. 16-17 mm. Head and thorax pale greyish-ochreous with some scattered 
dark fuscous scales. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint irrorated with dark 
fuscous except base and apex. Antennae pale greyish-ochreous. Abdomen 
grey, anal segment ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently 
arched, apex round-pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; light fuscous 
sprinkled with dark fuscous ; stigmata moderate, blackish-fuscous, plical obli- 
quely before first discal ; a series of large cloudy blackish-fuscous dots round 
termen and posterior part of costa : cilia fuscous irrorated with pale greyish- 
ochreous. Hindwings dark grey ; cilia light greyish-ochreous. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon (Green) ; in February, two specimens. Larva feeding 
in the same way as the two preceding species (Green) ; case generally similar 
to that oipicrophcea but smaller (length 20-23 mm., breadth of hood 8-9 mm.), 
hood extended as a diminishing wing to well below middle of case. 
Psaltica, Meyr. 

The generic characters, originally drawn from a single specimen, require to 
be amended in the following particulars : Antennae in $ 1, in $ shorter ; 
forewings with 2 from J, 3 from angle. The genus is structurally near 
20 



154 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Pseudodoxia, from which it is distinguished by vein 7 of forewings running to 
termen. 

Psaltica monochorda, Meyr. 

$$. 12-16 mm. Head light yellowish, sometimes tinged with brownish. 
Palpi pale yellowish, second joint varying from brownish to dark fuscous. 
Forewings with anterior half brown or dark brown, white median line variable, 
nearly straight or rather curved, often followed by a fascia of pale yellowish, 
suffusion, discal black dot usually on posterior edge of this fascia, but some- 
times within it if broad, apical area beyond this more or less suffused with 
brown, Hindwings varying from pale to dark grey. 

Maskeliya, Madulsima, Peradeniya, Ceylon (Pole) ; from August to May, 
sixteen specimens. A variable species ; the above notes are supplementary 
to the original description. 

Psaltica toxophanes, n. sp. 

ft. 13 mm. Head, antennae, and thorax fuscous, crown suffused with 
ochreous-yellowish. Palpi dark fuscous, terminal joint whitish-ochreous. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft ochreous-yellowish. Forewings elongate, rather 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex rounded-obtuse, termen very obliquely 
rounded; glossy ochreous-fuscous, with a faint purplish tinge; an incurved pale 
ochreous-yellowish fascia at §, anterior edge sharply defined, posterior suffus- 
ed : cilia fuscous. Hindwings grey ; cilia pale fuscous tinged with yellowish. 

Khasis ; in July, one specimen. Much blunter-winged than the preceding, 
without white line or black dot. 

Psaltica xanthochra, n. sp. 

ft. 10 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax yellow-ochreous. Antennae greyish. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft ochreous-yellowish. Forewings elongate, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; glossy ochreous- 
brown, with a faint lilac tinge ; a straight whitish line crossing wing at |, 
carrying the small black second discal stigma on its posterior edge, followed by 
a fascia of deep yellow suffusion, becoming much broader towards costa, 
apical area beyond this tinged wit'h deep yellow : cilia ochreous-yellow 
Hindwings rather dark grey ; cilia light grey tinged with yellowish. 

Puttalam, Ceylon (Pole) ; two specimens. Distinguished from P. mono- 
chorda by the smaller size, deep yellow suffusion, more obtuse forewings, and 
black discal dot resting on white line instead of beyond it. 

Eupselia, Meyr. 

A genus of about fourteen Australian species, hitherto not found elsewhere. 
It is allied to Psaltica, but differs by the shorter antenna?, which are not 
lengthened or thickened in ft, and coincidence of veins 7 and 8 of forewings 
(7 to costa, 8 absent). The following species agrees well in character with 
the typical Australian forms. 

Eupselia isacta, n. sp. 

ft $. 13-14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-yellow, sides of face 
and shoulders ferruginous. Antennas whitish-ochreous. Abdomen ochreous- 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN M1CR0-LEPID0PTERA. 155 

yellowish tinged with grey. Forewings elongate, costa moderately arched, 
apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; ochreous-yellow ; base of costa 
ferruginous, edge sometimes dark fuscous ; a dark brown transverse median 
fascia, anterior edge suffused into ground colour, posterior sharply limited by 
a white line ; more or less brownish suffusion towards termen : cilia ochreous- 
yellow, towards tornus tinged with brownish. Hindwings fuscous or dark 
fuscous ; cilia light greyish-ochreous, more or less tinged with fuscous. 

Cuddapah, 4,000 feet (Campbell) ; N. Coorg, 3,500 feet (Newcome) ; in 
June, five specimens. 

Leptosaces, Meyr. 

This genus, founded on a New Zealand species, differs from CryptolecMa by 
the costal termination of vein 7 of forewings. Whilst maintaining it for pre- 
sent convenience, I think that it may, however, be ultimately merged in 
CryptolecMa. 

Leptosaces phcebas, Meyr. 

(Euhchria phcebas, Meyr. Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, XVII., 
742.) 

Described from females only, but having obtained both sexes commonly, 
I find that the species is referable here, the antennas in ft being only minutely 
ciliated. 

Khasis ; from May to October, 

Leptosaces anticentra, n. sp. 

ft 9- 13-14 mm. Head and thorax deep ochreous-yellow, shoulders 
suffused with dark fuscous. Palpi ochreous-yellow, somewhat sprinkled 
with dark fuscous. Antennas pale yellowish, suffusedly ringed with 
dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings elon- 
gate, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen slightly rounded, very 
oblique ; deep ochreous-yellow, sprinkled with dark fuscous ; base of costa 
suffused with dark fuscous ; stigmata dark fuscous, plical rather beyond 
first discal, second discal merged in a narrow dark fuscous fascia running from 
a triangular costal spot at f to tornus, where it unites with a dark fuscous 
terminal fascia, which is rather broad on costa and irregularly attenuated 
downwards : cilia ochreous-yellow, with dark grey patches above apex and on 
tornus. Hindwings grey, darker in $ ; cilia pale grey, with darker subbasal 
shade. 

Khasis ; in May, four specimens. Very like facuncla, but larger and more 
strongly marked, and easily recognised by the position of the plical stigma 
which is obliquely beyond first discal instead of before it. 

Leptosaces facuncla, n. sp. 

ft 9- 11-12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax deep ochreous-yellow, shoul- 
ders dark fuscous. Antennas light yellowish, ringed in ft with grey, in 9 
with dark fuscous except towards base. Abdomen grey, anal tuft ochreous- 
yellowish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex 
obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; deep ochreous-yellow ; a streak of 



156 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

rather dark fuscous suffusion along basal third of costa ; stigmata blackish, 
plical rather before first discal, an additional dot beneath second discal ; a 
spot of rather dark fuscous suffusion on middle of costa, reaching second dis- 
cal stigma ; a moderately broad rather dark fuscous terminal fascia, rather 
prominent in disc so as to touch second discal stigma and dot beneath it : cilia 
ochreous-yellow, on tornus fuscous. Hindwings grey ; cilia whitish- yellowish, 
tinged with grey towards base. 

Khasis ; in June, four specimens. 

Leptosaces makea, n. sp. 

$ 9. 15-17 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous. Palpi ochreous- 
whitish, second joint brownish or fuscous except apex. Antennae whitish- 
ocbreous, dotted with fuscous except towards base. Abdomen whitish-ochre- 
ous tinged with grey. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; whitish-ochreous : cilia con- 
colorous. Hindwings grey ; cilia ochreous-whitish tinged with grey towards 
base. 

Cuddapah, 4,000 feet (Campbell) ; three specimens, 

Periacma, Meyr, 

The original diagnosis should be corrected or extended in the following 
particulars. Antennae i to nearly 1, in £ simple, rather thick. Labial palpi 
in $ with basal joint somewhat lengthened, second joint greatly elongate, 
moderately stout, smooth-scaled, pointed, terminal joint absent, in $ with 
second joint normal, long, terminal as long as second or shorter, slender, 
acute. Forewings with 2 and 3 sometimes stalked, 7 to apex or sometimes 
termen. 

Having now plenty of material for dissection, I find that the £ palpi are 
really two-jointed, the greatly elongate joint, which I supposed to be the 
terminal, being really the second, whilst the terminal is wholly absent ; when 
the palpus is denuded, there appears to be not even a rudiment of it. The 
long second joint, though somewhat pointed, is not slender, and acute like the 
true terminal. As further evidence that it is really the terminal joint which 
is absent, it may be noticed that in such species as scrupulosa and metrica, 
where the second joint in the 9 bears a black subapical ring, this same ring 
will be found in the £ beneath the apex of the elongate joint, clearly indi- 
cating its homology. This curious palpus, which is unique and cannot be 
mistaken for that of any other Lepidoptera, is alike in all the nineteen de- 
scribed species, and forms the distinguishing mark of the genus. Besides 
the three species previously described, Phceosaces torricla, Meyr. is properly 
referable here. 

Periacma contraria, n. sp. 

£ 15 mm. Head, palpi, antennae, and thorax whitish-ochreous. Abdomen 
pale gi'ey^ anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, 
apex round-pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; 7 to termen ; 
whitish-ochreous, anteriorly tinged with yellow-ochreous, with a few scattered 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICR0-LEP1D0PTERA. 157 

blackish specks ; a small spot of fuscous suffusion on base of costa ; discal stig- 
mata moderate, black, plical absent, but an additional dot beneath second 
discal ; several minute blackish dots on posterior part of costa and termen : 
cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings whitish-grey ; cilia ochreous-whitish. 
Nilgiris, 6,000 feet (Andrewes) ; in May, two specimens. 
Periacma scrupulosa, n. sp. 

9 £ 16-18 mm. Head whitish-ochreous. Palpi ochreous-whitish, sprinkled 
with black except apex of second and base and apex of terminal joint, second 
joint with blackish subapical ring. Antennae ochreous-whitish, ringed with 
dark fuscous. Thorax whitish-ochreous sprinkled with blackish. Abdomen 
whitish-ochreous, dorsally suffused with grey. Forewings elongate, rather 
narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very obliquely rounded ; 
7 to apex ; pale greyish-ochreous, sprinkled with fuscous and blackish; a 
blackish dot on base of costa, one in middle of base, and one beyond and 
between these ; stigmata cloudy blackish, plical rather beyond first discal ; 
cloudy blackish costal dots on veins 8-12 : cilia pale fuscous irrorated with 
whitish-ochreous, along costa and on basal third along termen whitish- 
ochreous barred with blackish. Hindwings light grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous 
with faint greyish subbasal shade. 

Maskeliya, Ceylon (Pole) ; in January, three specimens. 
Periacma metrica, n. sp. 

£ 9 16-19 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, shoulders blackish. 
Palpi ochreous-whitish, somewhat sprinkled with blackish, second joint with 
black subapical ring. Antennas whitish-ochreous, sometimes tinged with 
fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with grey. Forewings elon- 
gate, somewhat dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 
very obliquely rounded ; 7 to apex ; pale greyish-ochreous, sprinkled with 
blackish ; a black dot on base of costa, one in middle of base, and one beyond 
and between these ; stigmata black, plical slightly beyond first discal ; a more 
or less developed longitudinal streak of blackish irroration above middle, 
hardly traceable anteriorly, usually distinct from above second discal stigma 
to beneath costa before apex, where it forms a cloudy blackish spot ; a series 
of blackish dots round posterior half of costa and termen : cilia pale fuscous 
irrorated with whitish-ochreous, basal third more or less spotted with blackish 
on costa with two entire blackish bars before apex. Hindwings pale grey ; 
cilia whitish-ochreous. 

Maskeliya, Ceylon (Pole) ; in January, April, May, August and October; 
ten specimens. Closely allied and very similar to the preceding species, but 
differs by the distinctly broader fore and hind wings, the forewings somewhat 
dilated posteriorly, the presence of the dark streak or at least spot beneath 
costa posteriorly, and the antennas not ringed with dark fuscous. 
Periacma limosa, n. sp. 

$ 9 14-20 mm. Head, palpi, antennas, and thorax light brownish-ochreous. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft pale ochreous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arch- 



158 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

ed, apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded ; 7 to apex : light ochreous, suffusedly 
irrorated with brownish or fuscous ; stigmata large, cloudy, indistinct, fuscous, 
plical hardly beyond first discal ; sometimes an indistinct cloudy spot of 
fuscous suffusion towards apex : cilia light brownish-ochreous, sometimes 
with indications of fuscous spots. Hindwings grey ; cilia light grey, with two 
faint darker shades. 

Maskeliya, Kegalle, Polgahawela, Puttalam, Trincomali, Ceylon (Pole, 
Alston, Green) ; in May, and from October to December, twelve specimens. 
Periacma byrsodes, n. sp. 

ft 20 mm. Head pale greyish-ochreous. Palpi pale greyish-ochreous, irro- 
rated with blackish. Antenna? and thorax pale greyish-ochreous irrorated 
with fuscous. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous, irrorated with grey. Fore- 
wings elongate, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen somewhat 
sinuate, rather oblique ; 7 to apex ; fuscous sprinkled with pale ochreous and 
blackish ; stigmata large, cloudy, very indistinct, formed of dark fuscous irro- 
ration, plical hardly beyond first discal, from second discal a streak of rather 
dark fuscous suffusion runs to submedian fold before tornus ; a dark fuscous 
terminal line : cilia whitish-ochreous, with traces of an interrupted fuscous 
median shade. Hindwings grey ; cilia as in forewings. 
Hakgala, Ceylon (Green) ; in May, one specimen. 
Periacma pentachora, n. sp. 
ft 16-20 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous, shoulders dark 
fuscous. Palpi ochreous-whitish, basal joint and base of second irrorated 
with dark fuscous, second joint with a dark fuscous subapical dot. Antenna? 
whitish-ochreous more or less suffused with fuscous, becoming dark fuscous 
towards base. Forewings elongate, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa gently 
arched, apex obtuse, termen straight, oblique ; 7 to apex ; whitish-ochreous, 
suffused with pale yellow-ochreous towards margins ; a moderate blackish 
spot on base of costa ; stigmata blackish, plical slightly beyond first discal, 
another dot between and above discal, and a fifth near beneath second discal ; 
suffused dark fuscous spots' on costa at J, §, :towards apex, and on tornus, 
variable in development and sometimes in part almost obsolete : cilia whitish- 
ochreous. Hindwings whitish-ochreous tinged with grey • cilia whitish- 
ochreous. 

Palni Hills (Campbell) ; two specimens. 
Periacma iurbulenta, n. sp. 
ft £ 18-21 mm. Head and'thorax light ochreous-yellowish, thorax anteriorly 
more or less widely suffused with dark fuscous. Palpi pale ochreous-yellowish, 
second joint sprinkled with fuscous. Antenna? whitish-ochreous, more or 
less suffused with fuscous. Abdomen light grey, anal tuft light ochreous- 
yellowish. Forewings elongate, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termen faintly sinuate, oblique ; 7 to apex; light ochreous-yellow- 
ish, irregularly sprinkled with brownish ; a broad streak of darker brown 
irroration or suffusion along costa from base to f-, including a dark, fuscous 






DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN M1CR0-LEP1D0PTERA, 159 

patch on base of costa ; stigmata dark, fuscous, plical rather beyond first 
discal, discal connected by a pale yellowish streak, second large ; a more or 
less developed triangular patch of dark fuscous suffusion on tornus, extend- 
ing along termen to apex, its angle touching second discal stigma : cilia 
light ochreous-yellowish, on costa and at apex barred with dark brown suffu- 
sion, on termen sometimes with interrupted brownish antemedian shade. 
Hind wings light grey, in $ more or less suffused with whitish-ochreous ; cilia 
whitish-ochreous, with two more or less indistinct grey shades. 

Khasis ; in September and October, seven specimens. 

Periacma cerojAasta, n. sp. 

$ 9 18-24 mm. Head and thorax light ochreous-yellowish, shoulders suf- 
fused with dark fuscous. Palpi in $ whitish-ochreous with a few fuscous 
scales • in 9 with rough expanded hairs towards apex of second joint above, 
light ochreous-yellowish sprinkled with dark fuscous. Antennas whitish- 
ochreous obscurely ringed with dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous 
tinged with grey. Forewings elongate, somewhat dilated posteriorly, costa 
gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen sinuate, oblique ; 7 to termen ; 
light ochreous-yellowish, usually with some scattered fuscous or dark fuscous 
scales ; a broad undefined costal streak of fuscous irroration from base to 
middle ; sometimes some fuscous suffusion towards middle of dorsum ; stigmata 
black, plical obliquely beyond first discal, an additional dot close beneath 
second discal and sometimes connected with it ; a patch of dark fuscous 
suffusion on costa at j ; a more or less developed terminal fascia of fuscous 
or dark fuscous suffusion, triangularly dilated beneath so as to touch dot 
beneath second discal stigma : cilia light ochreous-yellowish, with more or less 
developed subbasal series of fuscous spots, above apex and at tornus with 
patches of dark fuscous suffusion. Hindwings light fuscous, more or less 
suffused with whitish-ochreous ; cilia whitish-ochreous. with faint greyish 
subbasal shade. 

Palni Hills, 6,000 feet (Campbell) ; four specimens. 

Periacma chelonias, n. sp. 

$9- 1419 mm. Head and thorax deep ochreous-yellow, sides of crown 
and shoulders variably suffused with dark purplish-fuscous. Palpi ochreous- 
yellow, second joint with dark fuscous almost apical band, in $ with scales 
somewhat expanded above towards apex, terminal joint in $ ^. Antennae 
whitish-ochreous more or less suffused with fuscous. Abdomen grey. Fore- 
wings elongate, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen faintly 
sinuate, oblique, more so in 9 ; deep ochreous-yellow, sometimes tinged 
with brownish or sprinkled Avith dark fuscous ; markings dark purplish- 
fuscous ; a thick streak along costa from base to beyond middle ; stigmata 
well-marked, plical hardly beyond first discal, these two often included in a 
rather broad transverse fascia of dark suffusion ; a variable spot on costa at 
I often connected with second discal stigma ; a moderate terminal fascia, tri- 
angularly dilated beneath so as to touch secoird discal stigma ; cilia ochreous- 



160 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TVRAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

yellow with dark fuscous patches above apex and on tornus. Hindwings grey ■ 
cilia light grey, becoming pale yellowish on upper part of termen. 

Maskeliya, Peradeniya, Ceylon (Pole, Green, de Mowbray) ; from February 
to October, eleven specimens. The short terminal joint of palpi in 9 is a 
special character. I have a large $ specimen, in which the whole forewing is 
suffused with rather dark fuscous, except a yellow streak on costa posteriorly, 
the cilia yellow as usual ; it is probably a variety of this species ; in colouring 
it recalls melicrossa, but is not so dark, and differs in palpi and form of wing. 

Periacma melicrossa, n. sp. 

$$. 14-16 mm. Head ochreous-yellow. Palpi ochreous-yellow, second 
joint with dark fuscous subapical ring, in $ with scales somewhat expanded 
above towards apex. Antennae pale yellowish, suffusedly dotted with fuscous. 
Thorax and abdomen dark fuscous, anal tuft in $ mixed witb pale yellowish. 
Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen straight, oblique ■ 
7 to just below apex : dark fuscous, in <J somewhat suffused with ochreous 
except towards costa and posteriorly, with a spot of yellow suffusion on costa 
beyond middle, stigmata perceptible, darker fuscous, in $ all these absent 
except a few yellowish scales on costa beyond middle; a deep yellow mark 
long costa towards apex : cilia ochreous-yellow, with a bar above apex and 
tornal patch blackish-grey. Hindwings dark grey ; cilia grey, with darker 
subbasal shade. 

Coorg, 3,500 feet (Newcome) ; from May to August, five specimens. 

Periacma laganopa, n. sp. 

<^§. 16-19 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-yellow. Antennas fuscous, be- 
neath pale yellowish. Thorax ochreous-fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft 
yellow-ochreous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 
slightly sinuate, oblique ; 7 to termen ; light yellow-brownish ; stigmata dark 
fuscous, plical slightly beyond first discal ; a suffused fuscous wedgeshaped 
mark from tornus touching second discal : cilia brownish-yellowish, on tornus 
sometimes with a brown patch. Hindwings rather thinly scaled, grey ; cilia 
greyish-yellowish. 

Khasis ; in June and July, three specimens. 

Periacmia haliphcea, n. sp. 

£ 5. 14-16 mm. Head deep ochreous-yellow. Palpi ochreous-yellow, in £ 
more or less tinged with whitish. Antennas dark grey. Thorax lilac-fuscous. 
Abdomen dark grey, anal tuft ochreous-yellowish. Forewing elongate, costa 
gently arched, apex obtuse, termen straight, oblique ; 7 to termen ; lilac-f uscous; 
second discal stigma sometimes obscurely darker : cilia ochreous-yellowish, 
towards apex and tornus suffused with brownish. Hindwings rather dark 
grey ; cilia ochreous-yellowish. 

Khasis ; from July to September, eleven specimens. 

Periacmia isomora, n. sp. 

£ . 22 mm. Head deep ochreous-yellow. Palpi ochreous-yellow, second 
joint with black subapical ring. Antennas dark grey. Thorax and abdomen 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 161 

dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 
faintly sinuate, oblique ; 7 to just below apex ; dark fuscous ; second discal 
stigma and a suffused streak connecting it with tornus very obscurely darker : 
cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous; cilia fuscous, with darker sub- 
basal shade. 

Khasis ; in May, one specimen. 
Periacma conophanta, n. sp. 

$$.14-16 mm. Head, palpi, antennas, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous ; 
lower part of face and base of palpi in $ suffused with whitish-ochreous, tip 
of palpi in $ whitish ; anal tuft mixed with whitish-ochreous. Forewings 
elongate, rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen straight, 
oblique ; 7 to apex ; dark purplish-fuscous ; stigmata obscurely darker, 
plical rather beyond first discal ; a small triangular ochreous-whitish spot 
on costa about £ : cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous ; cilia 
fuscous. 

Madulsima, Peradeniya, Maturatta. Ceylon (Green, Pole) ; Khasis : from 
March to September, ten specimens. 
Periacma iodesma, n. sp. 

$ $ . 17-19 mm. Head and thorax orange. Palpi orange, second joint in $ 
with dark fuscous streak anteriorly except towards base. Antennas grey, beneath 
whitish-ochreous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft pale ochreous-yellowish. Fore- 
wings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded ; 
7 to apex ; orange ; markings dark purplish-fuscous ; a dot on base of costa • 
an irregular spot on base of dorsum ; a streak along fold from near base to 
middle of wing, sometimes connected with preceding ; a rather elongate mark 
above this, representing first discal stigma ; a rather narrow fascia from costa 
beyond middle to dorsum before tornus, where it unites with a similar more 
irregular-edged fascia running round apex and termen cilia orange, becoming 
paler towards tips, beneath tornus grey. Hindwings grey ; cilia pale yellowish, 
with indistinct grey subbasal shade. 

Khasis ; in May and June, twenty specimens. Closely allied to orthiodes 
but the latter species is smaller and paler, and entirely without the dark fus- 
cous streak on palpi of $ . Before recognising its distinctness I sent specimens 
of the present species under the name of orthiodes to some of my corre- 
spondents, who are hereby requested to correct the error ; the type of 
orthiodes is from Burma, and still unique. 
Mesoihyrsa, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales, side-tufts loosely spreading ; ocelli presont ; 
tongue developed. Antennas §, in $ rather stout, simple, basal joint moder- 
ate, without pecten. Labial palpi very long, recurved, second joint very 
long, densely scaled, with rough expanded hairs above towards apex, 
terminal joint in £ short, obtuse, flattened and somewhat concave internally, 
in $ |, slender, acute. Maxillary palpi short, filiform, appressed to tongue. 
Posterior tibiae clothed with long hairs above. Forewings with 2 from towards 
21 



162 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX 

angle, 8 and 9 out of 7, 7 to termen, 11 from middle. Hindwings 1, elongate- 
ovate, cilia i ; 3 and 4 connate, 5 — 7 tolerably parallel. 

In palpi and general characters intermediate between Periacma and Crypto- 
lechia, but differing from both in 9 of forewings rising out of 7. 

Mesothyrsa ceolopis, n. sp. 

ft $. 15-18 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous-yellowish, sides of crown 
somewhat mixed with fuscous, shoulders suffused with dark fuscous. Palpi 
whitish-ochreous, in ft with apex of second joint and most of terminal except 
apex suffused with dark fuscous, in 9 with a few dark fuscous scales. 
Antennee pale yellowish. Abdomen whitish-yellowish, more or less sprinkled 
with grey. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, ter- 
men sinuate, oblique ; light ochreous-yellowish ; markings purplish-grey mixed 
with blackish-grey, variable in development ; a spot extending along basal 
fifth of costa ; stigmata irregular, large or small, plical beneath first discal, 
sometimes cloudy grey fascia? extending from both discal stigmata to dorsum, 
second also connected with a blackish spot on costa at § ; a cloudy fascia along 
termen, sometimes connected with both extremities of the preceding fascia : 
cilia light ochreous-yellow, with grey spots above apex and on tornus. Hind- 
wings whitish-ochreous, more or less suffused with light grey on margins ; cilia 
whitish-ochreous. 

Palni Hills, 6,000 feet (Campbell) ; four specimens. The single $ example 
shows less grey colouring than any of the ft ft . 

Cryptolechia, Zell. 

The genera Homosaces, Phaosaces, and Prosarotra are structurally, but ap- 
parently not naturally, separable from Cryptolechia, and I have therefore in- 
cluded all together ; the same differences of neuration and palpi occur also in 
Periacma. 

Cryptolechia micracma, n. sp. 

ft 9. 12-13 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-yellow. Palpi ochreous- 
yellowish, second joint rough-scaled above towards apex, apex dark fuscous, 
terminal joint in ft very short, in 9 h Antennas pale yellowish ringed with 
fuscous. Abdomen whitish-yellowish, in 9 dorsally suffused with grey. 
Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex tolerably pointed, more so in 9, 
termen nearly straight, in ft rather strongly, in 9 very oblique ; 7 to apex ; 
deep ochreous-yellow, irregularly sprinkled with dark fuscous ; stigmata dark 
fuscous, plical nearly beneath first discal ; a suffused dark fuscous spot on 
costa at § ; an irregular terminal fascia of dark fuscous suffusion or irroration, 
projecting beneath so as to touch second discal stigma : cilia ochreous-yellow. 
Hindwings in ft pale yellowish, in 9 light grey ; cilia pale yellowish. 

Ceylon (probably low country) ; Khasis ; in July, three specimens. 

Cryptolechia vespertina, n. sp. 

ft 9 • 17-20 mm. Head, palpi, antennas f, and thorax dark fuscous, sides of 
crown pale ochreous. Abdomen pale ochreous, dorsally tinged with grey. 
Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen almost straight, 






DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO- LEPIDOPT ERA, 163 

oblique ; 7 to apex ; dark purplish-fuscous, sprinkled with blackish ; stigmata 
large, cloudy, blackish, plical rather obliquely beyond first discal, second discal 
transverse ; sometimes a suffused whitish-ochreous spot on costa at £ : cilia 
dark purplish-fuscous, with an interrupted whitish-ochreous basal line. Hind- 
wings in fi whitish-ochreous more or less suffused with grey towards termen, 
in 9 grey, paler towards base and suffused with whitish-ochreous along costa 
anteriorly ; cilia whitish-ochreous with grey subbasal shade. 

Khasis ; in September, eight specimens. 

Cryptolechia ccrana, n. sp. 

$ $. 9-11 mm. Head dark fuscous, face pale ochreous, sides of crown 
mixed with yellow-ochreous. Palpi pale ochreous, externally dark fuscous 
except towards apex of second joint. Antennae dark fuscous, beneath pale 
ochreous. Thorax and abdomen dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, rather 
dilated posteriorly, costa anteriorly slightly arched, posteriorly rather bent, 
apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, rather oblique ; 7 to termen ; dark pur- 
plish-fuscous, sprinkled with blackish ; some ochreous-yellow scales towards 
costa anteriorly ; a more or less developed rather broad undefined median 
fascia of ochreous-yellow irroration, broader towards costa : some irregular 
scattered ochreous-yellow scales posteriorly : cilia dark fuscous, with more or 
less developed basal series of small ochreous-yellow spots. Hindwings and 
cilia dark fuscous. 

Khasis ; from July to October, five specimens. 

Cryptulechia arvalia, n. sp. 

$9. 15-17 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous-yellowish, longitudinally 
streaked with ferruginous suffusion. Palpi whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with 
ferruginous and dark fuscous, second joint with scales roughly expanded 
towards apex above, terminaljoint with a blackish submedian ring. Antennae 
pale yellowish, indistinctly dotted with fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft 
pale yellowish. Forewings elongate, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa gently 
arched, apex tolerably pointed, termen slightly sinuate, oblique ; 7 to termen ; 
ferruginous more or less sprinkled with black, costa and all veins marked with 
suffused pale ochreous-yellowish streaks : cilia light ochreous-yellowish, on 
basal half and on tornus throughout barred with ferruginous suffusion sprinkled 
with black. Hindwings dark grey ; cilia light grey, becoming whitish-ochreous 
round apex. 

Karwar (Maxwell) ; Coorg, 3,500 feet (Newcome) ; in July and December, 
seven specimens. 

Cryptolechia iridias, n. sp. 

$9. 17-21 mm. Head golden ochreous, face and sides of crown more 
or less suffused with dark purple-bronzy. Palpi ochreous-yellow, second joint 
more or less bronzy towards base. Antennae light ochreous, towards base 
suffused with dark purplish-fuscous. Thorax yellow-ochreous, suffused 
anteriorly with dark purplish-fuscous. Abdomen light ochreous. Forewings 
elongate, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 



161 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATCRAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

nearly straight, rather oblique : 7 to apex ; pale yellow-ochreous, more or less 
sprinkled with dark brownish, especially on apical third ; base of costa suffused 
with dark fuscous ; stigmata dark fuscous, plical rather obliquely beyond first 
discal : cilia pale yellow-ochreous. Hindwings pale shining ochreous, tinged 
with fuscous posteriorly ; cilia pale yellow-ochreous. 

Khasis,in July and August ; four specimens. 

Cryptolechia tyrochyta, n. sp. 

£. 19-20 mm. Head, antennae and thorax light yellow-ochreous. Palpi 
ochreous-yellowish, second joint with scales roughly expanded above towards 
apex, irrorated or suffused with rather dark fuscous except towards apex. 
Abdomen grey, anal tuft ochreous-yellowish. Forewings elongate, moderate, 
costa gently arched, apex rounded-obtuse, termen rounded, somewhat oblique; 
7 to apex ; light yellow-ochreous ; first discal stigma absent or represented 
by two or three blackish scales, second more or less well-marked, blackish ; 
in one specimen a few dark fuscous scales on tornus : cilia light yellow- 
ochreous. Hindwings grey ; cilia ochreous-yellowish. 

Cuddapah, 4,000 feet (Campbell) ; three specimens. 

Cryptolechia aganopis, Meyr. 

£. 15-19 mm., $ 19-26 mm. Forewing with 7 to apex (not termen as 
stated) ; varying from pale brownish-ochreous to light brown ; plical stigma in 
A hardly beyond first discal, in $ obliquely beyond first discal, sometimes 
obsolete. Hindwings fuscous or pale fuscous. 

Maskeliya, Madulsima, Kandy, Puttalam, Trincomali, Ceylon ; from May 
to February. 

Cryptolechia orthotoma, Meyr. 

£. 14-17 mm., $ 15-21 mm. Forewings varying from pale-ochreous to 
light fuscous ; stigmata smaller in $. 

Maskeliya, Peradeniya, Matale, Galle, Ceylon ; from February to August, 

and in November 

Cryptolechia dochcea; n. sp. 

<J$. 14-20 mm. Head, antennae and thorax whitish-ochreous, variably 
tinged Avith grey. Palpi ochreous -whitish, second joint with scales roughly 
expanded above towards apex, sprinkled with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal 
tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termen obliquely rounded ; 7 to apex ; pale greyish-ochreous, sometimes tinged 
with brownish, more or less sprinkled with dark fuscous ; stigmata blackish, 
discal well-marked, plical obliquely beyond first discal, sometimes little 
marked ; a terminal series of small dark fuscous dots : cilia pale greyish- 
ochreous, with two more or less indicated fuscous lines. Hindwings light 
grey ; cilia pale greyish-ochreous, with one or two grey shades. 

Maskeliya, Madulsima, Maturatta, Hakgala, Eambukkhana, Polgahawela, 
Patipola, Ceylon (Green, Alston, Vaughan) ; in May, June, and from Septem- 
ber to February, seventeen specimens. Smaller than aganopis, and recognis- 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 165 

able by the different colouring and terminal dots. This is the species 
erroneously identified by me as tetraspilella, Walk., which latter is, I 
believe, really a Xyloryctid, and probably supersedes Odites isocentra, Meyr., 
though from the difficulty of properly examining the type I cannot positively 
identify it at present. 

CryptohcMa temperafa, n. sp. 

9. 20-24 mm. Head ochreous-yellow. Palpi pale ochreous-yellowish, 
smooth-scaled. Antenna? pale yellowish. Thorax ochreous-yellowish, more 
or less suffused with light brownish. Abdomen light ochreous-yellowish. 
Forewings elongate, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex 
obtuse, termen nearly straight, rather oblique ; 7 to apex , ochreous-yellow, 
towards dorsum, more or less tinged with brownish ; stigmata brownish, first 
discal and plical minute, indistinct, plical obliquely beyond first discal, second 
discal larger and darker : cilia ochreous-yellow. Hindwings light grey, more 
or less tinged with pale ochreous ; cilia pale ochreous-yellowish. 

Simla ; in July and August, four specimens. 

Cryptolechia costcemaculella, Christ. (Depressaria costamaculella, Christ. 
Bull. Mosc. 1882, 18, Snell. Tijd. v., Ent. xxvii, 158, pi. 8,5.) 

Sikkim ; Darjeeling ; in July. Described from Eastern Siberia ; it is a species 
of distinct appearance, allied to the following, with which it entirely agrees 
in structure, having the palpi smooth-scaled, and vein 7 of forewings to apex ; 
it is therefore no Depressaria. 

Cryptolechia eoa, n. sp. 

9 • 24 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-whitish, collar tinged with grey. 
Palpi ochreous-whitish, smooth-scaled, basal third and a subapical ring of 
second joint, and apical § of terminal joint blackish. Antennae greyish, mixed 
with blackish towards base. Abdomen pale ochreous, sprinkled with dark 
fuscous. Forewings sub-oblong, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa gently 
arched, apex obtuse, termen nearly straight, little oblique ; 2 and 3 closely 
approximated at base ; light greyish-ochreous, almost wholly suffused with 
light rose-pink except in middle of disc and a narrow more whitish-ochreous 
terminal fascia ; some irregular scattered minute dots and strigulse of blackish 
scales ; a narrow blackish basal fascia ; two or three blackish dots or marks on 
costa anteriorly ; a small black costal spot at | ; first discal stigma small, black- 
ish ; a moderate black fascia-form bar from costa beyond middle, extended so 
as to enclose in its apex second discal stigma, which is white, and with a 
triangular projection of grey suffusion mixed with black from middle of its 
posterior margin ; two blackish spots on costa beyond this, united beneath 
costa ; a series of blackish marks round apex and termen : cilia -whitish-ochre- 
ous. Hindwings light greyish-ochreous, more greyish posteriorly ; three or 
four grey marks on upper part of termen ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

Khasis ; in October, one specimen. This distinct species, though structur- 
ally in all respects a true Cryptolechia, not improbably indicates the origin ot 
Depressaria from that genua. 



166 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XX. 

Depressaria, Haw. 

The only species yet known to me from India are the two following, both 
from the Himalayan region ; the other species attributed to the genus by 
Stainton and others are not correctly referred. 

Depressaria cyclas, n. sp. 

9- 19-20 mm. Head and thorax pale brownish-ochreous, patagia dark 
fuscous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint irrorated with dark fuscous, 
terminal joint with dark fuscous median band. Antennae pale ochreous 
infuscated above, especially towards base. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, 
irrorated with grey. Forewiags elongate, costa gently arched, apex 
rounded, termen obliquely rounded ; 2 and 3 stalked ; pale brownish-ochreous, 
with irregularly scattered small dots and strigulse of black scales ; an 
oblique black subdorsal dash at base ; costa irregularly spotted with 
blackish throughout, spots rather larger posteriorly ; discal stigmata round, 
black, an additional black dot obliquely before and above first discal ; an 
irregular dark fuscous blotch lying between and above discal stigmata, touching 
second but not first ; a spot of dark fuscous suffusion beneath costa at § ; a 
terminal series of black dots : cilia whitish-ochreous, on basal half obscurely 
barred with greyish. Hindwings light grey, paler towards base ; three or four 
blackish-grey marks on upper part of termen ; cilia pale grey. 

Dalhousie, Kashmir ; in May, two specimens. Most like the European 
petasitis. 

Depressaria taciturna, n. sp. 

g 9 . 24-25 mm. Head and thorax light brownish. Palpi brownish 
sprinkled with whitish, basal § of second joint, and basal and supramedian 
bands of terminal joint dark fuscous, sometimes almost wholly suffused with 
dark fuscous except apex of terminal joint. Antennae fuscous. Abdomen 
light greyish-ochreous more or less suffusedly irrorated with fuscous and dark 
fuscous. Forewings elongate, slightly dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, 
apex rounded, termen obliquely rounded ; 2 rather widely remote ; brownish, 
sprinkled with darker, costal and terminal areas sprinkled with fuscous-whitish ; 
two indistinctly indicated oblique darker streaks from costa towards base, apex 
of second more or less marked with dark fuscous ; first discal stigma indicated by 
an oblique dark fuscous mark,sometimes followed by some fuscous- whitish scales, 
second by a fuscous- whitish dot, edged with some darker scales ; these are 
connected by an indistinct streak of darker suffusion, extending more or less 
beyond second ; a more or less developed sometimes interrupted similar streak 
along posterior half of submedian fold ; a somewhat darker curved subterminal 
line, on which the veins are indicated by scattered dark fuscous scales ; a series 
of cloudy dots of dark fuscous irroration round apex and termen : cilia light 
brownish sprinkled with darker, towards tips sprinkled with whitish. Hind- 
wings pale fuscous, darker posteriorly ; cilia pale fuscous, with darker subbasal 
line. 

Simla ; in August, three specimens. Perhaps nearest veneficella. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 167 

Tonka, Walk. 

This generic name supersedes Binsitta, Walk. 

Tonica niviferana, Walk. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon ; Karwar, Bombay, Calcutta, Sikkim. The pupa of this 
and the nest species stands erect on its tail, and imitates the head of a small 
snake (Maxwell). 

Tonica teratella, Walk. 

{Tonica terasella (prav. form.), Walk., Cat. XXIX., 788.) 

Karwar (Maxwell) ; Sikkim ; in July. Also from Borneo. 

Tonica zizyphi, Staint. 

(Depressaria zizyphi, Staint, Trans. Ent. Soc., Lond, (n.s.), V., 115 ; D. angusta 
Wals., Moore, Lep. Ceyl. III., 508, pi. 209, 5.) 

Maskeliya, Kegalle, Puttalam, Ceylon ; Palni Hills ; in October. Stainton's 
type was from Calcutta ; it was bred from Zizyphus jujuba. 

Prolonostoma, n. g. 

Head with appressed hairs : ocelli present ; tongue developed. Antennae §, 
in $ serrate, minutely ciliated, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial 
palpi very long, recurved, second joint with dense appressed scales, terminal 
joint shorter than second, moderate, acute. Maxillary palpi short, distinct, 
porrected. Posterior tibiae shortly rough-scaled above, Fore wings with 2 
from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to termen, 11 from middle. Hindwings 1, ovate, 
cilia ! ; 3 and 4 connate, 5-7 parallel. 

I consider this genus must approach very near the primitive form of the 
(Ecophoridce, from which the whole of the remainder could theoretically be 
derived. It has also marked affinity with the Plutellidce, and indicates their 
probable origin from that family. The labial palpi, neuration, and superficial 
characters are of clear GEcophorid type. On the other hand the maxillary palpi 
are distinctly of Plutellid type, and I have not observed any similar in the 
Oecophoridce ; the shortness of the cilia of hindwings, and apparent absence of 
long hairs on posterior tibiae (these last are more or less damaged, and the 
structure is not quite clear) are also Plutellid characters. Superficially the 
species is very similar to Hypercallia pyrarcha described above. If the genus 
is regarded as primitive, then it might have given rise through Cryptolechia to 
the Depressariad subfamily, and through Hypercallia to the Oecophorid sub- 
family. This solution would apparently satisfy all conditions of the problem 
known to me at present. 

Protonostoma athopa, n. sp. 

$. 13-14 mm. Head ochreous-yellowish, crown dark fuscous except on 
sides. Labial palpi yellow, second joint mixed with orange and more or less 
irrorated with dark fuscous, terminal ]oint dark fuscous except apex. Maxillary 
palpi pale yellowish, apex black. Antennae dark fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous 
with a yellow spot on each side posteriorly, patagia sometimes mixed with or- 
ange. Abdomen dark fuscous, beneath whitish-yellow. Forewings suboblong, 
moderately broad, costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly round- 



168 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

ed, little oblique ; dark fuscous ; an irregular patch of yellow reticulated with 
ferruginous-orange in disc anteriorly ; oblique yellow marks edged with fer- 
ruginous-orange on costa at % and f ; a patch of suffused ferruginous-orange 
reticulation in disc beyond middle, touching second costal mark ; a submarginal 
series of more or less marked spots of ferruginous-orange suffusion running 
from second costal mark round apex and upper part of termen : cilia dark 
fuscous, with yellow patches above and below apex. Hindwings dark fuscous ; 
cilia dark fuscous, with more or less pale yellowish suffusion towards middle 
of termen. 

Khasis ; in April and September, three specimens. 

[ To be continued.} 



169 

[Reprinted with corrections from the " Ibis " of 1909 by permission.'] 

ON THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY, 
NORTHERN INDIA. 

BY 

Lieut. C. H. T. Whitehead, Indian Army. 

With an Introduction by Majoe H. A.F. Magrath, Indian Army. 

I. — Introduction. 

By Major H. A. F. Magrath. 

Contrasted with a district of the Punjab, which I had just left, the variety 
of the surrounding bird-life was one of the first impressions received on my 
arrival at Kohat in December 1904, and it struck me that, as I was likely to be 
quartered there for some time, a list of the birds of the district might be usefully 
attempted. I had already made notes on a few of the commoner species, when 
I had the good fortune to discover in Mr. C. H. T. Whitehead, 56th Rifles, 
who had just rejoined his regiment at Kohat, a keen naturalist, anxious to start 
work at once on the ornithology of the district. We at once agreed to work to- 
gether, and in spite of military duties which permitted of little leisure for the 
pursuit of hobbies, we had, by the end of February 1906, acquired at first hand 
a fair working knowledge of the local avifauna. In March 1906 my regiment 
moved to the Samana, a ridge 6,500 feet above sea-level and 30 miles due west 
of Kohat Station. This ridge forms the northern boundary of the Miranzai 
Valley, and overlooks on the north the Khanki Valley and Tirah, the land of 
the Afridis. Here a few interesting additions were made to our list- — such as 
Pica rustica, Accentor rufilatus, Accentor himalayanus, Fringillauda sordida, 
and Suya crinigera. Meanwhile, Whitehead was doing good work below, and 
during the manoeuvres secured, amongst other birds, an example of Fringilla 
ccclebs, a species new to India. In the end of April 1906 I proceeded home 
on furlough and, as the sequel will shew, the production of the List was then 
left entirely in Whitehead's hands. An interesting discovery made by him 
shortly after my departure was a nesting colony of Aedonfamiliaris in the 
vicinity of the station. Taking two months' leave in June 1906, he paid a 
visit to the Kurram Valley lying to the N.-W. of Kohat, and followed to their 
breeding-grounds at the head of the valley many of the birds that winter in 
the plains around Kohat. During these two months he explored the Safed 
Koh Range very thoroughly, considering the short time at his disposal, 
ascending the two peaks of Sikaram (15,600 ft.) and Bodin (14,000 ft.), and 
by dint of real hard work, aided by much enthusiasm, added a great deal to 
our knowledge of the distribution and nesting-habits of many Oriental and 
Palsearctic species, discovering for the first time the nests and getting the eggs 
of Saxicola capistrata and Phylloscopus subviridis, besides obtaining some 
interesting mammals. His most important discovery, however, was a new 
22 



170 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

race of Anorthura procured at 10,000 feet on the Safed Koh. To this bird he 
has very generously done me the honour of giving my name, an honour quite 
undeserved, which has made me insist on the trivial name of " Whitehead's 
Wren" for that species. 

With the kind assistance of Dr. Bowdler Sharpe and Mr. Charles Chubb I 
was enabled to work out, at the British Museum, the skins procured by White- 
head on this trip, in addition to those previously collected in Kohat. 

During my absence on leave my regiment had marched in course of relief to 
Bannu, the district which borders the Kohat District to the south. My 
official connexion with Kohat was, therefore, much to my regret (especially as 
I could no longer pursue my ornithological studies there) severed. Passing 
through Kohat Station on my return from leave, Whitehead met me with the 
interesting news that he had a few days previously shot a Waxwing (Ampelis 
garrulus), another new bird for India. 

In April 1907, availing myself of three months' privilege leave and White- 
head at the same time obtaining a year's furlough, we decided to take a trip 
together to the Kurram Valley before he went home, in order to add, if 
possible, to the knowledge gained in the previous year. We met at Thall on 
the 15th of April and there awaited the sanction of the Political Agent of the 
Kurram Valley to our proposed expedition in the territory under his ad- 
ministration. The number of the smaller Passerine birds migrating up the 
valley at the time was very great, and we had plenty to interest us in this 
unusual leave-resort. The officer commanding the Post, Lieut, Wolley, with 
his wonted hospitality, invited us to consider ourselves honorary members of 
his little mess, which privilege we were only too glad to avail ourselves of. 
In due course the Political Officer's permit arrived, but it was so hampered 
by restrictions that we had to abandon our original intention of working 
slowly up the valley and proceed direct to Parachinar, the headquarters of the 
Agency, which is situated about 13 miles from the head of the valley. Here 
the officers of the Kurram. Militia very kindly allowed us to make use of their 
exceedingly comfortable mess, and most hospitably entertained us during our 
stay. After obtaining permission to move up to Peiwar, 10 miles further up 
the valley, we left Parachinar on the 21st of April. The Political Agent was 
so solicitous for our safety that he insisted on our taking an armed tribal escort 
of six men with us. We did not require their military assistance, but found 
them useful to look for nests, climb trees, and carry our guns and lunch- 
baskets. Making the little rest-house at Peiwar our headquarters, we daily 
explored the surrounding Ilex jungle and visited several times the pine-clad 
hills on the Afghan border. In an Ilex, Whitehead was fortunate in coming 
across a nest, with eggs, of jE githaliscus leucogenys. This bird is an early 
breeder, and six other nests that we found contained young. We had not been 
at Peiwar many days when rumours reached us from Parachinar that the 
Turis (the tribe inhabiting the Valley), who had been listening to wondrous 
tales of the spread of plague in Peshawar, poured into their ears by Kabuli 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 171 

traders and others passing up the valley from India to Afghanistan, had 
become highly suspicious of our movements and credited us with all sorts of 
nefarious deeds. We were supposed to be agents of the Government sent 
up to poison their-water-supply and to spread the plague. We were said to 
stalk abroad at night catching and inoculating rats, in order to disseminate the. 
pestilence. Colour was lent to this ingenuous theory by the fact that we had 
trapped a few Mole-rats, Gerbilles, and Dormice. Curiously enough we could 
see no signs of hostility in the villagers themselves, in fact we found them 
invariably friendly, and our tribal escort seemed to know nothing of these 
rumours. We were now anxious to shift camp and to move up the slopes of 
Sikaram, as the snow, under the influence of the summer sun, was gradually 
receding. But, in face of the rumours related above, the Political Agent did 
not think it advisable for us to do so, and even considered that our presence 
at Peiwar might lead to some act of violence towards us, and be the cause of 
administrative complications in the valley. We were, therefore, asked to 
return to Parachinar, where a meeting was called of the leading Maliks, on 
the result of which our fate with respect to being allowed to continue collect- 
ing would depend. Unfortunately and much to our chagrin the verdict of the 
" Jirga " was against us, and the Political Agent called on us and informed us 
that, owing to the popular excitement, it would be quite unsafe for us to go 
in to camp and that we could only work in the immediate vicinity of 
Parachinar. Our expedition thus came to an untimely end, and, as there was 
nothing more to be done in the bird-line at Farachinar, we returned to Thall, 
whence a few days later Whitehead took his departure for England, and I to 
places where ignorance and superstition would cease from troubling. 

I may mention that soon after we arrived in Parachinar from Peiwar news 
was brought in by a native officer of the local militia, who had been on leave 
to his village, that we had left Peiwar just in time. Had we remained another 
night, we were, like the Babes in the Wood, to have been foully murdered. All 
arrangements had been made, assassins hired, and our pleasant little camp 
was to have been converted into a shamble ! This was a most amusing yarn 
which tickled us immensely ! Gladly would we have accepted these small 
risks if only we had been allowed to continue our expedition. 

A glance at the accompanying map* will give a good idea of the 
geography of this portion of the N.«W. Frontier of India. Situated between 
the 32nd and 35th parallels of latitude and the 69th and the 72nd meridians of 
longitude it is in shape somewhat like a pipe, the District of Kohat forming 
the bowl and the Kurram Valley the stem and mouthpiece. Its northern 
boundary proceeding from east to west, consists of the bare and rocky hills 
lying between it and the Peshawar District, the Samana Eange ( barren hills, 
inhabited by independent Orakzai and Afridi tribes") and the Safed-Koh Range. 
This rugged barrier of hills is on the east as low as 3,000 feet above sea-level, 



This Map (Plate III) has not been reproduced.— Eds. 



172 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

but gradually increases in height westward till it culminates in the imposing 
snowclad ramparts of the Safed-Koh Range, the highest peak of which, 
Sikaram (15,600 feet), lies at its western extremity. To the west it is bounded 
by Afghanistan and Waziristan, to the south by the districts of Bannu and 
Mianwali, and to the east by the R. Indus. 

The general aspect of Kohat is a confused mass of low bare rocky hills, 
nullahs, and ravines, intersected by two main depressions running parallel and 
with a general trend from west to east. These depressions are formed, in the 
first case, by the Miranzai and Kohat Valleys running in prolongation of each 
other, and in the second by the Teri Valley. Two alluvial plains are also 
noticeable, namely, that around and east of Kohat Station, and the oasis of 
Lachi. The Kurram is a long valley, averaging some 2 miles in width at its 
lower end and broadening into a stoney plain 8 or 10 miles wide at its upper 
extremity and rising in the 70 miles from Thall 4,000 feet. Down its centre 
rushes, over a bed of stones and boulders, the river that gives its name to the 
valley, which rises in Afghanistan some 20 miles beyond the valley-head. 
Consisting, as the district does, for the most part of desert, the flora, compared 
with that of the Himalayas, is not luxurious. Coarse grass, Olives, thorn- 
scrub, and Dwarf Palms sparsely cover the hills, and in parts of the Miranzai 
Valley and around Thall the two latter form thick scrub-jungle. Ilex-Oaks, 
where their branches are not ruthlessly lopped and the trees are permitted to 
grow attain a considerable size on the Samana, and here and there on this hill 
some fine Ash-trees flourish. In the Safed-Koh Range, however, forests of 
Fir, Pine, and Cedar clothe the mountain-sides from about 8,000 to 12,000 feet, 
and cover the top of the spur over which the Peiwar Pass runs. Below, these 
forests are gradually replaced by Ilex trees which again, as one descends to the 
low foot-hills, are replaced by dense Ilex-scrub. 

Where water is easily brought on to the land, as is the case in the plains 
around Kohat and Lachi and in the Kurram, Hangu, and Teri Valleys, green 
oases of cultivation relieve the general barrenness. A feature of the cultiva- 
tion around Kohat and in the Miranzai Valley consists of the beautiful orchards 
of Mulberry, Peach, Plum, Fig, and Vine which abound, and are supple- 
mented, in the stonier parts, by groves of wild Olive-trees. The crops 
consist mainly of wheat ; but Indian corn, barley, millet, cotton, and sugarcane 
are also grown, and around Bangu, Thall, and in the Kurram Valley, 
rice. Immediately south of the station of Kohat the Government grass- 
farm, possesses many attractions for birds on migration, and, after irrigation, 
is not a bad place to observe Waders : even Duck and Snipe have been 
shot on it. The climate is very dry. As regards temperature : in the 
plains of Kohat the winter might be compared to that of the south of France, 
but the summer is decidedly hotter and probably most nearly approximates 
to that of Egypt. In the Kurram Valley temperatures are much lower, and 
the climate of Upper Kurram must be somewhat similar, both in summer and 
in winter, to that of Northern Germany. 






THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 173 

Ornithologically speaking, this corner of the Palaearctic Region* has hitherto 
been little worked. With the exception of the two papers by Colonel 
R. H. Rattray published in the " Journal " of the Bombay Natural History 
Society, " Notes on Nests taken from March to June at Kohat and Mussoorie, 
North-Western Provinces" (vol. x. p. 628), and "Birds collected and 
Observed at Thall " (vol. xii. p. 337), and a few observations by Major 
Wardlaw-Ramsay and others mentioned in the " Fauna of British India," I 
know of no contribution to its ornithology^. Neither Hume nor Jerdon, 
Oates nor Blanford, nor others of India's many excellent ornithologists, 
appear to have visited it. And yet it is an important locality, lying as it does 
in the extreme north-west of the Peninsula on one of the great migration- 
highways into India, and at a point on that highway where it converges to its 
narrowest limits. The pre-eminently Palsearctic character of the avifauna is 
most striking. Especially is this noticeable in the forms breeding in the Upper 
Kurram, very few of the many subtropical species inhabiting the Western 
Himalayas being found there. From the description of the Country and 
from its geographical position the predominance of such groups as the 
Accipitrines, Motaciilidae, Fringillinaa, Emberizinas, and of the desert-forms will 
not be considered surprising. Although undoubtedly well represented on 
migration, the Ducks, Waders, and shore-birds are difficult of observation in 
Kohat. With the exception of the grass-farm, the tank at Dhand-Idl-Khel, 
and some marshy tracts round Thall and Lachi, this district is singularly 
devoid of the moist places beloved of Wildfowl and Waders, no streams of any 
size flowing through it. Matters improve in this respect on arriving at the 
Kurram Valley. The river here being taken off for rice-cultivation in places 
along its banks, marshy spots have formed, and in the month of February, March 
and April, September and October, numbers of Wild -fowl and Waders, using 

* Dresser in the preface to his " Manual of Palsearctic Birds" does not clearly define the 
Paleearctic boundary in this locality, and by omitting all reference to the plains of India 
would seem to imply that Kohat belongs to the Indian Subregion. On the other hand, 
Blanford in his " Distribution of Vertebrate Animals in India " assigns the plains of the 
Punjab to the Palsearctic Begion. Professor Newton, however, in his article on " Birds " 
in the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' remarks that if Baluchistan is to be excluded from the 
Palaearctic Kegion, " then tbe line of demarcation must run inland and so continue between 
that, land and Afghanistan till ascending the right bank of the Indus it turns the shoulder 
of the Great Snowy range." The italics are mine, and 1 take this to mean that tbe line 
of demarcation strikes the Indus at a point in prolongation eastward of the Boundary-line 
between Afghanistan and Baluchistan, i.e., somewhere in the vicinity of Dera Ghazi Khan. 
If this is the correct interpretation of Newton's views then the ornithology of N. W. India 
strongly supports them. 

t There is only one allusion to Kohat itself in the " Fauna of British India," and that is 
in connection with the occurrence there of the Ked-wing {Tardus iliacus), recorded by Jerdon 
on hearsay from Blyth, on hearsay from Trotter. After more than two years' careful 
observation we failed to come across this bird, and I think we may safely say that it is not 
" a regular winter visitant," if it occurs at all. 



174 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

this river-route on migration, are induced to halt on their way, affording good 
sport to " Sahibs " and Turi villagers. The importance of this river as a 
migration-route is illustrated lower down, where it debouches into the sandy 
plains of Bannu, outside of the area which we are now considering. Here 
vast quantities of Wild fowl, Waders, and Gulls, on migration to their far-off 
northern homes from the lower reaches of the Indus and the Manchar Lake 
in Sind, are to be observed, in the months of February and March, asleep or 
preening their feathers on the mudbanks in mid-river. The majority of 
these birds undoubtedly keep to the river-route, there being no other impor- 
tant water-way lying near their line of migration, and must therefore, of 
necessity, pass up the Kurram Valley. It may be wondered at that the Eiver 
Indus, bordering Kohat, has not been mentioned as suited to the observation 
of Water-fowl. But in this portion of its course that great river is confined 
between hills, and flows over a rocky bed, consequently here it affords no 
feeding grounds or resting-places for such birds. Whitehead came down it 
in a boat at a time of year when he might have expected to find birds, but 
his journey proved disappointing. On the whole, then, Kohat and Kurram 
must be looked on as a profitable locality to the Indian ornithologist. 

The straggling of Western Paleearctic forms, not as yet recorded within 
Indian limits, into this area is probably of commoner occurrence than might 
be supposed, and, were it possible for a winter to be spent in collecting in the 
Upper Kurram, yet new species to the Indian list would doubtless be forth- 
coming. The task we set ourselves in our late trip, so unfortunately inter- 
rupted, still remains to be done, and most assuredly new breeding species to 
Iudia await the discoverer. 

It was at first intended to publish two separate papers, one on the birds of 
Kohat and another on those of the Kurram Valley, but Mr. Whitehead has 
decided, wisely as I think, to combine them. The two localities are contiguous, 
and the latter is, as- 1 mentioned before, the breeding-ground of many species 
that winter in the plains. - Of the total number of 340 species which the 
list contains, 321 were found in Kohat, the remaining 19 were met with 
only in the Kurram Valley. Considered together, therefore, the single paper 
will be found to be of greater scientific value than if the two districts had been 
separately treated, and Mr. Whitehead deserves much credit for the excellent 
piece of work which he has accomplished. 

II. — Preface. 
By C. H. T. Whitehead. 

Major Magrath does not take any credit for his own work. Before I even 
started he had made a fair list of the birds of Kohat, and it was his enthu- 
siasm that infected me. All that I have done is to somewhat amplify this 
list and add a little to the notes. The paper should have been written by 
him, but he insisted on my doing so, and has now most kindly gone carefully 
through it, making many necessary corrections and alterations and entirely 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 175 

rewriting the account of the Bulbuls of the genus Molpastes, the hybrid forms 
of which he was the first to observe in Kohat. 

Much interesting information was kindly contributed by Mr. D. Donald, 
C.I.E., the Political Officer and Commandant of the Border Military Police 
and Samana Rifles, which his long residence in Kohat (some 18 years), his 
frequent tours in the district, the interest he takes in birds generally, and 
in the Accipitrines in particular, and his great reputation as a falconer, render 
of especial value. 

Specimens of most of the Passerine and of a large number of the remaining 
birds included in this paper were shot and carefully compared with Gates and 
Blanford's excellent descriptions, measurements and points of difference if 
any, being always recorded, but only in the case of their not corresponding 
or of their being of special interest were skins made, for time did not permit 
of more. These skins are now in the British Museum and are those referred 
to in the paper. Amongst them will be found melanistic varieties of several 
species (Lanius lahtora, Passer domesticus, Antlius similis, A. spijjoletta) , which, 
except in the case of the Shrike, were shot out of flocks of similarly coloured 
birds. Taken as a whole, however, the birds of the District are characterized 
by their pale colouring, which is what one would expect from the desert 
nature of the country. 

Many more birds appear to halt in Kohat in the spring migration, which 
continues from February till well into June, than in the autumn. This is 
probably due to the configuration of the locality. The main Kohat Valley 
at its junction with the Indus is comparatively broad but narrows considerably 
towards the Kurram River, with which it is connected by the Ishkalai, an 
insignificant stream flowing in at Thall. The latter stream is probably easily 
missed by the hosts of migrants passing down the Kurram River in autumn. 
Major Magrath writes that they migrate down this river in the Bannu District 
in great numbers in August, September, and the first half of October. 

In square brackets are added notes on those species met with by Major 
Magrath in Bannu, but not found by us in Kohat or in the Kurram Valley, as 
most of them are likely to occur within our limits. The Bannu District, 
however, exhibits a great contrast to Kohat, consisting as it does for the most 
part of a broad, well-watered, highly cultivated plain with a good deal of 
marsh-land. 

In the following notes, wherever the expression "we" is used it refers, of 
course, to Major Magrath and myself, as we worked together. 

The word " plains " is used, as it usually is in India, to denote the low 
country — i.e., in this case, below about 3,000 feet — as opposed to the main 
hill-ranges, and not merely the flat country, the greater part of Kohat being a 
maze of low hills and ravines. Similarly the word " desert " is used in its 
wider sense to include stony and not necessarily level wastes which cover 
such a large part of the District (there is very little sandy desert). 

The nomenclature followed is that adopted by Oates and Blanford in the 



176 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

' Fauna of British India, Birds/ and the numbers placed in brackets before the 
scientific names are those used in that work. 

The following is a list of the papers chiefly referred to, all contributed to 
the ' Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society' : — 
Rattray, Colonel R. H. — Birds Collected and Observed at Thall. xii. pp. 337 

to 348 (1899). 
Marshall, Capt. T. E. — Notes on the Birds near Quetta : Part I. xiv. pp. 601 

to 602 (1902) ; Part II. xv. pp. 44 to 64 (1903). 
Fulton, Capt. H. T., D.S.O. — Notes on the Birds of Chitral. xvi. pp. 44 to 

64 and p. 744 (1904). 
Rattray, Colonel R. H. — Birds' nesting in the Murree Hills and Galis. xvi. 

pp. 421 to 428 and pp. 657 to 663 (1905). 
Cumming, J. W. N.— Birds of Seistan. xvi. pp. 686 to 699 (1905). 
Ward, Colonel A, E. — Birds of the Provinces of Kashmir and Jammu and 
Adjacent Districts, xvii. pp. 108 to 113, pp. 479 to 485 (1906), pp. 726 
to 729, pp. 943 to 949 (1907) ; xviii. pp. 461 to 464 (1908). 
To obviate the inconvenience of looking up these papers I have added 
references, and where possible the gist of the note. Attention is also drawn 
to Capt. Perreaus. " Notes on the Bird of Chitral " xix (4) pp. 901-922 
February 1910. It supplements Capt: Fulton's paper. 

My best thanks are due to Dr. Bowdler Sharpe and Mr. Charles Chubb for 
much assistance in the identification of my skins, and to the former for very 
kindly going through my notes and putting them into correct form in spite of 
a great press of other work. Also to Dr. Hartert for going through the 
series of Wagtail and Pipit-skins. Lastly, to Dr. Sclater, F.R.S., for most 
kindly looking through the proofs and seeing the paper through the press. 

III.— List op Birds and Remarks. 

By Lieut. C. H. T. Whitehead. 

[1.] Corvus corax. The Raven. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 337 (common round Thall) ; Marshall, op. cit. 
xiv. p. 681 (the small race very common and resident at Quetta); Cumming, 
op. cit. xvi. p. 686 (rare in Seistan) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 108. 

Ravens of all sizes are very common in the cold weather, especially round 
human habitations, the majority leaving in April or early in May, but I have 
counted over 80 roosting together as late as the 18th of May near Kohat. 

A few, however, mostly smaller birds, are resident all the year round. 

[3.] Corvus corone. The Carrion -Crow. 

Cumming, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 686 (common in winter in Seistan, and 
of ten seen about houses) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 108 (resident in Kashmir, 
nesting between 8,000 and 10,000 ft.). 

505. $ ad. Kurram Valley, 5,800 ft., 19th April. 

I am not sure whether this species occurs in the plains or not. Major 
Magrath has found it fairly common in winter in Bannu, so it probably does. 



THE BIRDS OF KOIIAT AND THE KORRAM VALLEY. 177 

In the Upper Kin-ram Valley it nests freely in April from 5,000 ft. upwards; a 
Ckinar (Plane-tree) near a village being usually selected as a nesting site. 
Like the Raven, the Carrion-Crow is not a dweller in the wilds in these parts, 
but prefers the neighbourhood of mankind. 

[4.] Corves maceorhynchos. The Jungle-Crow. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 337 (Thall : very common) ; Fulton, op. cit. 
xvi. p. -45 (Lower Chitral : very common) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 421 (very com- 
mon up to 9,000 ft. : Murree Hills ); Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 108. 

Abundant in the plains from November till mid-April (last seen on the 
28th), partially taking the place of C. splenclens. In summer it retires to the 
Ilex-and Fir-clad slopes of the higher ranges, nesting freely on the Safed 
Koh. 

[5.] Corvus erugilegus. The Rook, 

Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. p. 601 (once seen in January near Quetta) ; 
Gumming, op. cit. xvi. p. 086 (common in Seistan in winter) ; Ward, op. cit. 
xvii. p. 108 (occurs in winter along the R. Jhelum). 
641. $ juv. Samana, 6,500 ft., 5th March. 
744. 745. 9 ; 746 $ juv. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 25th March. 
Visits the district in large flocks in winter, arriving in November and re- 
maining as late as the middle of April. The birds, however, staying on 
through March appear to be almost all young which have not entirely shed 
the face-feathers and nasal bristles. Gates, in the ' Fauna of India, ' writes : 
V About January or when the young bird is about nine months old the nasal 
bristles are cast, and by March the front part of the head has become 
entirely denuded of feathers." Here, neither are entirely lost till April. 
The above-mentioned examples represent the ordinary type found here in 
March. 

[6.] Corves sharpii. Sharpe's Hooded Crow. 

Corvus sharpii, Oates, F. B. I., Birds, i. p. 20 ; dimming, J. B. N. H. S xvi. p. 
686 (common in Tamarisk-jungle of Seistan) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 109 (a 
rare visitor to Kashmir). 

We have not observed the Hoodie in Kohat, but Mr. Donald, the Political 
Officer, tells me that he has met with one or two almost every year, generally 
about the grass-farm. This Crow is a common winter visitor to the Peshawar 
and Bannu Districts, which are better suited to its habits. From the latter 
3Iajor Magrath has sent a typical specimen of the race Corvus comix sharpii 
to the British Museum. 

[7.] Corvus splendens. The House-Crow. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 337 (not common at Thall) ; Ward, op. cit. 
xvii. p. 109 (common in the low country). 

A resident and extremely common in summer, In mild winters numbers 
remain, but in severe weather it almost entirely disappears, C, macrorJiynchus 
taking its place as the common cook-house scavenger. 
[9.] Corvus monedula. The Jackdaw. 



178 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 387 (rare in Thall) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 109L. 

A rather rare winter visitor from December till March, occurring with 
large flocks of Rooks. Major Magrath noted immense flocks coming into the 
station on 6ve consecutive evenings, just before the cold wave in January 
1905. Similar flocks, but mixed with Rooks, roosted in cantonments for a few 
nights in February 1908. 

[10.] Pica eustica. The Magpie. 

Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. p. 601 (common round Quetta) ; Fulton, op. 
cit. xvi. p. 46 (very common in Upper Chitral) ; Gumming, t. c. p. 086 (scarce 
in Seistan : 1,700 ft.) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 109 (cummon in Ladak and. 
Baltistan). 
,, 661. Marai, 2,900 ft., 9th March. 

773. $ ad. Raisaa, 2,100 ft. 1st April. 

A resident, but somewhat rare in Kohat, being more often seen in Samilzai 
than elsewhere ; a few pairs also occur on the Samana, where Major Magrath 
found a nest in April built in an Ilex, just above the tennis-court. In the 
Upper Kurram Valley it is very common, especially near Peiwar, and occurs 
up to the tree-limit. The nest is usually placed in an Ilex, and is of the 
normal type, though often within six or seven feet of the ground. The 
above examples appear to be typical P. rustica. 

[16.] Dejtdrocitta rufa. The Indian Tree-Pie. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 337 (Thall : a few seen) ; Ward. op. cit. xvii.. 
p. 109. 

670. ,4 ad. Riisan, 2,300 ft., 12th March. 

709. $ ad. Kohat, 1.760 ft., 10th March. 

A common winter visitor to Kohat, arriving early in September and leaving 
about mid-April. A few pairs, however remain to nest, Mr. Donald, the 
Political Officer, having several times observed young birds in July in the 
Miranzai Valley barely able to fly. 

[■24.] G-areulus lanceol'atus. The Black-throated Jay. 

Rattray. J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 337 (Thall: common on the hills); Fulton, 
op. cit. xvi. p. 46 (Lower Ghitral : very common from 5,000 to 10,000 ft.);: 
Rattray, t. c. p. 421 (very common round Murree) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii.. 
p. 109. 

Rare in the plains. During the cold spell in November and December, 
1905, a few individuals occurred about the grass-farms and the orchards of 
Kohat. A resident on the Samana Range above 5,000 ft., but not common. 

Fairly plentiful in the Ilex scrub in the Kurram Valley, occurring up to 
8,000 ft. Generally goes about in parties of four or five, out of the bteeding- 
season, but sometimes collects into big flocks. Major Magrath observed one 
of about forty individuals near Peiwar (/ ( 000 It.) in April 1907. Very shy 
and difficult to observe. 

[j8.] Nucieeaga multipunctata. The- Larger-spotted Nutcracker.. 
35 Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 46 (only got one specimen, no others seenj ;. 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KDERA3I VALLEY. 179 

"Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 109, xviii. p. 451 (common : young hatch out in April ; 
probably two broods). 

Occurs sparingly amongst the conifers of the Safed Koh, but is more often 
heard than seen. Its cry resembles the syllables "7eack-Mck" rapidlv repeated, 
hence its Pushtu name " Khakarra." 

[30.] Pyrrhocorax alpinus. The Yellow-billed Chough. 
Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. p. G05 (occurs at 10,000 ft., near Quetta) ; 
Fulton, op. cit. xvi. p. 46 (Chitral : very common from 5,00u ft. to 10,000 ft., 
according to season) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 109 (occurs from 5,500 ft. in winter 
upwards, often caught in traps set round carrion for foxes). 

Not common but fairly well distributed in summer along the upper slopes 
of the Safed Koh above tree-limit. By the end of June the birds had 
collected into small flocks. 

[>1.] Parus atriceps. The Indian Grey Tit. 

Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. p. 6ul (winter visitor to Quetta : seen at Ziarat, 
8,000 ft., in May) ; Fulton, op. cit. xvi. p. 46 (Chitral : very common) ; Rattray, 
t. c. p. 421 (very common up to 6,500 ft. : Murree) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 109. 
327. $ juv. Safed Koh, 7,500 ft., !6tb July. 

A very common winter visitor to the District from mid September till 
about the third week in April. A resident on the Samana above 5,000 ft. 
Nests in the Ilex-scrub of the Upper Kurrarn in fair numbers. 
Anthoscopus CORONATus. The Turkestan Penduline Tit. 
Hartert, Pal. Vogel, i. p. 392. 

Lachi, 1,50.0 ft., 25th March ; $ $ ad., Kohat, 1,760 ft., 7th— 8th April ; 
$ ad., Kohat, 1,760 ft., 18th March. 

Major Magrath first observed a party of these Tits on a Peach-tree in his 
garden in April 1^05. Since then we have met with the bird regularly from 
mid-March till mid April in parties of from two or three to forty or more, 
chiefly frequenting Shisham trees, but also orchards and Camel-thorn scrub. 
The call-note resembles that of Zosterops palpebrot-a and is constantly uttered. 

Mr. T. E,. Bell, I.F.S., was the first to discover this species in India. He met 
with parties of it in February 1904 in the tamarisk-acacia scrub- jungle near 
Sukkur, Sind, and procured several examples (vide J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 244). 
[37.] ./Egithaliscus leucogenys. The White-cheeked Tit. 
Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 46 (resident and very common from 6,000 to 
12,000 ft. in Lower Chitral) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 109. 
333. $ ad. Safed Koh, 1,800 ft., 20lh July. 
391. 9 ad. Samana, 5,000 ft., 5th November. 

A resident in the Upper Kurram Valley and on the Samana, being largely 
reinforced on the latter in winter : and at that season some descend to the 
lower scrub covered hills occurring as far south as the Mianwali District, and 
down to 2,500 ft., where I have met with parties as late as the 9th of April. 

Breeds freely in the Hex-scrub near Peiwar from 6,000 to 8,01,0 ft. Nesting 
operations must commence towards the end of March, as a nest found on the 



180 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. X K. 

1st of May contained fully fledged young. The nest is usually placed near the 
top of an Ilex-bush from three to seven feet above the ground. It is egg- 
shaped and rather like that of the British Long-tailed Tit, but a good deal 
smaller and not quite so neat. It is made of moss and cobwebs outside, lined 
with a little grass, with a thick inner lining of feathers. The opening is 
usually near the top, but is sometimes nearer the centre. We came across 
seven nests altogether, the first six containing young, and the seventh a nearly 
fresh clutch of five eggs, these are pure white, three having a very faint 
zone of spots round the large end, the remainder being unmarked, and 
averaging - 58" X '39". The clutch appears to vary from five to eight. The 
young closely resemble their parents, but the colours are duller, and the black 
of the chin and throat is replaced by a few indistinct dusky streaks. 

Capt. Keen also observed a pair of these Tits with a newly fledged family on 
the Samana. 

In habits this species closely resembles the Long-tailed Tit, going about in 
parties of eight or nine in scrub-jungle continually uttering its calLnote, which 
may be rendered by the syllables " prit-t-t,'' and often in company with Parus 
atriceps. 

[44.] Lophophanes melanolophus. The Crested Black Tit. 

Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 46 (abundant in Chitral from 5,000 to 12,000 ft.); 
Rattray, t. c. p. 422 (common in the Murree Hills) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 110 
(common in Kashmir). 

Very common on the Safed Koh from 6,500 ft. to tree-limit. An early 
breeder. Major Magrath found a nest containing young on the 25th of April. 
It has a great variety of notes. 

[91 .] Trochalopterum simile. The Western Variegated Laughing-Thrush. 

Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 47 (resident and very common up to t: ,000 ft. 
in Lower Chitral) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 422 (very common round Murree, up to 
10,000 ft.) ; Ward,' op. cit. xvii. p. 422. 

417. Ad. Samana, 5,600 ft., 19th December. 

A resident, but rare. Altogether I met with about a dozen' individuals in 
one wooded nullah on the northern slope of the Samana, but nowhere else. 
It is a great skulker ; its loud whistling notes, however, proclaim its presence. 
Usually found creeping about the densest part of the undergrowth. 

[99.] Trochalopterum lineatum. The Himalayan Streaked Laughing- 
Thrush. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 337 (common in winter : Thall) ; Marshall, 
op. cit. xiv. p. 602 (common at 4,000 ft. in February : Quetta) ; Fulton, op. cit. 
xvi. p. 47 (abundant in Chitral); Rattray, t, c. p. 422 (commonest bird in 
Murree Hills) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 110. 

130, $ ad. Marai, 3,0u0 ft., 25th February. 

579. Sex ? Kohat, 1,760 ft., 13th February. 

63 5. 9 ad. „ „ 1st March. 

653. $ ad. Hangu, 2.700 ft., 8th March. 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 181 

Abundant and resident on the Samana, many birds wintering in the Miranzai 
and Samilzai Valleys, and, in the winter of 1907/1908, and again in 1909 quite 
a number visited the orchards around Kohat, staying till April. Occurs also in 
the Kurram Valley up to 7,000 ft., but not so commonly. 

[105.] Argya Caudata. The Common Babbler. 

Rattray, J. B. X. H. S. xii. p. 337 (abundant at Thall) ; Cumming, op. cit. 
xvi. p. 686 (very common in Seistan) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 110 (found in the 
outer ranges). 

A resident and very common, especially in scrub-jungle, only occasionally, 
visiting gardens. Does not ascend the hills to aQy height, its place being taken 
by Crateropus canorus. 

Breeds in April and May. 

[104.] Argya earlii. The Striated Babbler. 

Major Magrath obtained an example of this species last March in a reed-bed 
in Bannu. 

[110.] Crateropus canorus. The Jungle Babbler. 

Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 110 (chiefly confined to Jammu). 

639. $ ad. Hangu, .-,700 ft., 3rd March. 

66C. $ ad. Marai, 3,000 ft., 10th March. 

A resident, taking the place of. Argya caudata from the foot of the hills 
where the two occur together, up to 4,000 feet in winter and 6,000 feet in 
summer. Fairly common, too, in the Miranzai Valley in winter, wherever 
there is plenty of scrub- jungle. Not observed in the Kurram Valley. 

[139.] Pyctorhis sinensis. The Yellow-eyed Babbler. 

Major Magrath has met with parties of this Babbler in the sugar-cane fields 
and reed-beds of Bannu. An example shot by him is now in the National 
Collection. 

[1*7.] Myiophoneus temmincki. The Himalayan Whistling-Thrush. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 338 (common in winter : Thall) ; Marshall, 
op. cit. xiv. p. -02 (Quetta : 7,000 ft. in May) ; Fulton, op. cit. xvi. p. 47 
(common in Lower Chitral) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 422 (common in Murree Hills); 
Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 110. 

A fairly common winter visitor from mid-September till mid-April, rather 
rare round Kohat, but common in the Miranzai and Samilzai Valleys on tht 
Samana and occurring as far south as the Mianwali District. A resident in the 
Kurram Valley, nesting between 6,000 and 8,000 feet. Usually found about 
cliffs and groves near water, but sometimes in very dry shadeless spots some 
distance from water. 

[191.] Larvivora brunnea. The Indian Blue- Chat. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 423 (common at Murree) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. 
p. 110 (nests in Kashmir up to 8,000 ft.). 

Occurs in summer along the lower slopes of the Saf ed Koh between 6,500 
and 8,000 ft., but is not common except in one or two secluded glens. Very 
shy, has a rich but quite short song. 



182 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

[226.] Zosterops palpebrosa. The Indian White-eye. 
774. $ ad. Kachai. 2,700 ft., 1st April. 

A cold weather visitor to the District, the first parties arriving in August, 
but it does not become common till October, it leaves toward the middle of 
April. Possibly a resident on the Samana : a parry of eight or nine stayed 
there during the winter of 1906 07, in spite of frequent heavy snow-storms ; 
a large number arrived early in April, though whether only on migration 
or not I cannot say, as I left shortly afterwards, Not observed in the 
Kurram Valley. 

[269, J Hypsipetes psaroides. The Himalayan Black Bulbul. 
Fulton, J. B N. H. S. xvi. p 47 (common in summer) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 424 
(common round Murree) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. Ill (common in Kashmir). 
583. 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 15th February. 
630. $ ad. „ ,. 1st March. 

In 1 907 several parties of this species visited the district early in February, 
staying till the end of March. They were always to be found about the same 
spot never wandering far away. Berries of the Boquain tree (Persian lilac) 
seemed to form their staple food. 

[283.] Molpastes intermedius.* The Punjab Red-vented Bulbul 
Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. Ill (found in Pooneh and Jammu). 
834. 9 ad. Kohat. 1 ,700 ft,, 1st March. 
733. $ ad. „ „ 23rdMarcb. 

786. $ ad. „ „ 4th April. 

A resident and not uncommon in the gardens and orchards around Kohat, 
though seldom seen elsewhere in the District. This species, as Major Magrath 
has pointed out, probably interbreeds with M. leucogenys, as they are so often 
seen together, and birds intermediate in colouring are so common (vide next 
note). Mr. Donald, the Political Officer, states that on two separate occasions 
he has met with -the present species in Kohat paired with a yellow-vented 
Bulbul and at the same nest. Further, that it is well known amongst local 
gardeners that the red and yellow-vented Bulbuls do interbreed, their progeny 
being known as " Neemchi," i.e., half-breeds. M. intermedins is the common 
resident Bulbul of the Peshawar district north of Kohat. 
List of hybrids between M. intermedins and M, leucogenys. 

Ear-coverts. Under tail-coverts. 

590. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 10th Feb. dingy white, yellow. 
564. Ad. „ „ 6th „ „ orange. 

631. 9 ad. „ „ 1st Mar. dark brown. red. 

635. 9 ad. „ ,, 2nd ,, „ pale buff. 

689. 9 ad. „ ., 16th „ dirty white, yellow with orange 

tips. 
700. $ ad. ,, „ 17th „ white. orange. 

* For Dr. II. Bowcller Sharpe's opinion on the series of Bulbul ( Molpastes intermedins, 
leucogenys, lencotis and magrathi) wo collected, see the " Ibis," April 1909, p. 802. 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AAD THE KURRAM VALLEY. 133 

710. 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 19th Feb. dark brown, dull crimson. 

735. 9 ad. ,, „ 24th ,, 

758. $ ? „ „ 28th „ dusky white, orange. 

785. 9 ad. „ „ 4th Apr. dull white. lemon-yellow. 

790. $ ad. „ „ 5th „ „ ' brownish -orange. 

791 $ ad. „ „ 5th „ „ orange-yellow. 

(A truly wonderful series, but the birds must be hybrids.— R.B.S.) 

These remarks are by Dr. Sharpe, and from them it will be seen that the 
• series ranges from an almost pure M. intermedins to a nearly pure M. hucogewjs. 
No two examples are alike, some being more like " intermedins" others more 
like '* leufiogenys" or " hucotis" 

[284.] Molpastes leucogeny?. The White-cheeked Bulbul. 

Fulton, J B. N H. S. xvi. p. 47 (Cbitral : summer visitor from March to 
•October; very common up to 7,000 feet); Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. Ill (very 
common in Kashmir). 

591. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 16th Feb. Very grey on the breast, but with 

pale yellow under tail coverts. 

724. $ ad. „ „ 21st Mar. 

767. 9 ad. „ ., 31st „ More typical. 

779. $ ad. „ „ 2nd Apr. 

780. Ad. ,. „ » 
789. 9 ad. „ „ 5th Apr. 
792. $ ad. „ „ 
[I do not call these birds true P. leucogenys, as they are so much darker on 

the head, which is nearly blackish, and have not the olive on the back. They 
•illustrate how variable is the coloration of this species in Kohat. In spite of 
its abundance it is difficult to procure an example true to type. Most of the 
birds seen have the breast mottled, i.e., instead of having the black of the 
upper breast clearly defined from the light colour of the lower parts, it 
graduates into it, frequently combined with a mottled back and sullied cheek- 
patches and a blackish head with or without a supercilium, R. B. S.] 

Major Magrath, who has specially studied the Bulbuls in Bannu, kindly 
contributes the following note on the present species :— 

" Dr. Bowdler Sharpe is, J believe, inclined to the view that this Bulbul 
differs generically from Molpastes. With this I can hardly agree. Seen in its 
natural state, the bird is a true Molpastes. In habits and notes it differs little 
from the next species, with which it mixes freely, and from which it is 
anything but easy to distinguish when in a tree. It seems likely that the two 
species interbreed, but I have had no opportunity of observing a fertile cross, 
although I have seen wild birds which looked very like hybrids between the 
two species. The diet of the present species is perhaps more insectivorous 
than that of the next. It is much addicted to the habit of fly-catching in the 
•evenings and is often seen on the ground feeding on ants and grubs under 
tree?. It is less of a garden bird than the next species. Its staple food m 



184 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

these parts is the berries of the Ber (Zisyphus vulgaris) and Boquain (Melia 
azedaracK) trees. Numbers of this species are caught in Bannu in winter and 1 
hawked about the bazaars, perched on pieces of stick, to which they are 
attached by a long string tied round the body. Although I have examined 
several of these captives and bought many in order to release them, in no case- 
have I seen among them a bird of the next species, which is also so common 
at Bannu. I attribute the ease with which the present species is caught to its 
greater fearlessness and to its partiality for the grubs of the white ant, with 
which the traps are usually baited : this attraction the birds are simply 
unable to resist." 

This Bulbul is resident in Kohat, and breeds freely in the Station and in 
the orchards round about. 

{285.] Molpastes leucotis. The White eared Bulbul. 
Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 338 (common in February and March, a few" 
pairs staying to breed) ; Marshall, op. cit. xiv. p. G02 (a few occur in March 
and April) ; Gumming, op. cit. xvi. p. 686 (Seistan : saw several which appeared 
to be of this species, but failed to secure any). 

In July 19'»5 Major Magrath found a pair of Bulbuls nesting in his garden 
which he took to be of the present species. At that time he concluded that 
this bird in summer replaced the last as the breeding species in Kohat and was- 
unaware, as we subsequently discovered (vide note on the last species), that 
31. leucogenys bred commonly in and around Kohat Unfortunately we did not 
critically study the Bulbuls at that time, and not having since spent a "hot- 
weather" in Kohat we have not had an opportunity of collecting any examples 
of the present species. According to Major Magrath, the note of this bird is 
well represented by the following words repeated rapidly : " Quick— a drink 
with you ?" 

Molpastes mageathi. Magrath 's Bulbul.. 
Whitehead, Bull. B. O. C. xxi. p. 48 (1908). 

In February 1907 Major Magrath sent a skin of a Bulbul obtained in the 
Bannu District to Dr. Bowdler Sharpe. The latter and other eminent 
ornithologists who examined it, finding that there was nothing exactly like it 
in the National Collection, were of opinion that it belonged to a new species. 
This opinion was further strengthened by the arrival of three more specimens 
collected by Major Magrath in the same locality. These all agreed more or 
less with the first example sent, except that the black of the breast in one 
was clearly defined from the whitish lower parts, instead of graduating into 
them as in the other specimens. At a meeting of the British Ornithologists' 
Club held on the 15th of January, 1908, I exhibited these specimens and 
described the bird as a new species, naming it as above in honour of its dis- 
coverer. 

Major Magrath's specimens differ from the hybrid forms already described 
in being closely allied to M. leucotis and not to M. leucngenys. It is difficult 
to ascribe them to a hybrid form, as in the case of the Kohat birds, because 



THE BIRDS OF KOIIAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 185 

M. intermedins does not, Major Magrath assures me, occur in Bannu, andl 
31. leucogenys there is always more or less true to type. Dr. Sharpe also con- 
curs in this], 

[320.] Sitta kashmieensis. Brooks's Nuthatch. 

Fulton, J. B. X. H. S. xvi. p. 48 (Chitral : very common from 6,000 to 11,000' 
ft. ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 1 11 (obtained in April in Kashmir). 

Fairly common on the Peiwar Spur of the Safed Koh and in the adjoining, 
nullahs from 7,500 to 10,000 ft. 

[323.] Sitta leucopsis. The White-cheeked Nuthatch. 
Fulton, J. B X. H. S. xvi. p. 48 (Chitral : very common from 7,000 to 
12,000 ft.) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 424 (fairly common above 8,000 ft. : Murree 
Hill) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. Ill (fairly common). 

This is the common Nuthatch of the Safed Koh, from 8,000 ft. to tree-limit.. 
Its curious call-note, resembling the word " pain " (pronounced like the 
French word for " bread "), may be heard all day long. 

[327.] Diceueus ater. The Black Drongo, or King Crow. 
Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 338 summer visitor to Thall ; Fulton, op. cit. 
xvi p. 48 (Chitral : common in summer up to 5,500 ft.) ; Ward op. cit. xvii. 
p. Ill (Kashmir : occurs up to 7,000 ft.). 

One of our commonest summer visitors from the plains up to 8,500 feet m 
the Kurram Valley, the first birds arriving in the middle of March and the 
species becoming common a fortnight later. It disappears towards the end 
of October Probably, however, the Drongo we observed above 7,000 feet on 
the Safed Koh belonged to the allied species D. longicaudaius, the differences 
not being very marked and the latter being a common bird in the Murree 
Hills Unfortunately no examples were procured. 

[341.] Certhia himalayana. The Himalayan Tree-Creeper. 
Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 48 (shot in August) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 424 
(Murree Hills : very common) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. lit (abundant up to 
10,000 ft.). 
623. 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 29th February. 
690. 9 ad. „ „ 16th March. 

A common cold-weather visitor to the District from September till April, 
occurring on the Samana up to 6,000 feet. It does not by any means restrict 
itself to trees : I have often noticed it climbing up walls. 

Breeds in fair numbers on the Safed Koh, from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. 
The call-note is a faint squeak, rarely heard in winter. In summer its 
loud but rather monotonous song is constantly uttered. 
[348.] Tichodroma mcraria. The Wall- Creeper. 

Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. p. 602 (Quetta : occurs in winter from 1,000 
feet upwards) ; Fulton, op. cit. xvi. p. 48 (Chitral : common from October 
till April) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. Ill (winter visitor sometimes assuming 
black throat-feathers.) 

40. Ad. ? Khushalgarh, 1,200 ft., 16th December. 

2<i 



186 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

315. $ juv. Safed Koh, 15,000 ft., 12th July. 

A winter visitor to the District from October till mid-March ; common on 
the Samana, but less so elsewhere. Generally found singly or in pairs about 
cliffs, but occasionally some distance from rocks on earth-banks. 

An example shot on the 13th of March had the black feathers on the throat 
and breast well developed. 

On the 12th of J uly, 1906, I came across a newly-fledged family at 15,000 
feet on the Safed Koh, in the shale screes, and shot one specimen. The 
wing-and tail-feathers were only partially grown, the bill was quite soft and 
very short, and bits of down were still adhering to its plumage. It would there- 
fore appear that the Wall-Creeper nests within Indian limits. When touring 
through the Kaghan Valley, Hazara District, this year (10th of July, 1908) 
my shikari minutely described to me a bird that he had seen that day, which 
could scarcely be anything else but a Wall-Creeper. 

Mr. S. L. Whymper also informed me in a letter (I have not got this by me. 
but, so far as I remember, it was to the following effect) that a friend of his had 
actually found a Wall-Creeper nesting somewhere on the North-West Fron- 
tier, but had been unable to get at the nest. 

Anoethuea magrathi. Whitehead's Wren. 

Whitehead, Bull. B. O. C. xxi. p. 19 (1908). 

343. $. Safed Koh, 12,500 ft., 6th August. 

344. ? Safed Koh, 8,500 ft., 8th August. 

Bill blackish, base and gape yellow ; torsus brownish flesh-coloured ; iris 
L brown. 

This appears to be a well-marked race of A . neglecta, differing from it in 
being almost uniform in colouring above, the barring being scarcely perceptible, 
and in having the throat ashy grey. In summer it is found fairly commonly 
-on the Safed Koh, from 8,000 feet upwards, chiefly in the juniper-scrub. I 
have met with it on the very summit of the range, picking about amongst the 
rocks. 

In habits and song it closely resembles A.parvula and A. neglecta. 

[358.] Regulus cristatus. The Goldcrest. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. Ill, and xviii. p. 461 (not common ; eggs taken 
in May, June, and July in the Liddar Yalley, Kashmir). 

Fairly numerous in summer amongst the firs and deodars of the Safed Koh 
from 8,000 to 1.1,000 feet. 

[359.] Aedon eamiliaris. The Grey-backed Warbler. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. pp. 225, b39 and 579 (fairly common at Thall ; 
found several nests) ; Watson, op. cit. xv. p. 144 (occurs at Chaman, near 
•Quetta, in August and September) ; dimming, op. cit. xvi. p. 686 (very 
•common in Seistan in summer). 

246. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 6th May. 

Fairly common up to 3,500 feet, from April till September, in dry scrub- 
jungle ; round Thall it is particularly common. In the breeding-season the 



THE BIRDS OF KOIIAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 187 

male may often be seen perched on the top of a bush, pouring forth its sweet 
song. In many of its habits it resembles the Indian Robin (Thamnobia cam- 
hay ensis), especially in the way it flirts and spreads its tail, and also in its tame 
•and conBding habits. If the intruder happens to approach the nest, the pair 
will follow him about uttering their alarm-cry— wutch, wutch. If the nest be 
found they get terribly excited, and will sometimes remain hovering in the air 
within a few feet. Of five nests found, three were placed in thorn-bushes 
close to the ground, the other two on the ground under low shrubs. They 
were cup-shaped and loosely constructed of coarse grass and roots. I looked 
in vain for the bit of serpent-skin which Mr. Dresser, in the ' Manual of 
Palsearctic Birds,' states is always found in the nest of this species. 

The specific title (familiaris) is very appropriate, but the trivial name (Grey- 
backed) seems to be only misleading, for the back is fulvous-brown, the most 
■noticeable feature being the bright red, white-tipped tad which the bird is so 
fond of displaying. 

[362.] Locustella. straminea. The Turkestan Grasshopper-Warbler. 

742. 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 25th March. 

749. Sex ? „ „ 26th March. 

776. $ ad. „ „ 2nd April. 

Passes through the District in fair numbers from the third week in March 
till the middle of May. Not observed in autumn. It is chiefly found on the 
•grass-farms and in young crops, occasionally in gardens. It is not such a 
skulker as one would expect ; there is no difficulty in flushing it, but it is not 
easy to observe or to shoot, except on the wing. 

[363.] Acrocephalus stentoreus. The Indian Great Reed- Warbler. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 112 (breeds in Kashmir in June). 

Common on migration from the end of March till well into June, and again 
in August and September ; possibly a few stay to nest in Kohat. 

I found a small colony nesting in a reed-bed near Dandar, (4,700 ft.), in 
the Kurram Valley, on the 9th of July. 

[366.] Acrocephalus dumetordm. Blyth's Reed-Warbler. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 112 (summer visitor to the Valley of Kashmir). 

203. J ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 13th April. 

231. $ ad. „ „ 29th A.pril. 

247. $ ad. „ „ 6th May. 

360. Juv. „ „ 30th August. 

Like the last species, this Warbler passes through in great force in April. 
May, and early June, returning in August and September. Not often found 
in reed-beds, preferring shady gardens and orchards. The sweet rambling 
song may often be heard issuing from the midst of a thick mulberry-tree. 
Probably breeds in the Upper Kurram Valley. 

The upper plumage of this species is distinctly tinged with olivaceous. 
.Mr. Oates does not mention this in the ' Fauna of British India. ' 

[307.] Acrocephalus agricola. The Paddyfield Reed-Warbler. 



188 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX, 

Ward, J. B. N. H S. xvii. p. 112 (nest not found). 

729. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 23rd March. 

Our commonest Reed-Warbler on migration, passing through from the third 
week in March till about the end of May and returning in August, September, 
and October. Seldom found far away from reed- beds or irrigated crops. 

Occurs with the last species on migration in the Kurram Valley, and perhaps 
breeds there. Both Davidson ('The Ibis,' 1808, p. 9) and Lieut. Wilson 
(J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 635) found it nesting in Kashmir. 

[374.] Orthotonus sutorius. The Indian Tailor -bird. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 112 (occurs in Jammu, but is rare). 

751. 9 Kohat, 1,700 ft., 27th March. 

A resident, common in gardens and orchards around Kohat. Not observed 1 
in the Kurram Valley. 

[377.] Lusctniola melanopogox. The Moustached Sedge-Warbler. 

152. $ ad. Kohat, 1,850 ft., 19th March. 

696. 9 ad. Lachi, 1,540 ft., 17th March. 

A winter visitor in small numbers, largely reinforced in February and 
March. I have searched for it in May in the plains without success, but, on 
the other hand, I shot an example at Dandar (4,700 ft.) in the Kurram Valley 
on the 20th of April and saw others but found none there in July. The wing 
and wing-muscles, however, are so feeble that it can scarcely go very far away 
to breed. Has a pleasing song which is often uttered, even in winter. 

[381.] Cisticola cursitans. The Rufous Fantail-Warbler. 

77. 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 11th January. 

Abundant in summer wherever there is cultivation. The majority leave in- 
autumn, but a few stay through the winter, and are then more often found in 
and around reed-beds than elsewhere. In the Kurram Valley we observed it 
as high as Parachinar (5,700 ft.) 

[384.] Franklinia btjchanani. The Rufous-fronted Wren-Warbler. 

121. $ ad. Jabba, 2,400 ft., 18th February. 

781. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 3rd April. 

A common resident in the scrub-jungle of the District, but does not ascend! 
the hills, usually occurring in small parties or pairs. It is always on the 
move, either creeping about in bushes or running mouse-like along the 
ground from one bush to another. In spring the air resounds with its cheery 
little song. 

[394.] Hypolais rama. Sykes's Tree-Warbler. 

Marshall, J. B. K H. S. xiv. p. 602 (summer visitor, nesting in May :- 
Quetta) ; Bentham, op. cit. xvi. p. 749 (nests freely in rose-hedges : Quetta). 

546. $ ad. Thall, 2,500 ft., 11th May. 

759. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 29th March. 

Occurs sparingly on migration. 

[396 ] Hypolais caligata. The Booted Tree-Warbler. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 112 (passes through Baltistan, but rare) 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 189 

229. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 29th April, 1906. 

551. 9 ad. Thall, 2,500 ft., 15th May 1907. 

Passes through in fair number in April and May, returning in August. 
Usually found in dry scrub. J n appearance very like PhyUosco/,us tristis, but 
•not quite so active. This species probably breeds within our limits. 

[Major Magrath procured an example of the rare Hypolaia obsoleta at Bannu 
on the 8th September 1907. It was creeping about in grass with others.] 

[398.] Sylvia cineeea. The Common Whitethroat. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 112. 

357. 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 30th August. 

358. $ ad. 

Not common. Only a few observed during the autumn migration at the 
«nd of August and beginning of September 1906. 

[399.] Sylvia jeedoxi. The Eastern Orphean Warbler. 

Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. p. 602 (common in April and May : Quetta) : 
Gumming, op. cit. xvi. p. 687 (common in the Tamarisks: Seistan) ; Betham. 
-t. c. p. 831 (nests freely in April and May above 7,000 ft.: Quetta); Ward, 
op. cit. xvii. p. 112 (recorded at Gilgit on migration). 

491. $. ad. Thall, 2,500 ft., 14th April. 

A summer visitor, and not common. Has a very fine song. We found 
several pairs in the scrub round Thall in April. On picking up the above- 
example, I noticed some cobwebs in the bill, and on looking round found a nest 
in a thick bush close by. It was composed of roots, bits of green plants, and a 
lot of cobwebs, and had not been completed. 

[400.] Sylvia nana. The Desert-Warbler. 

Watson, J. B. X. H. S. xv. p. 145 (occurs near Chaman). 

452. Sex ? ad. Lachi, 1,500 ft., 24th February. 

This example was shot creeping about in a thorn-bush in the desert. Only 
one other was seen, and that was in a similar spot, the following year. 

[401.] Sylvia althaea. Hume's Lesser Whitethroat. 

Marshall, J. B. X. H. S. xiv. p. 602 (believes that this sp. is fairly commor. 
■at 8,000 ft. in May) ; Fulton, op. cit xvi. p. 48 (shot three in May between 
5,000 and 7,000 ft.) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 112, and xviii. p. 461 (eggs taken in 
May and July at 8,000 ft.) 

232. 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 29th April. 

Passes through Kohat and the Kurram Valley in spring and autumn, but 
is not common. la spring I have generally observed it in Shisham trees 
(Dalbergia sissco) in company with the next species. These trees are then in 
flower and attract much insect-life. Birds shot in them generally have their 
heads covered with pollen. A beautiful songster. 

[4U2.] Sylvia affixes. The Indian Lesser Whitethroat. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 338 (winter visitor, not common: Thall); 
Betham, op. cit. xvi. p. 831 (a few pairs nest round Quetta) ; Ward, op. cit. 
xvii. p. 112 (common in summer in Kashmir). 



190 JOURNAL, BOMB AY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

41. Sex ? Khushalgarh, 1,200 ft., 16th December. 

101. 9. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 5th February. 

Passes through in large numbers in spring and autumn, a few staying for 
winter. Breeds freely in the Kurram Valley in Ilex-scrub and low bushes from 
6,000 to 8,000 feet. Like the last species it bas a pleasing and remaikably 
loud song, often uttering it on the wing. Much more confiding in summer 
than at other seasons. 

[403.1 Sylvia minuscula. The Small Whitethroat. 

Marshall, J. B. N. H S. xiv. p. 602 (small flocks on migration in April). 

521. $ ad. Peiwar, 6,600 ft., 22nd April. 

Probablv not uncommon, but owing to its close resemblance to the last 
species must have often been overlooked. Altogether I shot some half dozen 
specimens around Kohat in the cold weather. It appears to breed, in company 
with the last species, in the Kurram Valley, this example having been secured, 
in a locality where many of the latter were then nesting. 

[407.1 Phylloscopus teistis. The Brown Willow-Warbler. 

Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. p. 602 (shot one in February) ; Ward, op. cit.- 
xvii. p. 112 (eggs taken in Ladakh). 

56. $ ad. Kohat, 1760 ft,, 21st December. 

110. $ ad. „ „ Hth February. 

Extremely common up to about 5,000 feet from early September till about 
the middle of May. Found everywhere, in gardens, groves, scrub-jungle, and 
desert • also on stony hill-sides where there is vegetation, in bare stubbles, and; 
standing crops. It frequents more especially the neighbourhood of water, 
reed-beds, water-plains, and irrigation cuts. An expert flycatcher and very 
active. Except in spring, it is very silent. 

[408.] Phylloscopus indicus. The Olivaceous Willow-Warbler. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p.» 11"2 (eggs taken in August in Ladakh, 11,500 ft.) 

185. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 5th April. 

Passes through Kohat in small numbers on migration in March and April. 
I only once observed it on "the return migration, viz., a solitary example on the- 
16th of September. Nests freely in parts of the Safed Koh Eange. Differs 
in habits from other Willow- Wai biers in being rather a skulker, as it is 
usually found hopping and creeping unthatch-hke about in the undergrowth. 
Its loud call-note of " Tack " often indicates its whereabouts. 

[41 1.] Phylloscopus neglectus. The Plain Brown Willow- Warbler. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xviii. p. 461 (eggs taken and parents secured at Kargili 
in May and June). 

706. $ ad. Kohat, 1.760 ft., 18th March. 

This species is so difficult to distinguish from P. tristis until actually 
examined in the hand, that it is impossible to say whether it is fairly common 
or merely a straggler. The above-mentioned example was the only one 
secured. It was busily fly-catching in a willow just like P. tristis. 

[415.] Phyllcscopus peoeegulus. Pallas's Willow-Warbler. 



THE BIRDS OF K Oil AT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 191 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 424 (nests freely in the Galis) ; Ward, op. cit. 
xvii. p. 112 (common in Kashmir). 

6P4. $ ad. Marai, 3,000 ft., 9th March. 
667. $ ad. Kachai, 2,700 ft., 10th March. 

Not common. I have met with it in spring at the foot of the hills and in . 
summer on the Safed Koh at 8,500 feet. Its song is very characteristic. Call 
note " tchit ". 

[416.] Phylloscopus subvikidis. Brooks's Willow-Warbler. 
102. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 5th February. 
113. 9 ad. „ „ 10th February. 

276. Sex ? Samona, 6,500 ft.. 12th April. 
319. 9 ad. Safed Koh, 8,800 ft., 13th July. 

Fairly common in the District from October to April. Generally found 
solitary or in pairs in scrub and wild olive-groves, more rarely in orchards and 
gardens. Occurs on the Samana in large numbers on migration. Nests freely 
on the lower slopes of the Safed Koh fiom 7,000 to 9,000 ft. A nest found on 
the 13th of July, 1906, evidently an old one re-lined, was placed in the bank 
of a nullah under cover of a small bush. It was of the usual Willow-Waibler 
type and contained four fresh eggs (this was the full clutch, the female having 
no eggs in the oviduct). They were white, thickly spotted with dark red, and 
averaged '55 x - 1 inch. 

In summer this Warbler frequently utters a loud monosyllabic call-note, 
not unlike that of the next species but not so loud. In winter this is only 
occasionally heard. 

[418.] Phylloscopus humii. Hume's Willow-Warbler. 

Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 48 (only two obtained in Chitral) ; Rattray. 
t. c. p. 424 (very common in the Murree Hills) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 113 • 
(breeds in Kashmir). 
48. Ad. Kohat, 1/7H0 ft., 23rd December. 
55. $ ad. „ ,, 31st December. 

119 & 120. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 16th February. 
153. Ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 18th March. 

Abundant in the cold weather in Kohat from September till the end of 
April, frequenting gardens, orchards and groves — usually singly. It has a 
loud call-note resembling the syllable " pckwey," which is constantly uttered. 
Occurs on the Samana on migration, and nests in large numbers on the Safed 
Koh from 7,000 to 11,000 feet. Its curious song, which may be rendered 
" pi-pi -piaz-z" (this being repeated with variations), is first heard in March. 
whlist still in its winter-quarters, and is continued throughout the summer 
being usually uttered from the midst of a thick tree. 

[421.] Acanthopneuste NiTiDUg. The Green Willow-Warbler. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 1 13. 

766. Ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 31st March. 

784. $ ad. „ , -2nd April. 



192 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Passes through Kohat and the Kurram Valley in large numbers from the 
last week in March till the end of May, returning in September, when com- 
paratively few are seen. This is the last Willow-Warbler to leave, and I have 
met with it at Kohat up till the 28th of May. Major Magrath says that this 
species is extremely common in Bannu in September and October. Its rela- 
tive scarcity at that season in Kohat, together with that of many other 
species, may perhaps be accounted for by its following the Kurram River down 
through the Bannu District instead of turning off at Thall up the Ishkalai, 
an insignificant stream which connects the Miranzai and Kurram Valleys. 

[424.] Acanthopneuste magnikosteis. The Large-billed Willow-Warbler. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 425 (fairly common in the Galis) ; Ward, op. 
cit. xvii. p. 113 (apparently rare). 

I have only met with this species on the lower slopes of the Safed Koh, 
where its nests in small numbers between 7,000 and 8,000 feet. The call-note 
is loud and characteristic, resembling the syllables " dirtee," Song monotonous 
and poor. 

[428.] Acanthopneuste occipitalis. The Large-crowned Willow-Warbler. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 425 (very common round Murree) ; Ward, op. 
-cit. xvii. p. 113 (nests from 7,000 to 8,000 ft. in Kashmir). 

535. $ ad. Kurram Valley, G,800 ft., 28th April. 

Occurs sparingly in the Kohat orchards in April and May, but not observed 
in autumn. Abundant, however, on the Safed Koh Range in summer from 
6 000 to 10,000 feet, being quiet the commonest Willow- Warbler there. Its 
loud monotonous song may be heard from dawn to dusk all the summer 
through. 

[434.] Cryptolopha xanthoschista. Hodgson's Grey-headed Flycatcher- 
Warbler. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 426 (rare in Murree Hills, one nest found) 
Ward, op. cit. xvii. p ; 113. 

624. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 29th February. 

629. $ ad. (testes big).' Kohat, 1,850 ft., 1st March. 

665. $ ad. Marai, 3,000 ft., 9th March. 

A fairly common winter-visitor to the district, arriving about the third week 
in October and leaving early in April. This species and Suya crinigera are the 
only Warblers found on the Samana above 5,000 feet all through the winter ; 
it is difficult to understand how they manage to pick up a living, the hill-side 
being often covered with snow for days together. Frequents scrub-jungle, 
gardens, and orchards, going about in small parties and often uttering its 
pretty little song even in mid-winter. 

[445.] Scotocerca inqdieta. The Streaked Scrub-Warbler. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 338 (Thall: common); Watson, op. cit. xv 
p. 145 (very common round Chaman, near Quetta). 

436. $ ad. Banda 1,900 ft., 27th January. 

008. $ (testes very big.) Lachi, 1,540 ft., 25th February. 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 193 

A common resident among scrub on dry stony hill-sides, but not seen above 
3,500 feet, nor far from the foot of the hills. The specific name is very 
appropriate : it is never still, but is always flitting or running mouse-like about 
from bush to bush, only pausing occasionally to sing a few notes of its 
cheery little song. 
[456.] Cettia ORiENTALis. The Eastern Bush-Warbler. 
167. $ ad. Lachi, 1,540 ft., 27th March. 

701. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 17th March. 

732. $ ad. „ „ 23rd March. 

734. $ ad. Chillibagh, 2,100 ft., 24th March. 

Bill dark brown, lower mandible flesh-coloured, gape yellowish ; tarsus 
flesh-coloured ; iris brown. 

Passes through Kohat in fair numbers in March, frequenting reed-beds, 
gardens, and generally thick cover near water. A great skulker, usually 
occurring singly. My attention was first drawn to this species by a loud note, 
resembling the syllable '• chey," proceeding from the midst of a tamarisk. 
After much peering, I made out a small brown bird vigorously flirting its tail 
and evidently much resenting my presence. It was in this way that I always 
met with it. 

[458.] Suya crinigeea. The Brown Hill- Warbler. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 426 (nests freely in Murree Hills) ; Ward, 
op. cit. xvii. p. 113 (common in Kashmir). 

6~3. 9 ad. Marai, 4,000 ft., 9th March. 

677. $ ad. Thall, 2,500 ft., -4th March. 

A resident on the Samana and fairly common. In winter it descends to the 
Miranzai Valley, occurring commonly in the scrub jungle near the foot of the 
hills, also in the low hills of S. Kohat. 

We did not meet with it in the Kurram Valley, though I shot one at the 
entrance near Thall. 

[462] Prinia lepida. The Streaked Wren-Warbler. 

Cumming, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 687 (fairly common amongst the Tamarisks : 
Seistan, 1,700 ft.) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 114 (occurs in outer hills, but not in 
Kashmir proper). 

617. $ (testes very big). Lachi, 1,540 ft., 26th February. 

697. $ ad. Lachi, 1,5 40 ft., 17th March. 

698. £ad. „ 

A resident in the plains, and not uncommon about reed-beds and tamarisk- 
scrub, being particularly abundant in the Lachi Plain. Nesting operations are 
begun in March, and from then till May its curious reeling song is constantly 
to be heard. 

[463.] Prinia flaviventris. 

Major Magrath ha3 found this species common in the reed-beds of Bannu, 
the adjoining District on the south, and has forwarded examples to the British 
Museum. 
25 



194 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

[466.] Peinia inornata. The Indian Wren -Warbler. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 337 (Thall : occurs in the reeds) ; Ward, op. cit 
xvii. p. 113. 

683. Ad. Thall. 2,500 ft., 14th March. 

750. $ ad. Kohat, 1,600 ft., 26th March. 

Resident but rather rare, except along the banks of the Kurram River. 

In Bannu, however, where the country is more suited to its habits, Major' 
Magrath has found it extremely common. 

[469.] Lanius lahtoea. The Indian Grey Shrike. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H.S. xii. p. 338 (Thall : an uncommon summer visitor) : 
Marshall, op. cit. xiv. p. 602 (in April near Quetta) ; Ward; op. cit. xvii. p. 479 
(occurs in Jammu). 

567. $ ad. Kohat 1,760 ft., 6th February. 

658. £ ad. Hangu, 2,650 ft., 8th March. 

A resident, chiefly found in the desert, but not commonly, more numerous 
in winter than summer. Major Magrath found a nest containing four slightly 
incubated eggs on the 12th of May near Thall. Not met with above 3,500 feet 
in the Kurram Valley. 

[473.] Lanius vitta-tus. The Bay-backed Shrike. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S xii. p. 338 (very common and resident at Thall) ; 
Marshall, op. cit. xiv. p. 602 (Quetta ; an uncommon summer visitor) ; Fulton, 
op. cit. xvi. p. 48 (Chitral : common in summer up to 6,000 ft). 

520. $ ad. Kurram Valley, 6,500 ft., 23rd April. 

Fairly common from the last week in March (single birds noted on 1st and 1 
2nd March) till September in Kohat and the Kurram Valley. I noted 
it in Lahore, some 200 miles S.-E., early in February. 

[476]. Lanius ekythronotus. The Rufous-backed Shrike. 

Rattray J. B. 3S T . H. S. xii. p. 338 (Thall ; abundant) ; Marshall, op. cit. 
xvi., p. 602 (Quetta : very common in summer) : Fulton op. cit. xvi. p. 43 (com- 
mon in Chitral in summer up to 7,000 ft.) ; Betham, t. c. p. 750 (breeds freely) ;. 
Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 479 (widely distributed in Kashmir). 

A resident, and extremely common in summer everywhere up to 7,000 feet. 
The majority leave for warmer climes in autumn. 

[479.] Lanius isabellinus. The Pale-brown Shrike. 

Marshall, J. B. N. H. S. xiv. pp. 602, 606 (Quetta : a summer visitor, nesting 
in May between 7,000 and 9,000 feet. 

109. $ ad. Kohat, 1,700 ft., 8th February. 

A fairly common winter visitor from October to April. 

I shot an example in the Kurram Valley at 6,500 feet on the 2nd of May 
possibly a few pairs nest up there. 

[480.] Lanius phoenicureides. The Rufous Shrike. 

[867.] Raisan, 2,400 ft., 5th March. 

A scarce winter visitor. 

[495.] Pericrocotus brevirostris. The Short-bill'ed Minivet. 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 195 

Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 49 (Chitral : summer visitor, nesting com- 
monly from 7,000 to 9,000 ft.) : Rattray, t. c. p. 426 (Nests freely in Murree 
Hills) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 479 (breeds in Kashmir). 

A common winter visitor to the District from the end of September to> 
April. Nests freely on the Safed Koh between 6,000 and 8,000 feet. Captain 
Keen observed a few on the Samana all through the summer, and believes 
that they nested there. An example collected by Major Magrath in Bannu 
and now in the National Collection, is typical. 

[500.] Pericrocotus peeegrinus. The small Minivet. 

Ward, J. B. N. H. S. xvii. p. 479. 

Very rare. I came across a pair in some camel-thorn scrub {Acacia modesta) 
three miles west of Makhud on the Indus, but unfortunately failed to secure 
one. It is a bird I know well, however, having frequently met with it near 
Rawal Pindi (100 miles east). 

[518.] Oriolus kdndoo. The Indian Oriole. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 330 (common on migration) ; Marshall, op. cit 
xiv. p. 602 (a summer visitor to Quetta) ; Watson, op. cit. xv. p. 145 (Quetta : 
common in gardens, mostly immature) , Fulton, op. cit. xvi. p. 49 (very com- 
mon in summer in Chitral up to 8,000 ft.) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 426 (common near 
Murree at 5,500 ft.) ; Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 479 (breeds in Kashmir up to 

6,000 ft.). 

' J 

A large number pass through Kohat in April and the beginning of May 
returning in August and September : many breed in the orchards of the Kurram 
Valley ; a few also in Kohat. 

[528.] Pastor roseus. The Rosy Pastor. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 338 (Thall: passing through in vast numbers) ;. 
Marshall, op. cit. xiv. p. 602 (common at Chaman at the end of April). 

Major Magrath has written the following note on this species in Kohat: 

Passes through this district in vast flocks during the spring and autumn 
migrations. At the spring passage the birds are slaughtered in hundreds by 
the natives, every man possessing a firearm turning out for the sport. Thev 
arrive about the middle of April and the rush continues till the middle of May. 
The mulberries, which are ripe at this season, are eagerly devoured by them, 
and the ripe corn also suffers from their depredations. A few young birds 
remain in the district throughout the hot weather. The return passage begins 
about the end of July, being at its height by the middle of August, and lasting 
! into September. Very few adult birds are to be seen at this time. The 
direction of the flight through the district is N.-W. and S.-E. for spring and 
autumn migrations respectively. The vast flocks which roost in and about the 
cantonments become an unmitigated nuisance while they are with us." Since 
writing the above, Major Magrath has noted the appearance of small flocks of 
adult birds in the middle of summer, as also have Captain Keen and I; in fact, 
between us we have noted them at short intervals throughout the summer, 
and it seems probable that some of them at least breed a good deal 



196 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

nearer India than Asia Minor. Small flocks of immature birds stay with us till 
November. Curiously enough, in the spring of 1907, only a few small flocks 
were observed passing through the Kohat district. The migration appears to 
have been diverted elsewhere, though whether this was due to the district 
being invaded at the time by vast armies of young locusts in the crawling 
stage, I cannot say One would have imagined that this would have had an 
opposite effect. 

[529.] Sturnus hdmii. The Himalayan Starling. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 338 ; Marshall, op. cit. xiv. p. 602 (rare at 
Quetta, shot in March and April); Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 479 (very common id 
Kashmir in summer from 5,000 to 7,000 feet). 

We must have overlooked this Starling. Colonel Rattray records it from 
Thall as " not common, but a fair number may be seen any day during April 
and May ..." A Starling shot by me on the 14th of April (the last date on 
which a Starling was seen) proved to be Sturnus menzbieri. 

[530.] Stuknus porphyronotus. The Central Asian Starling, 

Watson, J. B. N. H. S. xv. p. 145 (in flocks in Chaman, near Quetta, in 
December) ; Ward, op cit. xvii. p. 479 (does not appear to breed in Kashmir) 
Perreau, op. cit. xviii. p. 186 (occurs in Chitral). 

62. $ ad Kohat, 1,760 ft., 4th January. 
688. $ ad Kohat, 1,760 ft., 16th March. 

719, 721. $ 9 ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 21st March. 

A winter visitor, not so common as the next species, occurring singly or 
in flocks, often in company with S. menzbieri. 

As Dr. Sharpe has pointed out to me, both Major Magrath's examples from 
Bannu and mine from Kohat show signs of the mixing of this race with some 
other, the head being generally marked in places with purple gloss. 

[532.] Sturnus menzbieri. The Common Indian Starling. 

Rattray, J. B. N. H. S. xii. p. 339 (Thall; common in winter ) ; Fulton, op. 
cit. xvi. p. 49 (Chitral; common winter visitor); Gumming, t. c. p. 687 (pro- 
hably the Starling which occurs in flocks in Seistan in winter); Ward, op. cit. 
xvii. p. 479 (the majority migrate through, a few nest). 

63. $ ad. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 4th January. 
117. $ ad. „ „ 13th February. 
718 & 720. $, $. Kohat, 1,760 ft., 21st March. 

Abundant in the cold weather, arriving about the third week in October and 
leaving towards the middle of April. 

[544.] Temenuchus pagodarum. The Black-headed Myna. 
Fulton, J. B. N. H. S. xvi. p. 49 (very common in summer in Chitral at 
5.000 ft.) ; Rattray, t. c. p. 427 (rare in the Murree Hills) ; Ward, op. cit. p. 479 
(occurs in Kashmir, but is rare). 

4. summer visitor to the district. I have only twice met with this species, 
onct on the 25th of August, when I observed about a dozen feeding in a gar- 
den in company with the Common Myna, and again a pair on the 4th of June. 



THE BIRDS OF KOHAT AND THE KURRAM VALLEY. 197 

Mr. Donald, the Political Officer, however, tells me that a few pairs nest regu- 
larly every year near Hangu (2,700 feet), usually selecting holes in the Boquain 
tree {Melia azedarach) as nesting-sites. 

[549.] Acridotheres TEiSTis. The Common Myna. Eattray, J. B. IST. 
H. S. xii. p. 339 (common and resident) ; Marshall, op. cit. xvi. p. 602 
(a few occur in spring ); Fulton, op. cit. xvi. p. 49 (resident in Chitral, occurring 
up to 8,000 ft. in summer ); Rattray, t, c. p. 427 (common around Murree) ;. 
Ward, op. cit. xvii. p. 479. 

Resident and extremely common, occurring up to 7,000 feet in the Kurram 
Valley in the summer, and at Fort Lockhart (6,500 feet) all the year round, in 
spite of the heavy snowfall. 

[551.] Acridotheres ginginsiands. The Grey-Bank Myna. 

Small flocks occur in the District in February and March, and are usually 
seen following cattle on the grass-farms. Major Magrath has found the bird 
fairly common'in Bannu, and has sent an example to the British Museum. 

Amplelis garrulus. The Waxwing. 

Whitehead, Bull. B. O. C. xxi. p. 19. 

416. $ ad. Samana, 6,500 ft., 16th December 1906. 

I first met with this handsome bird on the 11th of December, in a small 
garden near the Fort, but just as I had sighted it with my glasses, up flew a 
flock of G-old finches and began mobbing it, and away it went, uttering a soft 
whistling note. Five days later, on visting the same spot, I was lucky enough 
to again find a Waxwing there. It was in fine condition with four wax- like 
tips to the secondaries of each wing. In addition to this example, Major 
Magrath shot one, a male, extremely fat, in his garden in Bannu, lat. 33° 
(apparently the farthest southern record for this species), on the 20th of 
March. Colonel Ward records another secured on the 8th of the same 
month at 7.000 feet in Kashmir. 



[To be continued.] 



198 
A TAMARIX ASSOCIATION. 

P.Y 

William Burxs, B. Sc. (Edin.). 

{From the Botanical Laboratory of the Agricultural College, Poona.) 

In the uncultivated areas along the banks of the Nerbudda near Broach run 
lines of tamarix. The zone occupied by this plant is comparatively narrow, but 
it is often possible to distinguish two regions within the zone, of apparently 
different ages, the older being higher up the banks. The tamarix is an orga- 
nism well adapted to the conditions in which it occurs. These are sandy or 
alluvial soil, saline water, and a lowlying but rather exposed situation. It has 
been supposed that tamarix is rather a salt-plant than a sand-plant. How far 
this is the case remains to be proved. In any case tamarix occurs where both 
physical and physiological drought are imminent, and all its adaptations are 
for resistance of drought. The roots are deep, the leaves are minute and 
clasping, and on these leaves are peculiar impresso-punctate glands in which 
salts accumulate. 

It is believed that the function of these deposits is to attract moisture 
hygroscopically from the atmosphere and pass it on to the leaf tissue. In the 
leaves of Tamarix articulata, according to Solereder, storage tracheitis occur 
for the preservation of water. 

I was curious to know what other plants were associated with the tamarix 
in its peculiar zone at Broach and so, in October 1909, 1 collected from a small 
area (about 100 by 15 yards) all the plants I could find. Where the tamarix 
grew it was the dominant plant, but the habit of the tamarix is not such as to 
exclude the growth of other plants amongst it. The area I examined was of 
recent growth and close to the water. The tamarix was from three to five 
feet high and thickly planted, yet the slenderness of its branches permitted 
sufficient air and light to enter for numerous subsidiary plants. In marked 
contrast to the tamarix in this respect was Typha angustata, of which I found 
one clump growing in a swampy, spot where no tamarix had rooted. This 
Typha formed a compact and exclusive community, growing so close and 
high that nothing else had a chance amongst it. 

Of tamarix I found three species, namely, Tamarix dioica, Tamarix articu- 
lata and Tamarix ericoicles. These were all in flower and easily identified. 
Tamarix ericoides has ten stamens, whilst the other two have five. Tamarix 
dioica has unisexual flowers, whilst Tamarix articulata has hermaphrodite 
flowers in interrupted spikes. Two other species are reported in Cooke's Flora 
as occurring in Sind, namely, Tamarix gallica and Tamarix strieta ; but these 
were not found in the Broach group. Tamarix gallica has five stamens like 
Tamarix articulata, but has racemose panicles. Tamarix strieta has ten 
etamens like Tamarix ericoides but differs in having the glands of the disc 
passing into the bases of the staminal filaments instead of separating them. 
Tamarix dioica and Tamarix articulata become tree-like in habit. Tamarix 



A TAMAR1X ASSOCIATION. 199 

ericoides remains shrubby. The distribution -and biology of these species will 
be the subject of further study. 

The following is a list of the plants found amongst or beside the tamarix 
with the exception of one or two lost in drying : — 
Lythrace.e : Ammania salicifolia. 
iComposiTj-e : Ageratum ' conyzotdes, 

Eclipta alia. 
Sph tei'anthus indicus. 
Ficoide^e : Trianthema monegyna. 

Amarantace/E : Achyranthes aspera. 
Celosia argentea. 
A marantus paniculatus. 
Alternanthcra sessilis. 
'GrRAMiNEyE : Chloris montana. 

Eragrostis pilosa. 
Eragrostis interrupta, 
Panicum colonum. 
Isocline australis. 
Andropogon lialepeusis. 
For the identification of these plants I am indebted to Messrs. Bhide, 
-and Paranjpe, Assistant Economic Botanists, Agricultural College, Poona. 

The Lythracem are subdivided by Hooker into two tribes, the Ammanieoi 
and the Lyihrece. The Ammanieoi are a distinctly moisture loving group. 

Several of its members are weeds of rice fields. I have found Ammania 
species in damp saltish lands in the Konkan and near Baramati. The species 
found at Broach, Ammania salicifolia, is exceedingly widely distributed in India, 
being reported from practically every province. According to Solereder, the 
Lythracece very often have epidermal mucilage cells in the leaf. The genus 
Ammania possesses these and they have doubtless some biological significance. 
The Compositce found are of wide distribution in all warm climates. 
Ageratum conyzotdes and Eclipta alba are common weeds of fields and way- 
sides in India. Sphceranthus indicus is reported in rice fields. 

The distribution of Trianth-ema, monogyna is also very wide. It is found in 
Malaya, Western Asia, Africa and Tropic America. The anatomy of the 
Ficoidea has been the subject of repeated study. The stem structure has 
been shown to be anomalous. Successive arcs of meristem appear in the 
pericycle giving rise to concentric rows of secondary vascular bundles and inter- 
mediate tissue (Morot). As an adaptation to the dry regions which the members 
of this order inhabit, they are provided with water storing cells in the leaf 
epidermis. 

The Amarantacece cannot be said to be distinctly haloplytic or xerophytic 
though they can put up with fairly dry conditions. The A marantns panicula- 
tus found was a single specimen, probably an escape. It was small, only about 
thirty centimetres high, with no fasciation. Achyranthes aspera is a well known 



200 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

weed in dry places all over Tropic Asia, Africa, Australia, and America. 
Celosia argentea has an almost equally wide distribution and is a common field 
plant in India. Alternanthera sessilis is fond of damp places throughout the 
hotter parts of India and Ceylon. The stem structure of the Amarantacecp 
is similar to that of the Ficoidece in having concentric rings of vascular tissue 
(see Solereder and others). 

The Graminem cited are all of very wide distribution and inhabit all sorts 
of situations. Dalzell and G-ibson give Eragrostis inter rupta as occurring in 
waterholes in Gujarat. 

The analysis of this Association brings to light one or two curious facts. 
The first is that, in one Association, we have, growing side by side^ — 

(1) plants of limited habitat and xerophytic or halophytic type— 

Tamarix species. 

(2) plants of general xerophytic type — Trianthema. 

(3) plants of the open field and of no distinct type — the grasses, com- 

posites, and Amarantacece other than Alternanthera. 

(4) plants of distinctly hygrophytic type — Ammania salicifolia, Alter- 

nanthera sessilis. 

The occurrence of a general xerophytic type along with the tamarix is to be 
expected. The occurrence of the plants of the open field shows that these 
have a long range of adaptability. The occurrence of hygrophytes points, I 
think, to an invasion of odd dampish corners by plants accustomed to these 
situations. 

A second interesting fact is that all the plants associated with the tamarix 
are plants of exceedingly wide distribution throughout the tropics. Wide dis- 
tribution of a species indicates considerable flexibility of constitution, and it is 
precisely such plants that one would expect to find in conditions so trying and 
special as those among the tamarix. 

A third point is the occurrence of the several Amarantacea, and of Trianthe- 
ma, all with anomalous stem anatomy. I hardly think we can as yet say that 
this structure means any' special advantage in gaining a foothold in unusual 
situations. 



201 



A NOTE ON THE CIRCULATION OF C'ALYCOPTERIS 
FLORIBUNDA. 

BY 

John Wallace, C.E. 

Iu the early days of the Indian police the way in which law breakers 
could remain in the jungle, at seasons when all springs and streams were 
dry, and when the village wells were watched, was very puzzling to the 
authorities. Travelling through jungles or over uncultivated and rocky ground 
in hot weather, and without drinking water, is a serious hardship, as many 
a shikari knows to his cost, but the mystery was cleared up when it was dis- 
covered that drinking water could be had from one of the largest climbing 
plants, the Calycopteris floribunda, that is common in many parts of India and 
may even be seen in and around Bombay. Examples are found on Gibbs Road, 
Malabar Hill, outside the Bombay Gymkhana and also on the lawn in front of 
the University Library, where a fine example of the plant grows upon an 
isolated Pepul tree. 

The " Ukshi, " as the plant is called in the Thana District, is known in two 
forms ; as a scandent plant in the jungles where it climbs the whole Of trees, 
turning from left to right, forming great loops and festoons and reaching long- 
distances from one tree to another, or travelling along the ground for the 
same purpose, and meanwhile throwing out roots to form new plants. At 
times it will also send out fresh shoots from the ground which will coil so 
tightly around its older stems as to present the appearance of a hard twisted 
rope. Its other form is that of a dense shrub when isolated and cut annually 
for twigs and leaves, which are burnt on rice fields as manure. At the com- 
mencement of the hot weather its pale golden flowers form a pleasing con- 
trast with the surrounding foliage. 

The chief interest of this plant lies in its property of storing water, and in 
the means by which this water is raised, stored and distributed. Mr. George 
Ryan of the Indian Forest Service described the UhsM in a paper read before 
this Society, on the 29th September 1904, and told how four pieces of stem, 
totalling 9 feet 8 inches in length, and of an average diameter of 3i inches, 
discharged when newly cut one quart of clear potable water. This water tends 
to rise in the stem above the incision under the influence of some unexplained 
force. The wood of the Ukshi is stringy, and filled with unusually large water 
ressels which may be seen in the cross sections exhibited. These sections when 
held against the light have the appearance of a delicate textile fabric sparkling 
with luminous points. The cutting of them presented some difficulty, as sawing 
produced a woolly surface, and sand-paper only filled all the pores with dust. 
They were finally sawn nearly to size, fixed in a lathe, and cut with keen edged 
chisel which was held with a vertical edge. The upward movement of the 
water in the Ukshi represents a considerable force, for the surface resistance 
of the innumerable vessels must be very great, even if the movement of the 
26 



202 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

water be veiy slow. The water helps to feed the plant with mineral solutions 
•on its way to the leaves from whose surface it escapes by evaporation at a 
varying rate, according to the season or time of day. Botanists seem to agree 
in saying that plants have no organs for absorbing water or vapour through 
the leaves. The movement of water must therefore be always in one direc- 
tion which would seem to imply the existence of some kind of valve on the 
surface of the leaves, which prevents a reverse movement, even when under the 
influence of atmospheric changes of temperature and pressure. In Bombay we 
learn from figures kindly furnished by Mr. N. A. Moos at the Observatory, that 
the mean monthly solar radiation as recorded by the black bulb thermometer 
in the month of January, is 133*5 degrees Fahrenheit and that the minimum 
grass radiation thermometer at night indicated 62*5 degrees, shewing a range 
of 71 degrees to which plants are exposed. These are only mean figures. In 
Allahabad the sun temperature rises to 163 degrees, giving in all probability 
a much greater range. Confined air under an increase of temperature equal 
to 71 degrees would increase in pressure by about 2'8 lbs. per square inch or 
approximately 403 lbs. per square foot. The range of barometric pressure 
an Bombay is small as compared with that of other countries. It occurs in 
two daily waves having their maxima at ten o'clock, morning and evening, and 
their minima at four o'clock, morning and evening. The maximum range 
is equal to a column of water 7-936 inches high, which corresponds with a 
pressure per square foot of 41*98 pounds. The atmospheric influence acting 
on the Ukshi are thus a wave of temperature, rising from sunrise until half 
past two o'clock in the afternoon and falling until sunrise ; and two waves of 
barometric pressure of an amplitude already indicated. It is hard to believe 
that such forces, acting on the outside of a plant, whose juices have to be 
raised against gravity and friction, should have no useful influence in assisting 
its functions. This assistance would seem to involve the existence of valves, 
and as this matter has been the subject of contrary opinions there is still a lack 
of unanimity about it. .Col. Kirtikar recently examined a vertical section of a 
local fresh plant, and observed that it has innumerable pitted cells which Prof. 
Strasburger of Bonn University in 1903 found to act apparently as valves. 

We all know that it is not the heart alone that circulates the blood in an 
animal body, because the whole work, if thrown on that organ alone, would 
rupture it. We may with safety assume that the water column circulating 
through the comparatively wide vessels of the Calycopteris floribunda are not 
continuous, and it remains for us to ascertain exactly the form of interruption 
which supports the water column, and the extent to which the meteorological 
changes, above referred to, affect the circulation of the plant whose extremi- 
ties are open to absorption of water at the lower ends and to evaporation of 
moisture at the upper ends, while both extremities, owing to their conforma- 
tion, do not permit a reverse current. It seems as if the regularly recurrent 
changes of temperature and pressure represent forces sufficient to carry on 
the work of circulation if the organs of the plant are adapted to utilise them. 



203 

REVIEWS. 
-THE FAUNA OF INDIA— Dermaptera. 
By M. Burr. 

This, the latest volume of the series, and the first under the editorship of 
3Ir. A. E. Shipley, deals with the Earwigs, Dermaptera, better known as the 
Forfimlidie. The new editor writes a preface which details the new volumes 
in preparation which we may notice before dealing with this volume. 

Volumes have been sanctioned as follows :■ — 

1. Cicindelidce and Paussidce, with a general introduction to Cokoptera 
by W. W. Fowler. 

2. Orthoptera, by W. F. Kirby. 

3. Dermaptera, by M. Burr. (Now issued.) 

4. Butterflies Vol. III. 

5. Curcnlionidce, by G. A. K. Marshall. 

6. Cetoniidcn and Dynastidce, by G. Arrow. 

7. Jchneumonidce, by C. Morley. 

8. Longicornia, by C. J. Gahan. 

9. Buprestidce, by E. P. Stebbing. 

10. Rhynchota, Appendix. W. L. Distant. (In the press.) 

11. Blattidas, by R. Shelf ord. 

12. Mollusca II, by Godwin-Austen. 

The above volumes have been sanctioned but are not all likely to be seen. 
The first is apparently not commenced nor is material called for ; the second 
has been in preparation for years and is not likely to be prepared, although 
collections for it have been in England several years. The fourth, the conclud- 
ing volume of butterflies, Lyccenidee (part) and Besperiidce, is in the hands of 
Mr. Druce and much material is available. The fifth is under way and Mr. 
Marshall has worked through part of the material to the great advantage of 
Indian collectors. Mr. Arrow has examined the material for the Cetoniidcs and 
Dynastidce and Mr. Morley has been at work on the Ichneumonidce ; we have no 
knowledge of the Longicornia beyond the fact that one volume has appeared 
and that collections for the second have not yet been called for. The Bupre- 
stidce are not likely to be done at present. Mr. Distant's volume on the Rhyn- 
■chotais almost done, owing to his untiring activity in describing species and for 
Mr. Shelf ord's volume no collections have as yet been called for. The editor 
makes no mention of a volume on Microkpidqptera, for which Mr. E. Meyrick has 
for years been describing material in this journal, but the matter is so enormous, 
one volume will not suffice. 

The Fauna of India is of immense service to Indian workers and it behoves 

all workers in India to help in any way they can. In response to an appeal 

w _ — _ — — . . — 

* The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma — Dermaptera. M. Burr. 
.(Taylor and Francis, London.) 



294 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. Vol. XX. 

for beetles recently issued by this Society, much material has been received 
which is being pinned, set, identified and the new material arranged for the 
furtherance of the future Fauna volumes. In view of the above projected 
volumes, we would urge that members should collect insects likely to be of 
value for these volumes. The appeal for beetles has met with a good 
response : we would appeal now for cockroaches, grasshoppers, locustids, stick 
insects, mantids and especially crickets. These are, with the beetles, the 
really important groups required now; it should be needless to say that 
collections of Liccenids and Hesperhds are badly wanted, but this will appeal 
only to butterfly collectors, while every m ember can collect and send in the 
other groups, notably the crickets and grasshoppers. Members of this Society 
alone in India can help in this work and can assist in providing the material on 
which the volumes will be provided ; when a volume is projected, its ultimate 
value depends very largely on the fresh material available for examination and 
this can be supplied very largely by the members of this Society. 

Turning to the present volume, we would congratulate the author upon it ;. 
the general introduction is extremely good, taking account of the life-history 
and habits in a way rare among authors of systematic works. The author 
describes 133 species of earwigs of Ceylon, India and Burmah, and gives a 
revised scheme of classification. He appeals for more material, as there are 
many questions unsettled, and he takes a broad view of the value of the 
present classification. Like other specialists he is desirous of emphasising the 
importance of his group and makes it an order under the term Dermaptera. 
The section on geographical distribution is notable and the paragraphs on 
determination of species form a feature of the utmost value, as former volumes' 
have been really used only by trained entomologists very largely because the 
layman could not get an explanation of the terms used in the volume ; Mr. 
Burr's paragraphs make the volume one that can be used at once by any one 
who will take the trouble to master the introduction and carefully read this 
section. 

The author describes 133 species - from India. Burmah and Ceylon. Of 
these, 32 are from widespread localities in the Himalayas, Ceylon, Burmah 
and other subtropical areas, 30 are from Burmah alone, 18 from Ceylon 
alone, 25 from Himalayan localities only, 6 from Burmah and Ceylon alone, 
while 20 only are recorded from localities in the plains of India, i.e., from 
tropical India as I understand it. The species recorded from tropical localities 
are usually also found in subtropical areas, and there is practically nothing 
found in tropical India which is peculiar to it in the sense that the 25 Hima- 
layan species are, as at present known, only Himalayan. Forficididm are not 
a large part of the fauna of the tropical plains but are more abundant in 
species in moister hill areas. Our Forficulid fauna in the plains is a " derived" 
one of recent times, not an indigenous " original" one. 

The volume is well illustrated with text diagrams and ten plates, one in 
colour. We trust it will stimulate workers in India to turn to the Orthoptera- 






REVIEWS. 205 

not for collecting only but for the observation of habits, season and life- 
history. The Society will be glad to receive specimens, to name what they 
can and to collect all the material possible for future volumes of the Fauna. 

H. M. LEFROY. 

"INDIAN INSECT LIFE." 

A MANUAL OF THE INSECTS OF THE PLAINS (TROPICAL INDIA). 

By H. Maxwell-Lefroy, M.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 

Assisted by F. M. Howlett, B.A., F.E.S. 

Twenty-five years ago there was very little available literature on Indian 
Entomology and the new arrival in the country, however enthusiastic in the 
pursuit of insects and their ways, soon found his ardour evaporate under the 
continued disappointment of not being able to determine or put a name to any 
of his captures. At least this was true of everything except, perhaps, but- 
terflies. Even about these, there was only Marshall and de Niceville's partially 
completed work to be had. And this was expensive. On Beetles and Flies, 
on Bugs and Grasshoppers and Dragon flies, &c, there was nothing, absolutely 
nothing. In 1888 the Government of India authorised the compilation of 
•' The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma " dealing, in a 
series of volumes, with the zoology of the countries mentioned. Up-to-date 
several volumes on Insects have appeared and these constitute so far the only 
works published dealing exclusively with Indian Entomology by means of 
which captures can be named. But as yet very few families of insects have 
been treated in those books and the field entomologist is to-day nearly as 
badly off as he was a quarter of a century ago. The study of Insects has been 
tremendously advanced in the last twenty years but nearly all the information 
gathered is disseminated throughout Europe in the different journals or 
magazines of the Zoological and Entomological Societies. Little of it is there- 
fore available to the working entomologist. The " Fauna " above mentioned 
has as yet dealt only with the Moths, the Butterflies, the Bugs or Hemiptera 
and a few of the Coleoptera, none of which have been completed at the present 
hour. No attempt had been made to deal with Indian Entomology as a whole 
or for any considerable part thereof until Mr. Maxwell-Lefroy published his 
'• Indian Insect Life " last year. It is not necessary to say that the want of 
such a book has been felt for many years back. There was no one before with 
sufficient leisure or sufficient energy to write it. There have, of course, been 
good entomologists in this country in the past but most of them have been 
Government Officials who were only able to pursue the subject as a hobby in 
the intervals of their legitimate duties. Mr. Lefroy has been luckier, being an 
Entomologist by profession, employed by the Government of India under the 
title of Entomologist, Imperial Department of Agriculture for India, with a 
good library of reference at his disposal, a sufficient staff of artists and a good 



206 JOURNAL. BOMB A Y NA TOR A L HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

type collection of material to work on. All these are requisites not available- 
to the ordinary individual. There is no wish or intention of detracting from the 
worth of the work done by him in the compilation of the book under review, 
but he has had exceptional opportunities, and he has produced an exceptionally" 
able treatise. 

From the first page to the last " Indian Insect Life " is as perfect a work as- 
could be expected with the knowledge of the subject dealt with attained up to' 
the present day. It is replete with information imparted in a pleasant 
and lucid style and contains a great amount of matter which in the past has 
been only available to the very few. The subject dealt with is a very large 
one and it is surprising how the author has managed to get all the facts and 
observations he has alluded to into the space he has allowed himself. The 
book is, naturally, largely a compilation, as can only be, but there are many 
original observations and notes incorporated in it and the fact that all the 
material has been collected in a short six years reflects infinite credit on the 
writer and those who have helped him. 

It is a book of some 800 beautifully printed pages of good stout paper, and' 
536 text-figures besides 84 full page plates of which a great number are coloured. 
There is a map of India as Frontispiece showing the region dealt with which, 
we are informed, is the Tropical portion only or the " Plains." The cover is 
pretty and original, simple but very suitable. The binding, however, is bad - 
it is not strong enough and the pages break loose and come out. This is 
probably the result of weight and it would have been better had the book 
been issued in two volumes instead of one. It would have been a great deal' 
handier also were it of smaller size notwithstanding that this would have 
interfered with the area of the fine plates ; but the advantage gained ini 
convenience of handling would have perhaps more than compensated for this. 
The objection to reduced plates could have been got over by multiplying their 
number though this would have of course increased the cost of production. 
The final result might, however, have been more satisfactory in that there 
would probably have been a greater sale for the work in the more convenient 
form. The wider circulation it has the better for everybody. 

The text-figures are uniformly good and, in the majority of cases, they 
represent typical insects, their eggs, larvae, cocoons, nests, &c, and should be of 
considerable use to those desirous of learning to distinguish between the dif- 
ferent forms. The plates, both coloured and uncoloured are on the whole 
also good ; some of them are excellent and should be a great help to the 
beginner. They represent insects in all stages, many of them magnified, their 
eggs, larvae, chrysalides, imagines, cocoons and foodplants ; in many cases 
accompanied by the parasites characteristic of each. The plate of lepidopter- 
ous larvae (XXVIII) contains caterpillars of some common types of butterflies 
and moths some of which have been apparently wrongly identified. For 
example, the larva No. 1 is given as that of Junonia orithya while it is 
evidently that of Hypolwmas holina: both are nymphaline but differ in 






REVIEWS. 20* 

that the: head of the former is never horned ; the colour is also slightly 
different. The figure No. 6 is said to represent a sphingid moth larva 
but it is not true to life having no horn on the 12th segment : the 
eighth abdominal segment. It is evidently one of the ChcerocamjM or 
Theretra class by the attenuated fore-part and the thickened thoracic- 
segments, but none of these caterpillars are without the horn on 
the eighth abdominal segment. Plate X is badly executed ; the wasps depicted' 
are all too pale in colour, the lines are coarse and the colours are bad ; the same 
may be said of Plate XIII. Although the figures are enlarged, which mio-ht 
account for a certain amount of apparent coarseness, still they compare very 
unfavourably with the figures in, for example, " Genera Insectorum." Plate- 
XVI (upper half) is perhaps the worst of the lot ; the beetles look more like 
hedgehogs than anything else. However it is perhaps unfair to carp at the few 
bad pictures when there are so many of them, in fact the very large majority, 
which are so excellent. There are none that are not recognizable at a glance 
for what they are intended to represent and many of them are very perfect. 
The coloured plates of the locusts are extremely good. 

The amount of information contained in the book is very great and the- 
whole of it is exceptionally accurate ; the arrangement of the matter is very 
good and complete. The introduction is an able exposition of the whole sub- 
ject treated of. General entomological questions affecting sex. duration of life.. 
relations to flowers as influencing cross-fertilization of plants, relations of 
insects to each other such as the habits of certain groups connecting them 
with ants, protective colouring and shape, &c, are treated of in appropriate 
places throughout the book, in short well written articles full of interest. 
These articles add to the value of the work from all points of view; they draw 
attention to most that is known about the ways and habits of insects, suggest 
many points that require study and elucidation and impart quite a large 
amount of information in a very small space. 

Mr. Lefroy has produced a very valuable work that marks a distinct advance 
in Indian entomological literature. His name will be remembered for long 
years as the writer of the first text-book on Indian Insects, and " Indian Insect 
Life " will be the only source of information available to schools and 
colleges in this country for the next dozen years. Would that it had been 
published before. May it have the sale it richly deserves. 

INSECT INTRUDERS IN INDIAN HOMES." 

By E. P. Stebbing. 
Mr, E. F. Stebbing has written a little book entitled " Insect Intruders in* 
Indian Home? " which, he informs us, in the Foreword, is " a modest and' 
altogether popular account of a few of the commoner Insect Intruders " met 
with in homes, gardens and jungles in this " Land of Exile." It is quite 
prettily got up, is illustrated with many illustrations of the subjects dealt .with 
on a very broad margin of page round a somewhat meagre column of print, an* 



208 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

arrangement which, however, undoubtedly adds to the fresh look of the whole. 
It rejoices in a somewhat stiff though ingenious title-page, a rather artistic 
reverse side to the covers, a dedication-page backed by quite a long list of 
authorities consulted and a page with the quotation " To the solid ground of 
Nature trusts the Mind that builds for eye." There is list of Contents, a 
Foreword and an Introduction. All this plus the three Chapters into which 
the real book is divided occupy 158 half -pages of large clear print. The paper 
is good and the binding also. 

The illustrations are, on the whole, good though some of them are somewhat 
rough and stiff. Many of them are unnecessarily repeated. They are placed 
so as to represent the insects alluded to on the page on which they are depicted 
and are easily recognisable as well-known types. The author deals only with 
types of " Intruders " and abstains from mentioning scientific names. He does 
this on purpose in the interests of " popularity." We take this to be a 
mistake. It would have been easy to give names without in the least detract- 
ing from the interest of the book for the lay reader, while it would have 
greatly added to its value for the scientifically inclined individual. As it is, 
the insects alluded to represent nothing definite to either the one or the 
other except known by sight. 

We have perused the book more than once. We have given it to friends to 
read so as to have the opinions of people acquainted with insects only a* 
insects ; that is in the popular way, not scientifically. They pronounced it to 
be pleasant chatty reading well fitted to while away an idle hour. Perhaps it 
is, but personally we think the grammar often faulty, the style artificial and 
the humour decidedly forced. In a vague way it reminds one of the writings 
of EHA, as if the author had tried to imitate him. But what a difference ! 
The allusions to insects as " little chaps " and " beggars " and " he " gets 
monotonous and jars. We also wish the author had abstained from intro- 
ducing " The Girl J ' who gets upon our nerves and comes as a shock each time 
she is mentioned. 

On page 44 he refers to a Megachile — departing from his intention of avoid- 
ing scientific terms — which makes mud nests and provisions them with pollen. 
We wish he could have told us more about the insect, for a Leaf-cutter bee that 
builds free mud cells for itself like an Odynerus or Eumenes wasp is decidedly 
interesting. We know Megachile bees will take possession of the mud cells of 
other wasps and make use of them, sometimes lining them with leaf pieces : 
but we were ignorant of their constructing such things independently. In 
fact we always considered that the Hymenopter that built a mud nest for its 
eggs in India could not and must necessarily be a wasp and not a bee, and this 
notwithstanding the example of Chalicodoma described by Fabre. Perhaps 
the Megachile alluded to lines natural cavities, tubular holes and so on with 
mud — that would be not quite so surprising for other Apklm do that. 

What are " Fossorial parasitic Wasps " mentioned on page 4fe '? From the 
habit of storing spiders the author evidently means Fossorial Wasps ; none of 



REVIEWS. 209 

the spider-storing ones are parasitic of course. On page 58 he mentions the 
Sawfiy larva, figuring an ordinary moth -larva in the margin ; on the next page, 
by misplacement of a comma, he has made the difference of the number of 
legs possessed by a moth larva and that of a sawfly somewhat difficult to 
understand. When talking of '• a silky little black beggar vividly picked out 
with orange and red and white spots and little stripes" on page 65, he 
describes it as being " pretty well omnivorous " which is another misstatement. 
The moth larva alluded to is that of Polytela, probably gloriosce and it feeds 
only upon lilies. Mantis egg-masses on page 113 are said to be "easily 
crumbled between the fingers ". As a matter of fact they are exceptionally 
tough except when very old and weathered. The little holes are made by 
parasites and not by the young emerging Mantis brood ; these slip out 
between little edges, proceeding from the successive layers by which the mass 
is built up, overlying each other generally down one side. 

TEANSACTIONS OF THE BOMBAY MEDICAL CONGRESS, 1909. 

It is a matter of every day knowledge that within the past half-century the 
Science of Medicine and the Art of Surgery have been well-nigh revolu- 
tionised by the study of one branch of Natural History, to wit, Bacteriology. 

A glance at these Transactions will convince the reader of a much less 
known fact. Medicine, especially in the Tropics, owes most of its advances 
during the past quarter of a century to the Science of Zoology. 

Year by year one disease after another has been found due to some minute 
animal parasite, and others, though perhaps caused by vegetable organisms, like 
the bacteria, owe their transmission to some specific animal host or carrier. 

Medical research in the tropics has therefore become largely the study of 
Biology or the Life History of particular parasites, or particular animals con- 
cerned in the transmission of disease. Omitting such obvious diseases as those 
due to snake poison, intestinal worms, to vermin, such as lice, " jiggers " itch 
mites, guinea-worm, etc. we find malaria, chyluria, sleeping-sickness, " kala- 
azar," the black fever of Assam, hematuria of Egypt, relapsing fever, tick 
fever, syphilis, yaws, Delhi boil or Aleppo . evil, miner's anaemia, the " anaemia 
of coolies ", which causes such havoc in Ceylon and Assam, the enlarged 
liver of Japan are all now proved and universally admitted by pathologists to be 
directly due to animal parasites. 

Most pathologists believe that Elephantiasis is caused by a minute worm 
transmitted by the common Culex mosquito, that most cases of liver abscess 
and one form of dysentery are due to a specific animal parasite, an amoeba. 
They are most certainly associated with it. 

Of late most protozoologists and cytologists have come to the conclusion 
that certain minute bodies found in the skin and throat during scarlet fever 
those found in the vesicles of small-pox and cow-pox, others found in the 
nerve cells during rabies and hydrophobia are minute animals, the living 
contagium, the exciting cause of those diseases. 
27 



210 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

No one now disputes that Malta fever is transmitted by the goat, malaria 
by one family of mosquitoes, chyluria by many mosquitoes, and yellow fever 
by one species, sleeping-sickness by the Tse-tse fly. 

Evidence has been brought forward that relapsing fever and kala-azar are 
transmitted by some biting animal, probably the bug or the louse. 

Before re-infecting man many parasites require to pass through some inter- 
mediate animal host, the recognition and destruction of which are important 
matters for the medical man and sanitarian. 

The life history of the malarial parasite in mosquito and man must now 
be " familiar to every school-boy." The agency of rats and fleas in the 
transmission of plague is sadly familiar to most of us in India. 

Less well-known is the fact that the embryos of the guinea- worm on leaving 
man pass through a stage in the body of a small crustacean, Cyclops, that the 
Liver-Fluke which in Eastern Bengal is not uncommon in man, almost univer- 
sal in sheep and goats, must of necessity pass certain stages of its life in the 
common water snail. 

After this introduction we feel no need to apologise for the lay Naturalist 
venturing a little friendly criticism on the work of an Indian Medical 
Congress. 

From a Natural History point of view, we must confess we have found 
little that is new or original. As a work for reference, the volume, a portly 
quarto of 632 pages, is rendered almost useless by the absence of an index. 
This want is the more obvious, as the sections into which the Congress was 
divided, were based on no recognised method of classification, pathological or 
otherwise. 

We venture to think the editor would have been well advised to have had 
an index drawn up rather than occupy the space devoted to an Editor's Pre- 
face " to enumerate briefly some of the principal lessons which have been 
gleaned from the deliberations," and to appraise after the manner of a Com- 
mander-in-Chief in despatches, the value of different contiibutions. 

The various authors might well resent as a usurpation the assumption of 
this role by the one official whose onerous and well-carried-out duties must of 
necessity have prevented him from hearing the majority of the papers and 
the criticisms published and unpublished which they evoked. 

We doubt if many physicists will agree with the Editor's commendation 
of the evidence given in support of a theory that Hill diarrhoea is due to 
diminished atmospheric pressure. 

In the department of Natural History a paper on Trypanosomiasis and 
Tse-tse Flies by Captain Greig, an observer -who had lately returned after 
much practical research in Africa, is " mentioned in despatches " by the 
Editor as merely " exhaustive." We venture to think our readers will find 
it the best account written of what is known on the subject at the present 
day. 

On the other hand the Editor pronounces " important " a paper by Dr. J. 






REVIEWS. 2!1 

T. Nash on the Non-Biting Flies, in which we must confess we cannot trace 
one new or original observation. 

A good and popular account of some Indian Sand Flies is given by 
Mr. Howletfc, who also contributes a useful table with helpful diagrams of 
the Blood-Sucking Flies, which has modestly concealed itself at the back of 
the volume in a " Catologue of Exhibits.'' 

The discussion on the Treatment of Snake Bite would seem to have been a 
lively one, and will doubtless have an interest for the field naturalist. A 
startling line of treatment is recommended by our own valued contributor, 
Major F. Wall, which we would take for a slip of his facile pen but for the 
fact it is twice repeated. As we find no comment from the numerous keen 
critics present, we doubt if his advice can have been read at the meeting. 
He advises in all cases of colubrine and viper poisoning when the appropriate 
antivenene cannot be obtained, "the intravenous injection of350c.c. of a 
5 pier cent, solution of Permanganate of Potash" ! ! ! 

As this is the equivalent of half a gallon of undiluted Condy's Fluid, the 
immediate effect of which would be to coagulate all the blood with which 
it came in contact, it is needless to say the patient would be dead long 
before the injection was completed. 

Simond's theory that plague is mainly transmitted by rat fleas, the truth of 
which he had established for most observers in 1898, but which the Indian 
Plague Commission dubbed "hardly deserving of consideration," seems to have 
been generally accepted at the Congress. 

Long papers on water supply were contributed by Dr. Dadachanji, the 
scientific value of which may be judged by a single paragraph. " The terrible 
scourge of cholera in London in 1854 was "believed to have had its origin in 
the upturning of the earth in which the plague-striken victims of the yeai 
1665 had been buried." Truly a striking phenomenon in evolution, the 
Bacilus pestis of 1665 developing into the Comma vibrio of 1854 ! ! ! Lengthy 
papers on the sanitation of Bombay by Drs. Cursetji and Master are illumi- 
nated by flashes of unconscious humour and the play of a little poetic license. 
They tell us the City of Bombay " in every respect the pioneer City of India 
" having en terprising and intelligent citizens and being ahead of most of the 
"other cities in adopting the latest and newest measures for its sanitary 
'' improvement and owned extensive water- works, the largest and most costly 
"of their kind . . . perhaps in the whole world." 

Having given us this and other original information, on the very next page 
they fall foul of the Municipal Executive. " The peculiar habits and customs 
" of the people bom of sheer ignorance and stupidity must have surely been 
'' known to the Municipal Executive for over so many years, " and we learn 
that there is practically nothing good from a sanitary point of view in Bombay. 

The impression left upon us by the whole 160 pages devoted to Sanitation 
in India is that they could have been conveniently condensed into a Chapter 
like that on ' Snakes in Ireland,' — " There is no Sanitation in India." 



212 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Interesting as a psychological study may be mentioned, Dr. Kulkarni's remarks 
on page 158 on the comparative value of cow-dung and buffalo-dung in the 
prophylaxis of " all diseases." Interesting from the same point of view, and we 
should have thought deserving of some special award from the Congress is 
Sir Bhalchandra Krishna's statement that in all cases of plague treated by 
him with serum " success had been invariable." So mote it be ! 

Of the purely Medical and Surgical matter in this volume, we are not com- 
petent to offer any criticism, such would doubtless be out of place in a 
Journal of Natural History. 



213 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

No. I.— THE CALL OF THE SLOTH-BEAR. 

Mr. Roscoe Allen's interesting Note on the Call of the Sloth-Bear in the last 
Journal (p. 745) reminds me of an incident which may be of interest to him 
and to other readers of the Journal. In February 1904 I was in camp among 
the foot-hills of the Bara Pahar range in Sambalpur district, which was then 
part of the Central Provinces, but is now a district of the Orissa Division of 
Bengal. I had 16 kills out for a pair of man-eaters which were known as the 
Ambabhona Tigers. 

My tent was open as the weather was warm, and one night about 1 a.m.I 
heard a call which was quite unfamiliar. It was, as Mr. Allen describes it, a 
long-drawn and rather melodious note. Near my tent were sleeping my 
Shikari and Khalasi, both of whom had been out all day inspecting the 
buffaloes tied up. I found both asleep and did not wake them. The same 
call was repeated, and I located it in a steep hill north of my camp, I heard 
no answering call, and went to sleep. 

In the morning an old Binjhal from the village came over to tell me about 
it. He had been awake too. He described it as the sex-call of the she-bear 
and said that she evidently was calling up her mate from a great distance, 
three " Jcos " at least. 

I wished to go out at once, but the sun was already well up and the old 
Binjhal said that we could safely wait till evening. His argument was 
" She would not have called him up from a distance, if she had not found very 
good feeding. They will be on this hill for two days." 

In the evening I found both bears feeding on the reverse of the hill in thick 
jungle. The male got away wounded, but the she-bear got my second- 
barrel in the neck and died, after throwing herself savagely on her mate and 
biting him. He, when wounded, did not attack her. 

F. DEWAR, I.C.S. 
Camp : Balaghat, C.P. 
7 th January 1910. 



No. II.-DISTRIBUTION OF THE SLOTH-BEAR OR INDIAN BEAR 
(MELURSUS URSINUS). 

It is stated in the Fauna of British. India — Mammalia — by Blanford, that the 
Sloth-bear is found to the West of India, in Kathiawar, and has occasionally been 
met with in Cutch. As regards Cutch, I am unable to advance anything ; but 
I can safely say that it is not to be met with, nor as far as I am aware has it 
ever been so, in the Province of Kathiawar. It is difficult to conjecture what 
reason there can be for its absence, as many parts of the Gir forest are just 
the places, one would suppose, for holding bears. The same remark applies to 



214 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY , Vol. XX. 

the tiger, lhave questioned many an old inhabitant of the Gir, but not one 
of them ever remembered to have seen, or ever even to have heard of one in 
the district. 

This is the case also with the jungle and spur fowls. There are none in 
the Gir. 

L. L. FENTON, Lt.-Col. 

South Molton, North Devon, England. 
8th January 1910. 



No. III.— THE BALUCHISTAN BEAR. 

This bear is identified by Blanford in his Mammalia {Fauna of British India,), 
as Ursus torquatus, i.e, the Himalayan Black Bear, which has the inverted 
white crescent or horse-shoe mark on the chest. 

Some years ago when shooting in the Pubb Hills on the Sind border, I was 
informed by a local authority that the Baluchistan bear locally known as the 
Mam carried no horse-shoe mark. I did not go far enough north to find a 
Mam, and was unable therefore to personally verify the statement. 

It is an interesting point on which perhaps the Superintendent of the 
Karachi Zoological Gardens, or a local Member of our Society may be able to 
throw some light ? I am told that specimens of the animals were to be seen 
at the Gardens a few years ago, and if it is a fact that they were not 
possessed of the horse-shoe marks, it would seem that they are entitled to be 
classed as a separate variety ? 

L. L. FENTON, Lt.-Col. 
South Molton, North Devon, England. 
8th January 1910. 

[This is a point which perhaps the Baluchistan Natural History Society may be able to 
definitely settle.— Eds.] 



No. IV.— A RECORD PANTHER. 

According to a short paragraph in the Indian Field for March 10th, a 
panther measuring 9 ft. 3 in. was shot by a villager at Uttar Khasi, Tehri 
State. Into Rowland Ward's Records of Big Game, the largest panther 
mentioned measures 8' 6" but this animal exceeds that measurement by 9 in. 
If any Members should have heard or can find out further particulars about 
this large panther, we shall be very glad to hear from them. 

At the same time we should like to call attention to the fact that in all 
records of the measurements of tigers, panthers, etc., it should be distinctly 
stated what the measurements of the head and body are and how much the 
tail measures, also whether the head and body has been measured between 
uprights or not. 

The head and body measurement of a panther give a much better idea of 
its size than that of the total length, since there is a considerable variation in 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 215 

the length of the tail. For instance, Jerdon records a panther measuring head 
and body 4'-9" with a tail of S'-2" and in Shooting in Cooch Behar one is men- 
tioned with head and body of 4' 9" and a tail of 2' $%". Surely from these 
measurements a far better idea is got of the sizes of these panthers than 
if they had been given as measuring 7'-ll" and 7'-6J" respectively in total 
length. 

Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. N. B. KINNEAR, 

6, Apollo Street, Keeper of the Museum. 

Bombay, April 1910. 



No. V. -JACKAL HUNTING WITH WILD DOGS. 

During March last my two shikaries while proceeding to tie up a goat 
as a " kill " for panther met a small pack of wild dogs on the high road. I 
had warned them to be on the look-out for the pack and take a gun with them. 
The dogs sneaked into the jungle as soon as they saw the men, and the latter 
tied up the goat at the side of the road and climbed on to a large boulder out 
of sight As soon as the goat began to bleat, the pack came up and the men 
shot this animal (skin and skull sent) as it was about to attack the goat with 
another. They also wounded another one which came out on to the road 
about 40 yards down to have a look at the goat ; they describe the last one as 
very red and big. It got away. I send you this skin and skull, because I think 
that the animal is a jackal. I have questioned the men closely, and they say 
there was a great variety of colouring in the 7 or 8 animals they saw. Some 
were quite red, unmistakably wild dogs, one was " bilkul kala." After they 
had broken up the pack by firing these two shots, they said the wild dogs were 
calling in the jungle in different directions. As they have been with me 
when I have shot wild dogs and seen and heard me decoy them into the open 
by imitating their whistling call, I have no doubt about their knowledge of 
the dogs' call. 

I have seen some of the same pack of wild dogs running in the very same 
spot a few months ago. They invariably drop excreta there ; and on this 
occasion it showed that they had recently killed and eaten a sambhur. The 
jackal killed was very full, but I did not unfortunately examine the contents 
of its stomach. 

I do not doubt the following facts : — 

1. The animal was a member of a pack of which some were wild dogs. 

2. It came out to attack the goat with another animal. 

It is so long since I have seen a jackal at close quarters that I cannot iden- 
tify it ; but it appears to me to be rather too rufous in places for a jackal and 
not sufficiently rufous in the general colouring of the body for a wild dog ? 
The mask is too " foxy" for a wild dog. The brush is also too " foxy" along 
the entire length. 



216 JOURNAL, BOMB A ¥ NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Therefore I have come to the conclusion that it is either a hybrid or a 
jackal hunting with wild dogs. 

H. W. BERTHON, Major. 

Amboli, Sawantwadi, 
8th April, 1910. 

[The skin and skull sent are undoubtedly those of a jackal, the former being rather red 
on the legs and underside and the latter having seven molar teeth in the lower jaw, whereas 
in the wild dog there are only six. — Eds.] 



No. VI.— THE RUDIMENTARY CLAVICLES OF A PANTHER. 

I send herewith a drawing to scale of the rudimentary clavicles I took out 
of a panther yesterday morning. The panther was 6'-6" (between uprights), 
a fully grown male (tail 28| inches). We could not feel the bones for some 
time, and when we cut them out thought they were both brohen. 

A — boiled out into 2 separate pieces, the top piece flattish and the bottom 
piece roundish. No trace of a fracture. 

B — also consists of 2 similar pieces, but they are joined by slight gristle 
which can easily be broken through, and now that it is dry shows that the 
bones are about l/10th of an inch apart. But, again, there is no trace of a 
fracture, the lower bone tapering off into a curving point and the upper one 
flattish like a very diminutive collar-bone. One emerged from the boiling 
still joined as shown. These bones do vary in curves and shape, but I have 
never seen a panther with such absurdly small ones. Even, if we assume that 
B had been broken, the two pieces are not as big as an ordinary clavicle in 
an old male panther. 



A B 

Abnormal rudimentary clavicles. 
It would be interesting to know if any one has ever come across similar 
bones ? Have these bones been broken ? I have never seen any like them 
before. The panther was about 4 years old I estimate, from the appearance 
of the skull. 



I 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



217 



I have taken perfectly formed rudimentary clavicles out of a three-quarters 
grown panther, 6 feet in length, with hollow eye-teeth. 

The teeth of this panther might, from their appearance, have belonged to a 
very old beast, but the ridge at the back of the skull does not show abnormal 
growth. 

H. W. BERTHON, Major. 

Amboli, Sawantwadi, 
6th April 1910. 

[These collar bones appear to be so different to the usual ones found in panthers that we 
also figure below a normal pair to show the difference.— Eds.] 





Normal rudimentary clavicles of a panther. 



No. VII— SLOTH BEAR CALLING HER YOUNG 
WHEN ATTACKED. 

The following account of an incident which occurred in the hills of Central 
India the other day (written by a lady) may interest you. 

" When stalking over the hills the other morning my husband and I dis- 
covered a bear in a very deep valley, and my husband had a long shot at it, on 
which it leapt up with a " whoof " and charged uphill in the direction of the 
firing. He fired again, and again it charged in our direction, then the bear 
commenced calling and making a tremendous din and I said: — " I believe there 
is a cub," and sure enough we presently heard a little answering call and away 
down under the trees we saw a small cub. My husband did not shoot again 
as he felt sorry for the cub. The old bear hesitated for a long time as to 
what she should do, and then, as the firing had stopped, she decided to return 
to her little one, and we could hear the gurgle of delight on her return. The 
cub then jumped up on her back and away they went into the jungle. It was 
all most interesting." 

Secundeeabad, W. GAYE. 

27th March 1910. 
28 



218 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

No. VIII.— BIRDS FEEDING THEIR YOUNG. 

On page 227-228 of his valuable book Birds of the Plains Mr. Dewar dis- 
cusses the possibility of birds storing water in their crops and subsequently 
bringing it up in order to feed their young. I have a small female Blue- 
winged Paroquet (Palaeornis columboides) , which is now about one year old. 
I have been observing her for the last three weeks and several times have 
noticed that she brings up her food, chews the same and again swallows it. 
She especially does this when slightly annoyed. She runs about loose (her wings 
being cut) and invariably tries to bite anyone who passes her. I have taken 
great care to see that she has nothing in her mouth. On placing my finger 
near her, she tries to bite, but owing to the finger nail can do no damage. On 
these occasions, it is quite easy to see that she has nothing in her mouth. She 
then makes a beckoning motion with her head and brings up a light yellow 
substance, very much like a chewed piece of plantain. 

G. S. P. PERCIVAL, A. S. P. 

Meecaea, COOEG, 1th January 1910. 



No. IX.— NIDIFICATION OF THE SARUS CRANE. 
In Vol. XIX, No. 2 (p. 524) of the Journal, Captain O'Brien mentions finding 
a newly hatched sarus chick on the 12th February, remarking that he thought 
saius ( Grus antigone ) laid during the monsoon. Is that the case ? I certainly 
was of the same belief ; but in 1903 I found a sarus sitting on a half-set egg, 
on strangely enough the same date as Captain O'Brien mentions, the 12th 
February. This was also in the Mahi Kantha Agency (Mahisa District). 

Camp Malwasae, A. H. MOSSE, Captain, I. A. 

Okhamandal, 
Kathiawae, 12*7$ January 1910. 



No. X — THE FOOD OF THE RUFOUS-BACKED SHRIKE 
(LANIUS ERYTHRONOTUS). 

Returning one day from shooting in the Bannu District and while driving 
along the Bannu Dera Ismail Khan Road, which runs through a marshy 
locality, I observed flying up from a stream by the roadside a Rufous- 
backed Shrike (Lanius erythronolus) with a small fish (Chilwa) about 2 inches 
long in its beak. Whether the fish was taken alive from the stream I cannot 
say ; but it is probable that it had been so captured by the Shrike in shallow 
water. It was conveyed by the bird to the telegraph wires near by and there 
broken up and devoured. 

I have never previously heard of a Shrike catching fish and would be glad to 
know if any of our members have ever noticed this abnormal habit in any of 
the Shrikes ? 

London, 11th December 1909. H. A. F. MAGRATH, Majoe. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 219 

No. XI —OCCURRENCE OF THE BRONZE-CAPPED TEAL 
(EUNETTA FALCATA) NEAR ROORKEE. 

T am sending you to-day the skin of a duck, which I find some difficulty in 
identifying and should be extremely obliged if you would give me your 
opinion on it. Judging from Baker's Indian Ducks and their Allies and Hume 
and Marshall's Game Birds of India, it appears to be the female of a Bronze- 
capped Teal. I shot it on the evening of the 9th instant on some jheels fifteen 
miles south of Roorkee. It came over me alone, and I at first took it to be a 
Gadwall, of which the bag with some Mallard chiefly consisted. My boatman 
told me it was a cross between a Gadwall and a Teal ! 

E. H. KELLY, Lt., R.E. 
(1st P. W. O. Sappers and Miners.) 
Roorkee, U.P., 13th January 1910. 

[The skin proves to be that of a young male Bronze-capped Teal (Eunetta falcata). On 
3rd March we also received a fully adult g from Capt. Mainprice, also from Roorkee.— Eds.] 



No. XII.— WOODCOCK (SCOLOPAX ROSTICOLA) IN KANARA. 

I send herewith a female Woodcock shot by me on the 17th of December 
1909 in the Shivpur Nalla of the Supa Petha of the Kanara District. The 
country is very hilly all round, the nalla-bed is about 300 feet above sea 
level, some forty odd miles from the coast line. On each side the valley is 
shut in by steep slopes to a somewhat extensive plateau above, all covered 
with grand high forest, much of it pure evergreen 1000' on the plateau. The 
country is well watered throughout, the Shivpur Valley especially so, its waters 
flowing into the Kalanadi river, which drains the whole of the northern part 
of the District. The temperature of these parts is as low as 46° at this time of 
the year in the evenings and thereafter heavy mists at night, lasting often up 
to nine o'clock in the morning. 

I had shots at a pair of Woodcock some fifteen years ago on the plateau of 
Gund above ; another settled under my ladder during a tiger-beat about the 
same place and I came across a fourth on still another occasion. The bird 
however is exceedingly rarely met with in Kanara. 

Colonel Peyton shot one some thirty years ago about the same place, and 
curiously enough, on the same day that Mr. Laird-MacGregor, then Divisional 
Forest Officer, Belgaum, accounted for one somewhere in the Ghats of that 
District. 

T. R. BELL, 

Kaewar, 10th January 1910. Conservator of Forests. 

No. XIII.-OCCURRENCE OF THE EASTERN SOLITARY SNIPE 
((?. SOLITARIA) AT HAKA, CHIN HILLS. 

The first day of the New Year found me exploring the nullahs and streams 
around here for game as my gun had just returned from being overhauled and 
cleaned. 



220 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

From a bend in one of these streams a bird got up and flew slowly and 
silently away and I managed to secure it. When I shot it I thought it was a 
Woodcock ; but on picking it up I was struck by its very bright plumage, and 
came to the conclusion that it might be an immature one. On my return to 
my house I sat down at once to identify it and found that it was a Solitary 
Snipe, a species I had not met before. 

On the 2nd instant I was out again and " bagged " a Woodcock, a Pintail 
Snipe (G. stenura) and a Partridge (Bambusicola fytchi). As the two species of 
Snipe bear some outward resemblance, the following notes may be of interest 
to other beginners like the writer. Placed side by side there is no difficulty 
in recognising the Solitary Snipe by its greater size, by the very much more 
restricted area of plain white on the under surface, and by the uniform olive 
brown upper tail coverts, the corresponding feathers of the Pintail being 
faintly but distinctly barred. G. solitaria bears, of course, no real resemblance 
to the Woodcock with his pale forehead and distinctly marked crown and nape, 
etc., and it was only the very cursory glance bestowed on it in the field and 
the abysmal ignorance of a beginner that made such a confusion possible. 

The following is a table of a few measurements of the two species of snipe. 

Length of bill from gape 

Tip of shortest secondary to tip of longest 
primary ... 

Wing 

Total length 

Tarsus 

Tail feathers total number 

„ „ broad middle ones 

„ ,, narrow ones on each side 

As regards other characteristics enumerated in The Fauna of British India, 

I did not find that the white bands on the under-wing coverts and axillaries 

were broader than the brown ones. 

I might add that a printer's error in the Volume referred to has given the 

Pintail only 2*25 inches of wing. 

It appears from Blanford's works that the Eastern Solitary Snipe is rather 

a rare winter visitant to such southerly latitudes as these, and as I have not 

seen it reported from this part of the country before, I thought its occurrence 

here might be worthy of record in our Journal. 

F. E. W. VENNING. 
Haka, Chin Hills, 

ith January 1910. 



G. solitaria. 


G. stenura. 


. 2-83 inch 
f 


2*4 inch, 


• 3 


? 


. 6-82 „ 


5-2 „ 


. 12-5 „ 


1° „ 


• 1-37 „ 


1-3 „ 


18 


24-j 


8 


10 }> variable. 


5 


7 i 



No. XIV.— DOVES NESTING ON THE GROUND. 

With regard to Mr. C. W. Allan's letter on the above subject in Vol. XIX., 
No. 2 (p. 523) of our Journal, he may be interested to know that I found, 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 221 

some years ago at Chorwar in Kathiawar, the nest of Turtur cambayemis (The 
Little Brown Dove) placed on the ground, on a large bare plot surrounded by 
the ordinary Indian Cactus. The nest contained two young birds. Besides 
the almost impenetrable jungle of Cactus round the spot, there were only a 
very few low bushes and stunted trees in its near vicinity. It is difficult to 
imagine how the old birds had succeeded in rearing their offspring as far as 
they had done, considering what timid birds they are in the face of clanger 
and without any of the habits universally possessed by birds which always 
lay their eggs on the ground. 

L. L. FENTON, Lt.-Col. 
South Molton, North Devon, England. 
10th -January 1910. 



No. XV.— OCCURRENCE OF THE LESSER FLAMINGO 
(PHCENICONAIAS MINOR) IN KATHIAWAR. 

Stuart Baker in his Indian Duchsand their Allies, remarks in respect of the 
above bird that we have no record of its occurrence in Cutch or in Kathiawar, 
it is therefore perhaps worthy of record that when serving in the last-named 
Province, some few years ago, I both saw and shot the bird in the Porbandar 
State. They were not plentiful. I had no difficulty in identifying the only 
bird I shot in mistake for the larger kind. 

L. L. FENTON, Lt.-Col 
South Molton, North Devon, England. 
8th January 1910. 



No. XVI.— BREEDING: OF THE GREAT STONE-PLOVER 
(ESACUS RECDRVIROSTRIS.) 

While out snipe shooting in the bushes along the banks of the Kistna River, 
in Kurnool District, on 29th June 1909, my dogs killed a young Esacus 
recurvirostris. It was a week or 10 days old, as the wing feathers were 
lurking through the quills. According to Oates their breeding is from March 
to June, and according to Finn from February to May. There was no 
mistaking the young bird and there were at least 12 old birds flying about in 
the neighbourhood. 

H. R. S. HASTED. 
Moravahonda, 29^/i January 1910. 



No. XVIL— TWO BIRDS' NESTS FROM TIBET. 

1. The Red-necked Mountain Finch. (Moritifringilla ruficollis—Blanf). 
This bird nests in the disused hole of the Mouse-hare (Lagomys). I have 
only obtained one nest, which was made about one foot below the surface of 



222 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX, 

the ground at the end of a tunnel about four feet long from the entrance. 
This nest was very roughly made of roots and grass and was lined with fea- 
thers, wool and the fur of the Mouse-hare. The nest contained four white 
eggs which measure 21x15, 21x15, 19 x 12mm. 

This clutch has been given to the Society. These eggs were taken at 
Phari-Tibet on the 8th June 1908, at an altitude of 14,300 feet. The bird 
was common, and I saw several pairs making their nests. I also obtained 
several nests of M. adamsi, which nests in the same place and in the same 
manner ; indeed, the nest and eggs of these two birds are indistinguishable, 
except that the eggs of M. adamsi are slightly larger. 

2. Robin Accentor. {Accentor rubeculoides — Hodgs/) 

I took a nest of this Accentor near Dochen in Tibet at an altitude of about 
15,500 feet on the 2nd July 1908. The nest was neatly constructed of moss 
lined with hair and wool, and was placed under a tuft of rushes in the bank 
of a stream overhanging the water. It contained four blue eggs from '20*2 to 
21"2 millimetres in length by 15mm. in breadth. The bird is common in that 
part of Tibet, and I had previously found a nest near Phari under a bush of 
dwarf rhododendron at a height of 14,500 feet above sea level. 

Edinburgh, January 1910. F. M. BAILEY, Capt. 



No. XVIII —BIRD NOTES FROM A HOMEWARD BOUND 
STEAMER IN NOVEMBER. 

Before slipping our moorings in Bombay Harbour on one of those pleasant 
afternoons, when having just obtained leave one looks at India over the stern, 
I noticed among the flocks of Laughing Gulls (Larus ridibundus) flying around, 
a very small gull which may possibly have been the Little Gull (L. minutus) ? 

About 350 miles out a small bird either pipit, bunting or lark, much to my 
astonishment, appeared flying round the ship. What could have induced this 
lonely waif to traverse such a vast waste of waters ? There could have been 
no question of the unfortunate bird having been blown out to sea by storms 
for the weather was fine and calm, as it usually is at this season. Nor were 
we on, what might in any sense be called, a migration route. Reflection in 
such circumstances reveals the tragic nature of these occasional, erratic, 
straying flights of small land birds, but leads one to speculate in vain regarding 
the origin of an impulse which so remorselessly misleads and drives its 
feathered victims to their doom. 

The 3rd day out, I saw some white Tropic-Birds probably Phaethon 
flavirostris. 

At Aden the Sooty Gull (L. hemprichi) was most abundant in the harbour. 
There were also a few L. ridibundus among which were probably The Brown- 
Headed Gull (L. brunneicephalus). It needs a practised eye to detect the 
differences between the two last species in winter plumage. 

In the southern end of the Red Sea, the Booby {Sula leucogaster) was 
particularly numerous. It was interesting to see these gannets beating up 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 223 

from their feeding grounds at sea to roosting quarters on the numerous rocky 
islets, that stud this stretch, in the teeth of a stiff breeze and over a choppy 
sea. The formation was invariably in single file, each bird about a length in 
rear of and in echelon to the lee of the preceding one. The flight was 
maintained a Eew points off, not directly into the winds' " eye " and just 
above the water, the troughs and crests of the waves being followed so as to 
obtain the shelter afforded by the retarded air currents near the surface. 

The distant spectacle of these long strings of brown objects rapidly mov- 
ing across and appearing and disappearing above and below the surface of the 
sea made it easy to imagine bow in former and less sophisticated seafaring 
times the wonderful mariners' yarns of " Monstrous sea serpents careering 
o'er the Deep " arose. 

Speculation regarding the significance of the echelon formation above 
referred to raises some interesting questions on bird aviation. Why should 
this flight formation be usual in flocks of some species and not in others, 
and how are the former (as they evidently are or the formation would not be 
employed) aided in their flight by such formation ? 

A little consideration will call to mind those species in flocks of which it is 
in vogue, e.g., the Cranes, Storks, Geese, Ducks, certain Waders and sea-birds 
etc. Also flocks in which it is not seen or is not noticeable such as those of 
the smaller passerine species, the Gulls, Rooks and Lapwings, and in coveys 
of partridges or packs of grouse, etc. If we bear in mind how species in both 
of the above categories fly in flocks the suggestion will occur that the forma- 
tion in question is intimately connected with uniformity and compactness of 
flocks, with weight and size of the component individuals, with velocity 
with the powers of sustained flight required by migrant species and with 
capacity, in spite of size, for making headway in adverse winds. Conversely 
that it confers no advantage on flocks in which the individuals do not fly in 
very close proximity to each other, in which the formation is a loose and 
straggling one, in which the individuals, although fast fliers, have little power 
of sustained flight, and in those composed of birds whose small size offers 
comparatively little resistance to the air. 

The answer to the first half of the question must then, I think, lie in the 
characteristics of the different species of gregarious birds and the necessities of 
their existence. 

To the second half the answer must, I think, be sought for in the behaviour 
of the atmosphere on the passage at speed of a heavy body through it. A large 
or heavy bird in rapid flight in a still or slowly moving atmosphere must 
continually displace a volume of air equal to its bulk and thus be the cause 
of a powerful indraught in its immediate rear, Behind the same bird flying 
against a high wind if there is no indraught there is yet a certain space in 
which the air is comparatively still. In the former case a bird immediately 
behind would be in a strong following wind, a state of things birds dislike 
intensely as it upsets their equilibrium. In the latter the bird would be to 



224 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

some extent in still air necessitating a difference in effort of wing stroke. 
In both cases this would quickly lead to disintegration of the flock, accurate 
keeping of station and equality of speed becoming impossible. 

It is probably tbe case therefore that the echelon formation renders import- 
ant aid to large birds in keeping the flocks intact when on the wing by en- 
abling the individuals composing the same, while keeping close to each other, 
to avoid the air disturbances set up by those immediately in front, at the 
same time ensuring to each a uniform air pressure and outlook to the front. 

The V formation commonly and the Y occasionally seen must necessarily 
result from the echelon when the rigidity of the flock lines becomes relaxed. 

Half-way up the Red Sea I noticed a falcon (not identified) flying close 
to the ship. 

At Suez there were a few cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) perched on the 
buoys in harbour, numbers of L. ridibundus possibly among them, the 
Adriatic Gull {L. melanocephalus) and a few L. hemprichi. Just before 
we dropped anchor a single Booby (S. hucogaster) flew across our bows 
and shortly after a flock of Sandgrouse, species undetermined, was 
observed crossing from the African to the Asiatic Shore. Steaming slowly 
into the Canal the mudflats behind Suez came into view covered with flocks of 
waders bunched together to face the cold north-east wind blowing off tbe 
desert and out of a leaden sky. Chiefly consisting of Curlew, Whimbrel and 
Oyster catchers there was one flock of 15 or 20 Spoonbill {Platalea leucerodia) 
which showed up a vivid patch of white against the dark grey background. 
Here and there a solitary Heron (Ardea drier ea) stood patiently fishing in the 
shallows. — Indian waters were left behind ! 

H. A. F. MAGRATH, Major. 

December 1909. 



No. XIX.— THE SMEW (MERGUS ALBELLDS.) 
Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker in his book Indian Ducks and their Allies writes 
regarding the Smew (Mergus albellus) that " there seems to be no record of 
single birds or pairs being obtained." 

While shooting on the River Indus on the 22nd February 1910, I was walk- 
ing up the bank of a tributary, a stream some 50 yards wide, when I saw two 
birds in the water some distance ahead of me. Hiding myself, I sent the 
Shikari round to drive them past me, and succeeded in getting one which 
proved to be a male Smew in fine condition. Tbe other I failed to get, as it 
gave me a wide berth the next time this ruse was tried. 

Perhaps this might prove useful as a record of a pair of Smews having been 
seen. 

R. FRANCIS, Lieut., 
Dera Ismail Khan, 47th Sikhs. 

N. W. F. Province, 
27th February 1910. 



.MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 225 

No. XX. -ROLLER CATCHING ITS PREY IN THE WATER. 

On the 14th September, I saw from my window a Burmese Roller (Coracias 
affinis) fly from his perch on the top of a bush, and dive head-first into a tank, 
king- fisher fashion, and emerge immediately afterwards, returning to his perch 
on the same bush, where he swallowed whatever it was that he had caught. I 
was very surprised, as I have never seen or heard of a Roller behaving in this 
manner. I got my field glasses and watched the bird very carefully. He was 
only 120 yards away, and I saw him repeat the operation four times alto- 
gether and each time he returned to the top of the same bush. Though I look- 
ed very carefully, I was not able to see what it was that he caught, although I 
could see quite plainly that he plunged bodily into the water, and was momen- 
tarily submerged. After each dive he returned to his perch on the bush on 
the bank above the tank and he swallowed his prey quickly, also shaking 
his feathers very vigorously several times to dry his plumage. 

The bush he sallied from, and returned to, was about 4 feet high, and grow- 
ing on a bank about 10 yards from, and 8 or 10 feet above, the tank. 

The tank is full of fish, but I hardly think it could have been for fish he was 
diving. I thought at the time it must have been some water insect which he 
was after, but unfortunately, even with my glasses, I could not make out what 
it was. I would have attempted to get closer to the bird to see what he was 
catching, but unluckily a native came along with some mules and the Roller 
flew right away behind the Fort. 

Some days later one of my servants, who had also observed the bird 
at the time when I saw it first, told me he saw the bird, probably the 
same one I think, behaving in a similar manner at the same place, while 
I was out. 

On the following day I saw a Roller fly up and settle in a tree about 20 
yards in front of my bungalow in the corner of the compound. He had 
something in his bill which he was evidently trying to swallow. I quickly got a 
pair of field-glasses and was in time to see that what the bird was trying to 
swallow was a frog, but unfortunately I did not actually see bim swallow 
it, because a man passing close to him disturbed him, and he flew on to another 
tree further away, and there I think swallowed it ; but he was too far off for 
me to see properly. 

There are two of these birds, Coracias ajfinis, always about near the tank 
which is outside the Fort wall, but is overlooked by my upper rooms. I now 
watch them with my glasses, whenever I get an opportunity ; but I have not 
again seen either of them diving into the water. 

I believe the two birds are always the same. One of them I have noticed 

when looking at him through my field glasses is a beautiful specimen, I think 

i this is probably a cock and the other a hen bird. I do not think a Roller 

could catch a fish, but it is possible that he is catching various prey when he. 

dives— sometimes a frog, at others a water-beetle or larva, etc., etc. 

2D 



226 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

It was very pretty to see the bird emerge from the water after diving, The 
great blue wings, seen through the glasses, looked beautiful, with drops of 
water rolliug off them and sparkling in the light. 

The above is, I consider, a most interesting case. I personally am of opinion 
that individual birds of whatever species are full of character and individual 
peculiarities just as much as human beings are. If one is able to observe 
birds in their wild life, acting naturally as they do when they either 
do not know they are observed or have no fear of the observer, one sees what 
very highly intelligent beings they are, how versatile are their moods and how 
much individual specimens of the same species can and do vary, and I also 
think they develop habits just as human beings do. 

It is quite possible that very few Rollers develop this habit of diving into 
water which I observed, and probably this bird was an individual of a 
bolder nature than the usual run of this species, and was willing to take the 
risk of a plunge to obtain some prey in the water which had taken his fancy. 

Since my notes were first written, I have been in correspondence with 
Major Harington on this subject. He informs me that he has never observed 
a Roller diving, but that he does not see any reason why they should not, as 
they are related to the king-fishers, which habitually dive ; and some king- 
fishers, notably Halcyon smyrnensis, the common White-breasted Blue King- 
fisher, feeds very similarly to the Roller. 

H. DELME RADCLIFFE, Major, 

Bhamo, 8th November 1909. R. W. F. 



No. XXL— SHRIKES' LARDERS. 

Last year in January, when out riding in the early morning, I saw a Grey 
Shrike (Lanius lahtora) fly into a babul tree with some thing in its beak. On 
woing over to investigate, the bird flew out and perched in a neighbouring 
bush. He had nothing in his bill when he flew out. On searching about, I 
found his larder in the tree ; it was near the top about twelve feet from the 
ground. In it were four or five locusts neatly impaled on thorns. What I 
had seen him fly in with was evidently one of these which he managed to 
impale in the short time, while I was approaching the tree or perhaps had 
dropped when I frightened him away ; but if so I did not see any sign of it on 
the ground. The larder could be easily seen from the ground and could have 
been at once found by a crow alighting in the tree which was quite a small 
one. The tree was one of two or three in a quite open maidan. 

While I was examining the larder, the Shrike sat in a neighbouring bush 
and as I rode away I saw it fly back again into the tree. Unfortunately, I had 
not an opportunity of visiting the place again for some time, but when I did 
there was no sign of the larder. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 221 

I remember to have seen a larder some years ago in a small babul bush, but 
I have forgotten the details, but I remember the owner was not visible. 

J. R. J. TYRRELL, Capt.,I.M.S. 

SlRDARPORE, BHOPAWAR AGENCY, C. I., 

16th April 1910. 



No. XXII. -OCCURRENCE OF THE LESSER FLORICAN OR 
LIKH {SYPHEOTlb AUR1TA) OUT OF SEASON. 

On two occasions last week while motoring near here I flushed a Lessei 
Florican from off the side of the road. On both occasions the bird got up 
about the same place, so it may have been the same bird. 

On the 13th instant while out riding in quite the opposite direction I again 
put up a florican. They all looked like females but may have been males in 
winter plumage. A good many florican come here during the rains, but I 
have not heard of them being seen so late as April. There is a good deal of 
long grass all about and water in several nallas. 

J. R. J. TYRRELL, Caet., I.M.S. 

SlRDARPORE, BHOPAWAR AGENCY, C. I. 

15^ April 1910. 



No. XXIII— SHRIKES' LARDERS. 

Shrikes' larders in India, concerning which there would appear to be some 
scepticism, I for one can vouch for. Incidentally in my wanderings I have 
come across at least three of the Rufous-backed Shrike (Lanius erythronotus). 
One such was in the Vale of Kashmir, the meat being a fat black cricket 
impaled on a thorn within 10 yards of a nest of this Shrike. 

Two others were in Bannu, the meat in one case being either a wasp or a 
cricket (I cannot now quite recollect which) impaled in a rose bush. In the 
other a small piece of what looked like dirty butchers' meat impaled ob 
one of the sharp pointed leaves of a small date palm just outside the walls 
of the City. The Shrikes were seen flying up from the bushes in the case 
of the last two. In addition I have a note dated January 10th of a larder 
of The Grey Shrike (L. lahtora) which I discovered in a thorn bush in a 
desert track in Bannu. It was stocked with a large locust and a species of 
striped moth. 

These larders were situated in dense and prickly bushes and were quite 
safe from crows. I have no observation to show that the contents of any 
suffered especially from ants or other insects or what subsequently became 
of them. 

While on this subject I may mention that last hot weather in my garden 
in Bannu a Rufous-backed Shrike rifled a nest full of young Purple Sunbirds 
(Arecnecthra asiatica). As the Shrike could hardly have devoured all the young 



228 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX, 

at a sitting, I have little doubt that a search in the surrounding bushes would 
have disclosed his larder well stocked with the remains of the young 
sun birds. 

H. A. F. MAGRATH, Major. 
Carron-Strathspey, Scotland, 
2Mh April 1910. 



No. XXIV —A SNAKE FLIRTATION. 

Your correspondent's note under the above heading in the last Journal, 
sounds as if this were a matter of very rare occurrence. But is this so ? I 
have on various occasions come across snakes so entwined, and have looked 
upon it as usual, if perhaps somewhat seldom actually witnessed, and I find 
in my notes that on two occasions last June, I saw the same thing with the 
same snakes as mentioned by Mr. Millett viz. Zamenis mucosus, and have 
entered it merely as an occurrence of coming upon snakes " in cop " — to use a 
term common among lepidopterists. 

Both these occasions were in the foot hills of the western slopes of the 
Nalamalais in Kurnool District. On June 10th I heard a struggling noise 
just off the path, and found two very large Dhamans entwined and throwing 
themselves about' — whether struggling or not I could not see. On my 
approach they immediately separated and went different ways, one into an 
adjacent old ant hill. One of those must have been nearly 9 feet long. 

The other occasions noted in same locality, and only about a mile from 
same spot, was on June 23rd when I again came upon a very large pair of 
these snakes in the same position. This time both were quiet, with hdads 
and free parts of body slightly off the giound, facing each other. Again 
I was unable to make any close observation as unlike the case reported by 
Mr. Millett, they again immediately uncoupled and went their ways. I 
tried to catch one, to examine the parts, but though I got hold of the tail, he 
or she, turned and savagely bit my hand and forearm and got away. 
Camp Boyirani, Ganjam Dt. COLERIDGE BEADON. 

2nd January 1910. 



No. XXV.— THE FOOD OF CROCODILES. 

Can any of your readers inform me whether it is usual to find stones inside 
the belly of a crocodile ? 

On the 30th December last I shot a 16 feet male Gharial (Gavialis pangeticus) 
on an island in the Sarda River near Chuka Dhya, Pilibhit. I found inside it 
a quantity of round stones such as are found in the river bed. I estimate 
there were about ten pounds weight in all. I kept three of the largest which 
weigh about eight ounces each. 

There was nothing else in the animal's stomach except the remains of a bird 
and some weed. Natives who were with me suggested that the crocodile had 
swallowed the stones because he was hungry and could get nothing else. Is 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 229 

this the explanation, or does a crocodile require stones to aid its digestion in 
the same way that birds require sand ? 

Hardwak, U. P., H. W. FORSYTH, Captain, R. E. 

9t7i January 1910. 



No. XXVI —REMARKS ON THE VARIETIES AND DISTRIBUTION 

OF THE COMMON GREEN WHIPSNAKE (DRYOPHIS 

MYCTERIZANS). 

Since my article on the green whipsnake (Dryophis mycterizans) appeared in 
the Popular Treatise Series in this Journal (Vol, XVI, p. 542), further allusions 
to this snake have appeared from time to time in literature which I think 
•deserve collation. 

No less than five varieties may be recognised, four of these being colour 
varieties. 

Variety typica. This is the common form. It is dorsally of a uniform leaf- 
green colour, and ventrally between the lateral white or yellow stripes which 
run down the whole belly length on to the tail, it is green of a lighter shade 
and peculiarly brilliant hue. 

Variety lepidorostralis. Dr. Annandale (Mem. Asiatic, Soc. Bengal., Vol. 1. 
No. 10, p. 196) alludes to a new variety which differs from typica in having 
the nasal appendage covered with small scales, such as occur in the species 
pulverulentus, only that they are larger (in this variety of mycterizans). That 
this is not a colour variety of pulverulentus, he states, is shown by the nasal 
appendage being shorter than the diameter of the eye. This variety appears 
to be peculiar to Bengal. The Superintendent in the Zoological Gardens, 
Calcutta, told Dr. Annandale that he frequently noticed this peculiarity 
among specimens from Midnapore. 1 saw such a specimen in the Zoo in 
Calcutta last time I visited it, and was allowed to remove it and inspect it 
closely. I have never seen such a specimen from any other part of our Indian 
Dominions. It is coloured exactly like typica. It is such a distinct variety 
that I suggest the name lepidorostralis for it. 

Variety zephrogaster. This differs from typica in that the belly between the 
lateral ventral stripes is of a cinereous grey. The first allusion to such a speci- 
men is that reported upon and figured by Dr. Russell in 1796 (Ind. Serp., 
Plate XIII). 

1 had a similar specimen brought to me in Trichinopoly in March 1896. 
Later I alluded in this Journal (Vol. XVIII, p. 783) to three specimens which 
I believed came from Burma, but which might possibly have been received 
with a collection from Ceylon. I am more than ever convinced that these 
specimens came from Burma because since then I have twice heard from 
Colonel G. H. Evans of similar specimens. In March 1908 he wrote of two 
such specimens that he had captured alive and examined, and in December of 
the same year told me he had acquired two others. All of these he had 



230 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

encountered in burnt Kaing grass. In Russell's specimen the ventrals and 
subcaudals were 174 + 148, in my Trichinopoly example they were 179 
+ 138, and in three Burmese specimens they were 176+146?, 176+153, 
and 181 + 151. 

Variety rhodogaster. In Vol. XVIII., p. 919 of this Journal I mentioned a 
new colour variety received by our Society from Shwebo, Upper Burma, which 
differed from typica in that the belly between the ventral lateral stripes was 
rose-pink. Since this I have received a similar specimen from Mr. W. A. 
Jacob, I.F.S., from Jalpaiguri, only that the colour on the belly in this case is 
a pinkish -buff. In the Shwebo example, the ventrals and subcaudals were 
191+140? (tail broken), in the Jalpaiguri specimen which was a 9 
201 + 148. 

Variety isabellinus. This variety is uniformly buff or khaki colour above, 
and a similar colour only of a lighter shade on the belly between the two 
lateral stripes. Like the other varieties it appears to be rare. Boulenger 
(Catalogue 1896, Vol. Ill, p. 181) mentions it without specifying from where 
he had received it. I obtained a 9 specimen from Paralai, near Valparai, 
Anamallay Hills, last year, the only one I have ever seen. It was one of four, 
the rest being of the typical variety. The ventrals and subcaudals were 
168 + 136. These same shields in the other specimens were $ 173+154, 9 
179 + ?, and 9 "• 169+140. I suggest for this the name isabellinus. The 
species as a whole is distributed as follows. 

It does not occur in the Indus Basin, nor seemingly in the Ganges Basin 
West of Purneah. (The solitary specimen recorded from Purneah which is 
in the Indian Museum was purchased, and may have been introduced, as Indian 
jugglers very frequently carry this snake about in their stock in trade). 
South of the Ganges Basin it is more or less common, but especially so in 
Southern India and Ceylon. On the Western side of Peninsular India it 
has been obtained as far North as Mount Abu (Sclater. The specimen is in 
the Indian Museum). On the East, Blanford (Jourl. Asiat. Society, Bengal, 
Vol. XXXIX, p. 373) reported it common in Orissa and Bengal, and it would 
appear to be so towards the Gangetic Delta, judging from specimens in the 
Indian Museum. A specimen in the British Museum is recorded doubtfully 
from Assam. In the Irrawaddy — Salween Basins — it is not a very uncommon 
snake, and has been recorded as far North as Bhamo (Anderson, Ann. Zool. 
Res Yunnan, p. 826). Further East it occurs as far as Indo-China, but is not 
found anywhere in the Malayan Peninsula or Archipelago. 

F. WALL, C.M.Z.S., 

Majoe, I.M.S. 
Chitral, dth February 1910. 



No. XXVII.— NOTE ON THE BREEDING OF ECHIS CARINATA. 
In his article on Echis carinata, Major Wall tells us (Society's Journal, Vol. 
XVIII, p. 537) that the records of the breeding of this snake are very meagre. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 231 

It may therefore be of interest to put on record the laying of 8 eggs by an 
EcJiis carinata kept in captivity in the Bombay Bacteriological Laboratory. 
The eggs were laid on the 8th of July 1909, and all appeared to be infertile. 
They measured 13 millimetres Q^ of an inch) in length by 10 millimetres 
( r % of an inch) in breadth, after having been kept for a couple of months 
in formaline solution. The eggs are reported to have been covered with 
slime and to have been yellowish white in colour. There were six phoorsas in 
the cage, the latest arrival having been received on the 10th of February, that 
is six months previously. 

The seasons in which young are noted as having been found by the 
authorities quoted in Major Wall's paper, are April, May and June for 
Ratnagiri, July for London, August for Trichinopoly, Multan and Quetta. 
Now we have one additional record of July for Bombay. 

W. B. BANNERMAN, M.D., D. So., 

Lt.-Colonel, I.M.S., 
Director, Bombay Bact. Laboratory. 
Parel, Bombay, lltli February 1910. 



No. XXVIII— NOTES ON THE VIVIPAROUS HABIT OF JERDON'S 

PIT VIPER (LACHESIS JERDONI) AND OBSERVATIONS 

ON THE FCETAL TOOTH IN THE UNBORN EMBRYO. 

Amongst other snakes recently received from Mr. F. E. W. Venning 
collected in Haka, Chin Hills, Upper Burma (6,500 feet) is a gravid specimen 
of Jerdon's pit viper which is of exceptional interest. 

I believe I am correct in saying that hitherto we have had no certain 
evidence to show whether this snake is viviparous or oviparous, but the 
point is settled now for I found six membraneous sacs containing embryos in 
an advanced stage of development " in abdomina parentis." The sacs 
measured about one and a half inches in length, and one inch in breadth, two 
being developed in one oviduct, and four in the other. The contained 
embryos in every case occupied the upper half, that is the vertebral half, 
where they were plainly visible through the transparent investing mem- 
brane. The lower half of each sac contained yolk. 

I extracted the embryos, and found there were two males and four 
females, two of the latter being in each oviduct. In the males the genitals 
were extruded, as I have found them in all other snake embryos, and the 
retraction of these organs into the sheaths at the base of the tail where they 
lie invaginated in all snakes after post-oval, or post abdominal life, must 
occur at a late stage of intra-maternal life judging from these foetus. Each 
$ clasper was observed to be bifid as I have noted in other vipers. 

By far the most interesting observation brought to light is the fact that the 
embryo developes a special tooth-like organ to enable it to liberate itself from 
its investing membranes, just as the embryos of an oviparous parent are pro- 



232 JO URN A L, BOMB A Y NA TURAL EISTOR Y S0C1E TY, Vol. XX. 

vided with a cutting instrument to incise the egg-shell and release themselves 
from their ovicular imprisonment. As far as I am aware this is an observation 
new to science. 

One might have supposed that a very moderate pressure from the snout 
of a vigorous embryo would suffice to rupture membranes which appear so 
delicate, but this is evidently not the case. 

I was able after some trouble arising from the minute proportions of this 
structure — which when removed is only just visible as a speck to the naked 
eye — to view it under the microscope, and it will be seen from the accom- 
panying figures that in conformation it is very different from the analogous 
organ of an oviparous embryo, some remarks upon which and a figure were 
published in this Journal some time back *. 

cL 






A B C 

Foetal tooth of I»achesis jerdoni. 

(much enlarged). 

A. Inferior surface. 

B. Superior surface : — 

(a) root ; (b) inferior surface ; (c) flattened superior 
surface of bill ; (d) cutting anterior edge. 

C. Seen in profile. 





D E 

D. Pr^emaxilla of foetus of Lachesis jerdoni seen from front, showing 
arch (e) beneath which the bill (d in fig. B) projects. 

E. Pr/emaxilla seen from below showing the socket (/) into which the 
root of the foetal tooth (a in fig. B) fits. (#) shows anterior surface. 



* Vol. XVIII, p, 504. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



233 



As in an oviparous embryo, tne organ is embedded in the prsemaxilla, its 
dome-like root (see a in figure B) being received into a socket in the lower 
aspect of that bone (see figure E). The whole structure is extremely like a 
duck's head in shape. Its rounded aspect (6 in figure B) is the lower, and its 
flattened aspect the upper {see c in figure B). Its bill-like extremity ending 
in a rounded, horizontal incising edge (see d in figure B) projects forward 
beneath the prsemaxillary arch (e in figure D). The root is yellow in colour, 
and all the rest of the structure white. Figure A shows the lower surface and 
C a profile seen from below and in front. 

The measurements of the brood and the ventrals and subcaudals are given 
below, and it will be seen that they do not show any sexual differences. 



Sex. 


Length. 


Ventrals. 


Subcaudals 


S? £ 

CD T3 
-° 3 

oi CD 
.» > 

« a 


COSTALS. 


Two heads- 
lengths 
between 
head. 


o 


Two heads- 
lengths 
before 
auus. 


$ 
$ 

9 

9 
9 
9 


7^ 
71 
7-1 
7| 
7 I 
7* 


174 
174 
172 
173 
175 
174 


59? 
56? 
56? 
60? 
54? 
57? 


17 
20 
15 
15 
13 
13 


21 
21 
21 
21 

21 
21 


21 

21 
21 
21 
21 
21 


17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 



The parent was killed on the banks of a nullah on the 1st of August 1909. 
She measured 2 feet 5 inches, of which the tail accounted for 4f inches. 
The costals were the same as those of her brood viz. 21 — 21 — ]7, and the 
reduction of rows from 21 to 19. and 19 to 17 occurred very close together, 
and in both steps was due to a fusion of the 5th and 6th rows above the 
ventrals. The ventrals numbered 175, and the subcaudals 52. 

Another interesting point brought to light is that in this species there are 
no palatine teeth, unlike other species of the same genus of which I have 
skulls (anamallemis , monticola, gramincus, macrolepis, purpureomaculatus and 
trigonociphalus.) The dentition is as follows : — Marillary 2 large fangs placed 
side by side. Palatine none. Pterygoid 5 to 6. Mandibular 10. 

Another specimen measuring 10^ inches from the same source killed on the 
26th August 1909 is obviously this year's production and indicates that the 
embryos in the gravid $ would probably have grown an inch, or two more 
before being born. These dates of capture serve to fill in another gap in 
the breeding history of this species, vis. } the season when the young are pro- 
30 



234 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX 

cluced. The costals in the hatchling were similar in number to those of the 
and her brood. The ventrals 170 and subcaudals 60. 

F. WALL, C.M.Z.S., 

Chitral, 1st March 1910. Major, I.M.S. 

No. XXIX.— LARGE MAHSEER. 

In The Field for November 13th, 1909, Mr. C. E. Murray-Aynsley gives an 
account of the capture on September 20th of a large (Mahseer Barhus tor) 
in the Cauvery river which he eventually landed after an exciting fight last- 
ing over half an hour. The fish weighed 103 lbs. and measured as follows :• — 
length, 64 inches ; girth, 39 inches ; mouth across, 8^ inches ; tail across, 
19 inches. This is the second large Mahseer Mr. Murray-Aynsley has been 
fortunate enough to catch and in The Field for November 10th, 1906, he gave 
an account of how he caught the first one. 

The weight of the fish caught then was 104 lbs. and it measured : length, 66 
inches ; girth, 37 inches ; mouth, 8£ inches ; tail, 19 inches. 

There are not many records of the weight of large Mahseer which can be 
relied on. Thomas in The Rod in India says :— " We hear of captures of fish 
weighing more or less about 100 lbs." and he goes on to give extract from a 
letter from Gr. P. Sanderson, with reference to the weight of a large Mahseer 
the latter had caught on a night line but was unable to weigh. He (Sanderson), 
however, estimated it at 150 lbs., though it only measured u length including 
tail 60 inches ; greatest girth 38 inches ; inside lips when open circumference 
24 inches ," but he adds :• — " Of course my rough estimate of the fish's 
weight is valueless as fact, but you may believe that I was not out many 
pounds. It was an astonishingly thick and heavy fish for its short length.. 
I have caught them 5 feet 6 inches, but not much more than 80 lbs. It had 
a shoulder like a bullock, steeply hanging over. I have caught about fifty of 
them, but my next largest was about 90 lbs. I have no doubt in my own n 
mind that they run over 200 or 250 lbs. as I have seen teeth and bones of 
them far larger than my 150 pounder ; they are often caught by the natives." 

Dr. Day records a Mahseer caught in the Poonch river near Jhelum which i 
measured " from snout to bifurcation of tail 3 feet 11 inches and weighed 
62 lbs." Writing in the Anglers Handbook the late Captain Gr. H. Lacy and 
Surgeon-Major Crelin say : — " It runs to 200 lbs. and bh feet." Sanderson in his 
Thirteen years amongst the Wild Beasts of India describes and figures a monster 
Mahseer caught with a night line in the Cauvery river. " I saw a similar i 
Mahseer caught with a net in the Gfogra at Fyzabad. The length of each of 
these fish was about equal to the height of a man 5 feet 6 inches. Sanderson, i 
underestimates his at 150 lbs., the other was estimated at 100 seers. The late 1. 
Captain Lacy caught a female Mahseer at Taugrot 61 lbs. in weight, 4 feet 
7 inches in length and 2| feet, in girth." 

" Skene Dhu " in his recent work The Angler in Northern India (1910) says 
the Mahseer " runs to 200 lbs. in weight " and adds that " the largest Mahseer 






MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 235 

caught to date fairly on rod and line was caught within the last two years by Mr. 

Murray- Aynsley, ... if I remember rightly, 104 lbs.'' In the Society's 

room there are the remains of two large Mahseer captured in the Bowani river 

(S. India) by the late N. S. Symons weighing 7H and 65J lbs. respectively 

From the above it will be seen that there are no actual records of a 

Mahseer weighing over 104 lbs., which have been properly weighed. There 

is no value in the statement that Mahseer weighs up to 200 lbs., unless evidence 

can be produced of a fish of that size which has been actually weighed. 

Our Society will always be glad to hear of the size and weight of any large 

Mahseer or indeed any sporting fish caught by members or their friends. 

N. B. Kinnear, 

(Keeper of the Museum.) 
Bombay Natural History Society, 

Bombay, April 1910. 



No. XXX.— ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 

(Edited by H. Maxwell — Lefroy.) 

(a). — What is a Cuckoo-Spit? 

One commonly finds upon grass or herbaceous plants, a white mass of 
frothy liquid which usually contains a flattened white insect. This froth 
is the production of the insect itself, presumably a protection from enemies 
and is formed only during the immature stages, the mature winged insect being 
extremely active. The insect is one of the Aphrophorine division of the 
Cercopidce, our common species belonging to the genera Poqphilus, Ptyelus 
Clovia and Aphrophora. A good deal has been written about the formation of 
the Cuckoo-spit, the latest being Guilbeau's paper (Amer. Naturalist, XLII, 
p. 783) wherein the author reviews previous work and adds observations of his 
own. The frothy mass of bubbles is composed of liquid and excretion which 
on being extruded runs to the lower side of the abdomen where it is mixed by 
the hind pair (or two pairs) of legs with a secretion derived from glands in 
the skin of the 7th and 8th segments of the abdomen. This secretion is to 
make the anal excretion gummy and the action of the legs is to mix it well. 
This being done, the insect makes a bubble by protruding the end of the 
abdomen beyond the liquid, opens up the pair of lateral appendages on the 
abdominal segment and draws in air, making a bubble. By continually making 
bubbles the insect keeps itself covered with the frothy mass. Like all of the 
family, these insects feed on plant sap, absorbing the nutriment and excreting 
large quantities of liquid. 

(6). — Idiocerus and its broods. 

Leafhoppers of the family Jassidce are not generally familiar, except in the 
form of those which come abundantly to light and those which swarm on the 
mango-trees in March, covering the leaves with sticky gum and blighting the 
blossom. The latter are species of Idiocerus and usually breed in March when 
the mango puts out green shoots, providing soft tissues for egg-laying and 
abundant sap for food. During the rest of the year, the Idiocerus waits, 



236 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

growing less in number till the next season, and in five years' observation of 
this genus, we have never seen breeding at any time but March. This season 
has been an exceptionally wet one and the mango trees shot out freely in 
September. Whether from this reason or not, the Idiocerus also bred and one 
distinct brood was produced at a season when we have never before observed 
it breed at all. One hesitates to put this down definitely to any cause except 
that the very curious breeding times of this insect are accounted for in no 
other way but by saying that the growth of new shoots in March actually 
does provide a tissue soft enough for egg-laying and also abundance of sap as 
food for both young and adults. One would imagine ihat a tree such as the 
mango provided abundant sap all the year round but it evidently does not. 
(c).— The Eggs of Tettigoniella. 

Tettigoniella spectra is a very common white Jassid found upon rice and 
grass ; like most of our obscurer insects it has been very little investigated and 
only its bare occurrence noted. Its eggs were recently found, laid side by 
side in the tissues of the leaves of the rice plant, the usual cigar-shaped eggs 
found in this family. Those found here were submerged and were kept in 
water to hatch. They hatched but while a few yielded nymphs, most yielded 
a tiny winged Proctotrypid parasite which was perfectly at home under water, 
walking about and evidently accustomed to going under water in search of 
eggs in which to oviposit. In the present state of entomology it is impossible 
to identify Proctotrypida, which are extremely abundant in India. Other 
aquatic Proctotrypids are known, predaceous on aquatic insects, notably 
Prestwichia, parasitic upon the eggs of Caddis flies in water and Polynemia in 
the eggs of a dragonfly. 

(d). — What do dragonflies eat ? 

Practically all day long there are dragonflies on the wing, hawking in the air 
and, presumably, getting something for their trouble. At times the air is full of 
them, as it were, and seeing them against the setting sun, one sees simply a multi- 
tude of shining forms, darting here and there in incessant activity. They congre- 
gate in spots, not always the same but varying from day to day, perhaps as food 
is to be found and as the insects they prey on are to be found here and there. 

During the last month (November) there have been abundant May-flies, of 
the genus Chlceon, dancing up and down in the still air as the sun rises ; each 
one goes steadily up, then goes down straight in a rush and then up again 
with steady flight; sometimes a number will swoop down together and the 
dancing groups, seen with a shimmer as the level rising sun strikes them, are 
extremely beautiful. These are the prey of dragonflies, and one can see very 
distinctly the dragonfly, moving back and forward on a level height, striking 
at and feeding on the May-fly that comes within its range; so far as one can 
estimate the dragonflies can see a May-fly perhaps a foot off, and as the May-fly 
company dances, one sees the dragonflies striking out at those on the outside 
but apparently not seeing any others. Dragonflies are known to be short-sighted 
and in this case one can see clearly how their short-sight works. This case is 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 237 

an exceptional one, as the level sun shows up clearly both the hunter and its 
prey but the flight of the prey is so distinct one can easily recognise the 
insect. In most cases it is practically impossible to determine by observation 
what dragonflies are getting. 

Another method has suggested itself; in the field one sees dragonflies sitting 
on a convenient plant or support and darting off every now and then on the 
chase. Below such a point, to which the same dragonflies come back constantly, 
one finds their excreta; we examined some of these, crushing them gently in 
water on a slide and examining them with a quarter and a sixth inch objective. 
In those we saw, the excreta were a solid mass of chitinous remains of insects' 
legs, antennas, the facetted coverings of eyes, odd pieces and so on. These 
are not determinable to species, but they are more or less referable to 
groups ; the characteristic legs of Orthoptera, the hairy legs of Aculeates, the 
scales of Lepidoptera, the elytra of beetles, the spinous tissues of flies, the 
scales of Mosquitoes, the scutella or hemelytra of bugs, the legs of Homoptera 
are more or less distinguishable, even after exposure to the digestive fluids of 
a dragonfly. In some we saw the remains were exclusively dipterous, so far 
as anything definite could be traced, but there was no sign of anything belong- 
ing to a mosquito. 

In a single instance recently we saw a very small pale-blue Agrionid deliber- 
ately eating a Caddis-fly (Trichoptera), the common ^Ethaloptera sexpunctata 
Kol., nearly as big as the little slender dragonfly. 

The subject is interesting as we see dragonflies constantly in great abund- 
ance; we believe them all to be predaceous; we believe that nearly always they 
feed on only small insects they can dispose of on the wing, and such small in- 
sects are probably in many cases mosquitoes and other small insects which fly 
in the still air and are easily caught. The mosquito in these days is so import- 
ant, and so many investigators are on his track that even incomplete observa- 
tions may give a clue and clearly the dragonfly question is worth attention. 
The only other method of investigation that occurs to me is to catch and kill 
dragonflies and investigate their stomach-contents. The direct observation of 
dragonflies, the investigation of their stomachs and excreta should give data 
on which to decide what it is dragonflies do eat. 

In Poulton's "Predaceous Insects and their Prey" (Trans. Ent. Soc, London 
1906, p 399 et seq) are given records of the food of dragonflies; 26 cases only 
are cited showing how very little is known and recorded; the prey includes a 
fly, a dragonfly, a wasp, a tabanid fly, a Malacoderm beetle, a wasp, another 
dragonfly, a Coccinellid beetle, a Lycaanid butterfly, a May-fly, a Crambid 
moth, a Syrphid fly, a Galerucid beetle, a Skipper (Hesperiid) butterfly, a 
Danaid butterfly, and a Termite. The records are probably very one-sided as 
the prey to be identified must be large enough to be clearly seen, and 
dragonflies more usually prey on small insects. The subject is one that may 
be of importance and may perhaps commend itself to some observer in India 
gifted with patience and leisure. 



238 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

In Pusa this year, dragonflies are extraordinarily abundant, and have the 
appearance of a locust swarm when they hawk together in the still evenings ; 
I have never seen anything approaching the number there are, and not in one 
place only but all over the country-side. The abnormal rainfall (75 instead 
of 45 inches) has perhaps enabled them to breed more than usual ; it is the 
larger forms, not the Agrionids, which are abundant. There is also an 
abundance of Culex fatigans, Steqomyia fasciata and Anopheles fuliginosus ; 
whether the last really conveys the fever that is raging all round or not is 
not known, but there is a very great abundance of this Anopheles, which is now 
coming more into houses and which particularly shelters in thatched huts and 
buildings ; the enormous abundance of dragonflies has not checked them nor 
other mosquitoes, and considering the habits of dragonflies it is hardly likely 
that they would kill mosquitoes. 

(e) — What is a species ? 

The Bulletin Scientifique de la France et la Belgique, fasc 3, contains a 
long memoir by A. Delcourt, entitled " Recherches sur la Variabilite du 
genre Notonecta " (Enquiry into the Variability of the genus Notonecta), 
Commencing with a discussion of the described European species, the author 
details researches into the genus Notonecta in Europe, founded on collecting 
and interbreeding, his collecting alone covering 30,000 specimens. The enquiry 
is directed into determining how far the genus Notonecta consists of distinct 
species, i.e., how far the systematist's recorded species are species. He 
reduces the six or more definitely described species into four " categories 
valables de classification " which we may roughly describe as " distinct classifi- 
able forms," with variable forms due to habitat. He suppresses one species, 
creates a new definite one, and extends one to cover so-called species and varie- 
ties separated owing to degrees of pigmentation. He concludes that a system- 
matist, describing new species from a collection say, necessarily makes 
mistakes because he takes account only of morphology and cannot take 
account of differing habitat, etc.; that is, species as described may not be dis- 
tinct, and what the real conclusion is amounts to this ; that there are no de- 
finite species, that forms have been derived from each other and from common 
ancestors, that there are intermediates between so-called species and no clear 
limits between species can be founded on Morphological characters alone. 
We give a free translation of what the author believes is the result of this 
enquiry. " What matters, is not to give names to forms of organised beings, 
but to distinguish that they are those which are perpetuated in the same state 
till they vary and to ascertain what are their relations, as much to each other 
as to their surroundings. Classification is a means, not an end, and, if taken 
as expounded here, the conception of evolution follows, for, as Tower remarks, 
new forms are the result of a rapid change in response fco external factors. 
It does not require centuries to show them, it is enough to know how to see 
them, but for that one must use approximate terms." 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 239 

We apologise to the author if we have misunderstood or wrongly translated 
him, but the gist of his remarks is apparently that the close study of a genus 
shows that the limits of species are not, in Notonecta, definite, cannot be fixed 
by Morphological characters and that in fact a species as a single definite 
entity does not exist. Probably all entomologists will agree with the author 
but not every one will, in the present state of Science, push his conclusions to 
the practical test and cease to use specific names. It is in every group im- 
possible to fix the limits of species ; two authors naturally cannot agree, as it 
is not a matter of fact but of personal interpretation of fact, and the two have 
not before them the same series of facts. The end we seem to be travelling 
to is chaos and confusion, because no systematic nomenclature will be possible 
without referring to a Notonecta say, as " totonecta glauca, near to furcata, 
Kashmir summer form." 

This is however yet to come as few genera have been studied in the detail 
that Mons. Delcourt brings to it ; the moral is to deal lightly and tolerantly 
with names and with author's interpretations of them, to realise that system- 
atist's species are not real species, and to make a bad job as good as we can by 
getting to a reasonable method of classification and nomenclature which will 
make intercommunication possible between workers and yet not violate too 
much the natural " species " evolved by Nature and which we must try to 
define as working entities if progress is to be made at all. 

At the present time a " name " is merely a reference to a full description by 
a specialist and not anything more at all ; the fact that two specimens are 
given two specific names means that one specimen is referred back to one 
description and the other to another ; it will be years before specific and 
generic names can convey any ideas of relationship and descent, and it is use- 
less trying, at present, to make them do so. 

The layman is naturally mystified by names, and attributes too much im- 
portance to them, as, unfortunately, do many systematists and workers. They 
are conventions and to be treated as such, to be altered and molested as little 
as possible, and specific names above all to be regarded simply as reference 
terms of a wholly artificial kind, due to our profound ignorance not only of 
what constitutes a species but what species there really are in the world 
around us. 

(/). — " Indian Insect Life " 

We take this opportunity of drawing attention to a serious mistake in this 
volume ; fig. 331 on page 495 should be entitled Hypsipyla robusta, Mo., and 
be placed on page 514, where this species is mentioned. The error has been 
pointed out by Mr E. E. Green {Tropical Agriculturist, December 1909), who 
has also drawn attention to minor misprints most of which will be obvious to 
our readers. 

(g). — The " Coleopterorum Catalogues." 

We have received the first five parts of this publication edited by S. Schen- 
kling with a list of contributors well known as specialists in the different 



240 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

groups of beetles. It is designed to replace the Munich catalogue published 
from 1868 to 1876. 

Part I deals with Rhysodidce, recording Rhysodes with six species from India 
and Clinideum with one. 

Part II deals with the Nilionidce, Oihniidce, Aegialitidce, Petriidce and 
Lagriidce ; of the first we have none, and India is credited with no Othniid, 
though Othnius delusus, Pasc, recorded from Borneo, has been found by 
Andrewes in the Nilgiris. Of the Lagriidce, we have thirty recorded species 
from sub-tropical India. 

Part III lists the Cisteiidce, here called Alhculidce ; there are thirty-one 
recorded species from India, also sub-tropical. 

Part IV lists the Scolytidce, exclusive of Platypodince, here called Ipidce. 

It is deplorable in the extreme that this term should be used on grounds of 
priority solely ; the genus Tomicus has become Ips, the genus Scolytus has 
become Eccoptogaster, and, if this nomenclature is to be adopted, the confusion 
will be awful. If it is not adopted, then this valuable reference work is useless, 
unless one works up all the changes, and the catalogue might as well not be 
written. 

Seolytidce are one of the most important families economically ; a very large 
amount of literature exists, none of which will be intelligible in after years. 
unless the student works up the synonymy first of all. We have nothing but 
condemnation for this kind of name changing, and it is to be hoped that the 
body of entomologists will combine together and stop it. If not, the division 
between the systematists and the biologists (with the economic workers) will 
widen till there are two sets of nomenclature, the present daily changing one 
of the systematists, and an arbitrary unchanging one of the practical worker. 

Part V takes in Cupedidce, which are not Indian, and Paussidcu, of which 
forty- two Indian species are recorded. 

We congratulate the editor and his collaborators on the start made with 
this great task ; such a catalogue is of the very greatest value to all workers, 
if absolutely authoritative, and it will be welcomed by all who work with 
Coleoptera ; and we hope it will not be marred with radical changes in 
nomenclature, but that the editor and his collaborators will adhere to the 
established nomenclature that has been in use for the last fifty years. 

Part VI Apionince. — The author includes in this sub-family the groups Cylades 
and Eurhynchides of Lacordaire ; Cylasis represented in India by three species, of 
which C.formicarius, Fabr., is the well-known Sweet-Potato Weevil. It is amaz- 
ing that a catalogue such as this is should not record more carefully the geo- 
graphical distribution of species ; C. formicarius is given as from India and 
Ceylon ; it occurs also in Australia and the West Indies as a well known pest 
of sweet-potato. The author also separates C. turcipemnis, Boh., as a distinct 
species of Java, Borneo and Sumatra ; this is usually reckoned the same 
species ; the author is either in error or has cause for separating them, in 
which case it should be cited. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 241 

Of the Apionini, 27 Indian species are listed, apart from those of Ceylon 
and Burma ; many of these are Motschulky's species of 1858 ; very few 
are recent descriptions, and the group is but imperfectly known in India 
probably. The author has wholly omitted Motschulky's A. pruinosum (Ent. 
Stud. 1858, VII, p. 92), and Desbrocher's A. strobilanthi (Ind. Mus. Notes II, 
p. 32). The latter was bred from seeds ; the only economic species is the 
" Jute Stem "Weevil " which is injurious in Eastern Bengal to this plant. We 
have Apion gagatinum, Mo., and several unidentified species in the Pusa 
collection. These small weevils occur little in collections and are usually 
unnoticed by collectors. 

(h). — Genera Insectoeum. 

Fascicule 97 is a volume of great bulk dealing with the family Chalcidce, 
by Dr. 0. Schmiedeknecht. The number of described species is enormous, 
and this volume, like the rest of the series, gives the characters marking the 
genera and lists the species. 

The Chalcidce include the abundant small parasites which destroy insects ; 
many are egg-parasites, many are parasites in such small insects as Aphids. 
Scale Insects and the like. The fig insects are also included, which occur so 
abundantly in India. 

The Indian species recorded are very few ; fifty species are enumerated, of 
which three are real fig insects, nine are inquilines and parasites of the fig 
insects, while a bare 38 others have been actually named. There are actually 
hundreds of species in India but they have been little collected and no* 
described. 

Fascicule 98 deals with the sub-family Nanophyince of the Curculionidse 
(Weevils). Nine Indian species of Nanophyes are listed. The habits of our 
Indian forms are wholly unknown, but in Europe, Nanophyes are known to 
live as larvae in galls, or the larvae live freely in flowers, feeding on the ovary, 
or concealed in the flower as in Tamarix. These weevils are small, similar to 
the small Apion which also lives in the tissues of plants. 

Other recent fascicules do not contain Indian species and need no mention 
here. The editor, Monsieur P. Wytsmann of Brussels, is to be congratulated 
on the success of the publication ; 99 fascicules have been issued, from the 
pens of the best experts in each family, beautifully illustrated and well got 
up ; the series is in a fair way to become complete, and entomologists will owe 
to the editor a great debt of gratitude for having produced a work of such 
immense value. 

H. MAXWELL-LEFKOY. 

Pusa, November 1909. 

(0- — Life-history of a Lymantrid on Castor (Orgyia postica, Wlk.). 

In December last the castor crop on the Coimbatore farm was found attack- 
ed by a species of hairy caterpillar not notsd till now. The insect did some 
31 



242 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

appreciable injury by defoliating the plants though it was checked by per- 
sistent hand-picking. The life-history of the insect was studied and the fol- 
lowing is a brief summary of the same. 

Egg. — The parent moth lays hundreds of creamy white eggs in clusters and 
groups, these being very often found attached to old pupal cocoons. Each 
egg is spherical in shape with a small depression on the upper surface. In 
measurement each egg is % m.m. across. 

Larva. — Eight days after laying, these seed-like eggs open and the small 
caterpillar hatches out. The just-hatched caterpillar is slender. 2 m.m. in 
length and of a dark colour. The body is fringed with long hairs. The 
young caterpillars all feed gregariously like several other hairy caterpillars at 
this stage, moult and grow in size. As it grows and moults take place, 
ohanges in structure, size and colour take place. When full-grown the cater- 
pillar measures \\ inches. The body is more or less cylindrical. The head 
is hemispherical and of a reddish-brown colour with interrupted yellowish 
bands along each lateral side. The whole body is covered with hair, the hairs 
at the tail segment being longer. In addition to the uniform hairy coat, there 
are other hairy structures very often characteristic of these tussock moth 
larvae. On the dorsal surface of the first four abdominal segments are 
cushion-like pads of white hair one on each segment ; these hairy cushions 
stand upright. At the lateral sides of segments 1 and 2 in the abdomen there 
is a slender whitish hairy tuft protruding at right angles to the body. On each 
side of the prothorax is a long dark pencil of hairs pointing forwards and 
extending a good distance beyond the head. On the median dorsal line 
of the tail segment is a long tuft of hairs more or less corresponding in 
position and appearance to the tail spine of sphingid caterpillars. Most of 
these long tufts of hair are full of small branched spines and are irritating 
to the touch. The ventral side of the body is of a pale white colour 
with the legs and prolegs (5 pairs) brownish. The caterpillar when fully fed 
builds a dirty white transparent cocoon of silk and hair mixed up and pupates 
within this. The cocoons are generally located in hidden parts of the plant. 
The pupa is of two kinds. Those of the male are smalier and measure 8—9 
m.m., while those of the female are bigger. In colour both are of a pale white 
colour, that of the female however being of a whiter shade, length 13 m.m. 
The pupation period lasts from six to eight days. 

The male.- — The male insect is an active moth, dark brown in colour, with 
the front wings having patterns of pale blue and brown and the hind wing 
uniformly dark. The wings expand to 23 m.m. across. The antennas are 
prominent and pectinate. The structure of the limbs and the position of the 
front legs in repose are typically Lymantriid in nature. 

The female.— The female insect is apterous and can hardly be distinguished 
at a glance from the chrysalis out of which it emerged. It is a fleshy mass of 
dull white colour with the head and limbs very minute, the antenna? are very 
small and pectinate. The wings are represented by minute pale rudiments at 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 243 

the sides of the thoracic region. It measures 13 m.m. in length. Oncoming 

out of the pupal case the female clings firmly to the cocoon by means of its 

tiny limbs. In this posture it remains evidently awaiting the male. Whether 

impregnated by the male or not, it lays eggs in some hours. Hundreds of eggs 

are laid and these are cemented in clusters by means of a shiny fluid which 

hardens on exposure, and all these eggs become attached to the cocoon. 

When the female has unloaded itself of all the eggs it becomes very much 

reduced in size and gradually dies. 

Experiments in attracting males by taking the apterous female at dusk to 

the castor plot was tried and numbers of males were attracted. Thus the 

whole life cycle occupies from egg to imago roughly a month and a half as 

below : — 

Egg 8 days. ^ 

Caterpillar 25 „ }■ roughly 1£ months. 

Pupa 8 „ J 

The most interesting feature of this insect is the marked sexual distinc- 
tion. As a pest, the insect is a leaf-eater and feeds gregariously like other 
Lymantrids and during the younger stages of the larva it can be easily hand- 
icked with the leaves and destroyed. 

T. V. RAMAKRISHNA AIYAR. 

(j ).— Breeding Notes on eumenes conica. 

A good deal has been observed and recorded of the habits of different 
species of potter wasps by eminent observers like Home, Bingham, etc., but I 
believe that the complete life-history of no Indian species of Eumenes has yet 
been recorded [Home, Maindron and Cretin have all published accounts and a 
short one occurs in Indian Insect Life, p. 211. As these notes will interest 
readers of the Journal, they are inserted in full. H. M. L.]. I venture to 
think, therefore, that the following rearing notes on E. conica will not be uninter- 
esting. In the Coimbatore Agricultural College farm, E. conica appears to be 
the commonest species that boldly enters dwellings and public buildings and 
builds its nest in odd corners. In December last the red gram crop on the 
farm was rather badly attacked by caterpillars — chiefly the Noctuid CMoridea 
obsoleta—anA a number of these wasps were in evidence. Advantage was taken 
of this and with the idea of studying the life-history of the wasp, one of these 
was followed and the results of the observations are as below : — 

On the 13th December by about 7-25 a m. the mother wasp commenced 
building a cell and by about 2 p.m., the cell was complete with the exception 
of a small circular opening above. The egg was then laid ; this was concluded 
from the fact that after finishing the cell outline, it went in and came ou 
after some time. In about half an hour more three big caterpillars of CMoridea 
obsoleta were brought and stored into the cell one after the other in succession. 
These caterpillars were all full-grown and measured If inch each. The 
fourth time the insect instead of returning with a caterpillar as I expected. 



244 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY , Vol. XX. 

came with a pellet of mud and began closing up the cell opening. Two or 
three trips more, and the cell was completely sealed up. Soon after this was 
done I scared away the wasp which was lingering and had the cell with its 
contents gently removed intact to a breeding cage. The parent wasp, mean- 
while returned to the spot where the cell was and searching for about 7 or 8 
minutes, flew away in evident despair. 

The egg must have been laid at about 2-15 p.m. The cell was then gently 
opened and the contents examined. Attached to the inner wall by a slender 
thread was found the egg and within the rest of the space of the cell were 
closely packed together the three big caterpillars with hardly any extra space 
for these paralysed creatures for any motion. The egg is a very slender rod- 
shaped delicate object and measures 3| m.m. in length. In colour it is 
whitish. In two days more, viz., by the 15th December the egg was found 
hatched and the little grub attacking the caterpillar close to it. The grub on 
hatching measures 4 m.m. and has the same whitish colour with a small 
shining head and is footless. Within three more days the caterpillars are all 
consumed and the grub grows in size remarkably. It assumes a stout cylin- 
drical structure and has a ventrally bent posture like that of a cockchafer- 
grub ; it is of a shining whitish green colour at this stage. For the next ten 
days the grub continues in the same stage without food, but it spins silk and 
paves the floor of the cell (the grub was removed to a small pill-box after the 
three caterpillars were consumed) with a soft matting of transparent white 
silk. On the 11th day, viz., on the 29th December, the grub moulted and 
entered the pupa stage. 

At this stage the insect acquires all the future organs in miniature ; the 
wings are found as very minute pads. In colour it is golden yellow. The, 
abdomen is bent ventrally and attached to the slender pedicel by a thin white 
membrane. The notched eyes gradually turn red, dark-brown and then black 
in course of a few days. The wings appear as brown patches and gradually 
enlarge. The insect remained, in the pupa stage for 18 days, viz., up to the 
16th January, when it cast away the pupal skin and emerged as the adult with 
all the specific colour markings and features. The wasp, however, is only able 
to freely move and fly about in two more days. On the 18th the insect 
completely attained the mature stage. The period of life from egg to imago 
in this case was briefly as below : — 

Egg stage 13th to 15th Dec. 2 days. 
Grub stage 15th to 29th Dec. 14 days. 
Pupa stage 29th Dec. to 16th Jan. 18 days. 

Thus one generation from egg to imago was found to occupy a little more, 
than a month. 

T. V. RAMAKRISHNA AIYAR. 

(&.)— Entomological Notes from a Recent Tour. 
During a recent tour in the Southern Maratha Country, in which only a. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 245 

very short time could be devoted to entomological matters, the following 
notes were made : — 

1. At Dharwar, during a walk at 9 a.m. in sunlight on October 29th, 2909, 
along the Railway cutting, immense numbers of a large pentatomid bug were 
observed among the stones in which the Eailway lines were set. Both males 
and females were present in abundance and a number of samples were obtain- 
ed. The bug was sent to Mr. W. L. Distant, and turns out to be a very 
interesting one belonging to a genus new to the Oriental region. This genus 
Anasida is limited, I understand, to South West and East Africa, and the 
occurrence of a new species nearly an inch long, is both unexpected and 
interesting. Mr. Distant has named this Anasida orientalis, and will publish a 
technical description in the near future. 

2. On the same day at Dharwar, during a spare hour, I spent my time 
beating a large number of Lantana bushes in the neighbourhood of the 
station. From almost every one of these I obtained specimens of the penta- 
tomid bug, Plautia fimbriata, in every stage of development. The Lantana 
is evidently a very suitable host for this bug. 

3. A few days later, at Hubli, near Dharwar, about midday, I found the 
very common pentatomid bug, Nezara viridula, playing a new role. On going 
into a cotton field, I noticed that castor plants were growing at intervals all 
over the field. I asked the reason for this, and immediately one of the castor 
leaves was opened out and revealed a full-grown Nezara on the leaf. Nearly 
all the castor plants examined showed these bugs on them, some even in 
copulation on the leaf. In one case one of the brownish yellow variety was 
observed in copulation with a pure green type. The castor was ostensibly 
planted as a trap crop for these bugs among the cotton, to avoid damage to 
the latter crop. 

4. During the same journey, the following bug was obtained at Castle 
Rock at 5-30 p.m. in flight : Canthecona parva and two specimens of a beetle, 
Pseudoeolaspis longicollis, Baly., in copulation on grass at 5-30 p.m. 

H. H. MANN. 
Poona, February 1910. 



No. XXXI —THE DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN TERIAS 
SILHETANA AND TERIAS EEC ABE. 

These two species are frequently confounded, which is no matter for 
surprise, ascertain specimens are extremely difficult to discriminate. Their 
life history, however, shows them to be abundantly distinct, and the following 
characters can, I think, be relied on. The eggs, larvae and pupae conform to 
the usual Pierine type: — 



Terias silhetana. 
Egg. — Laid in rows on the upper- 
side of a leaf in batches of about 
fifty. 



Terias hecabe. 
Egg. — Laid singly at the edge of a 
leaf on the upperside. 



246 JOURNAL, BOMBA Y NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 



Larva. — Gregarious living on a 
web ; food plant usually A Ibizzia mo- 
luccana. 

Skin somewhat rough greenish yel- 
low or green, with yellowish green 
lateral line ; head glistening black. 

Pupa, — Usually found spun up 
close together in considerable numbers, 
usually blackish brown, sometimes 
pale olivaceous brown with darker 
mottlings ; rarely pale green. 

Imago.— Larger. Average $ wet 
form. 40-m. $ dry form. 42-m. 

More constant in markings. Costa 
of forewings usually yellow with 
black scales ; almost always with 
three spots in the cell on under sur- 
face of forewings (53 out of 55). In 
pronounced dry weather form the 
large quadrate chocolate spot on under 
surface of forewings touches the apex 
and outer margin. 



Larva. — Solitary ; usual food plant 
the " Madras Thorn, " Piihecolobium 
dulce . 

Skin smooth pale apple green 
with whitish green lateral line ; head 
green, the same colour as the body. 

Pupa. — Solitary ; pale green, very 
rarely pale brownish green. 



Imago. — Smaller. Average $ wet 
form. 35-m. 9 dry form. 38-m. 

Variable. Costa of forewings usu- 
ally black or with many black scales 
(13 out of 16 examined") the black of 
the outer border sometimes carried 
along inner margin. Never with more 
than two spots in cell on under sur- 
face of forewing. Sometimes two on 
one wing and one on the other. 
Chocolate markings of dry season 
form linear or triangular with base 
on costa rarely reaching the apex 
or outer margin. 

The angulated inner border of the black outer margin of the forewing is too 
variable in both species to afford a useful character for separating them. The 
other species of this group in Ceylon is 1'erias sari ; Mr. E. Ernest Green 
informs me that " it is well characterized by the single black streak in the cell 
on underside of forewing and by the more highly arched costa ". It is widely 
distributed but much rarer than either the above. He also writes : — " The eggs 
(of T. silhetana) are usually deposited more in the form of a dense cluster 
rather than in definite rows. Bred specimens occasionally have scattered 
orange scales on the costal area (upper side). The larvae are very commonly 
found on Cassia alata and P. dulce. T. liecabe also feeds on various species of 
Cassia." 



N. MANDERS, Lt.-Col., R.A.M.C. 



Colombo, March 1910. 



No. XXXII.— A GIANT SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, Linn.) 

The seed was sown in a bed in my garden on the 4th of July last. The 
soil was very loose ; in fact this once formed a pit into which all the refuse 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 247 

from the kitchen, including broken glass and china was thrown, out wnicn is 
now filled up with broken tiles and some earth. The depth of this pit is 
about 2 feet. 

2. The seed germinated in five days and after 2 weeks the plant began to 
grow very rapidly. In the beginning of September the lamina of the largest 
leaf on the plant measured 17" broad and 16" long, the petiole of the leaf 
being 8" long. The plant attained a height of 9 feet, (I still possess the stem 
of another plant which grew to the height of 10 feet but its flower head is 
slightly smaller), and the diameter of the stem at six inches above the ground 
was 5|" (in a third plant I had a diameter of 65" at 6 inches above the 
ground and fully 9" at the base). The terminal flower head appeared in the 
third week of August and continued to grow in size long after opening, and soon 
obtained a diameter of 13 inches excluding the ray-flowers which themselves 
were three inches long. After the corolla shrivelled up the head began to 
grow very rapidly, indeed at the same time the seed was setting. The plant 
was cut down on the 24th of October, when all the seed was perfectly ripe 
and white. The weight of the whole head immediately after cutting, without 
any portion of the stem, was 150f tolas, i.e., nearly 4 lbs. The diameter of this 
head measured 17" excluding the bracts. The number of seeds was 2,820 out 
of which 21 were double. The weight of the seeds was 14^ tolas, and they 
were f of a seer by the native volume measure. 

3. This was the only flower head that the plant produced. 

4. It was found necessary to protect the ripening capitulum, by means of 
a piece of cloth tied round it, from birds such as sparrows and wild pigeons 
which seem to be fond of the seeds. 

5. Helianthus annuus is very susceptible to influences of heat and light. 
Thus the cotyledons, when they come up, keep open during the day but 
close by night, in order to prevent excessive radiation of heat and also to 
protect the young bud that lies between them. There, however, appear to 
be some mistaken notions about the heliotropiom of the flower heads, the 
common belief being that all flowers are turned towards and move with the 
Sun, which is not exactly correct. 

6. When the first (i. e. terminal) bud appears, it continues to move with 
the Sun for some days. Thus in the morning it is turned towards the East, in 
the middle of the day it points vertically upwards and in the evening towards 
the West. The duration of the period of these mutations, depends upon the 
condition of the weather and the vigour of the plant. Once the flower head 
is open, all movement ceases, the peduncle taking a definite position and 
becoming rigid. Most of the terminal flowers face the East. The secondary 
heads which are produced on the axils of leaves show no power of movement. 
About the time that the whole plant is ripe and about to dry up, resin has 
formed in abundance in all the parts of the plant (especially the apical ones), 
which give out a sweet scent. 

7. There are many interesting problems connected with the growth and 



248 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XX. 

the process of fertilization of Sunflowers, and I hope to arrive at some import- 
ant results after another season's trial. 

S. V. SHEVADE, 
Asstt. Imperial Economical Botanist, 
Kirkee, 9th November 1909. 



No. XXXIII.— SCIENTIFIC NOMENCLATURE. 

With reference to Mr. Meyrick's correction of my note regarding the 
gender of the word " Lygosoma " I should like to be allowed to make a few 
remarks in defence of my plea. First, then, I must thank Mr Meyrick for 
pointing out the error, and can only offer my apologies to Major Wall and 
any others whom I may have temporarily misled. At the same time I would 
remark that the note was written as a " plea for uniformity, " and I had no 
desire to set myself up as an authority on the subject {vide the words 
" I fancy" in my note); though I admit that I did not doubt at the time that 
the word should be neuter. Thanks to Mr. Meyrick, I now see the error and 
admit it, but I would not withdraw the plea. Instead I would address it to 
the attention of Mr. Boulenger, Sir Joseph Hooker and other authorities 
to whom we look for our information in matters scientific. I mention 
Sir Joseph Hooker, because, if what Mr. Meyrick tells us is correct which I do 
not doubt, then we must surely say Melastoma malabathrica, etc Surely also 
we must not say "' Lycodon aulicus" nor " Oligodon dor salts 1 , in speaking of 
those snakes, but must make them neuter. Another matter of nomenclature 
which has always annoyed me is the apparently arbitrary way in which the 
final " i " of proper names attached to species is doubled or not. Either it 
is correct to double it or it is not. I imagine that it is not to my mind, even 
euphony does not require it, but perhaps Mr. Meyrick will be able to spare a 
moment of his valuable time to inform us definitely? There is no lack of 
instances, thus Blanford, though usually writing but one "i" in the volume 
dealing with Mammals of the Fauna of &• I. series, has written " HardwicMi " 
(page 340). It is only the very great importance, as it seems to me, of 
accuracy in all details connected with Natural History, which induces me to 
continue the subject, and not any desire to open in our columns a con- 
troversy on the vexed question of priority and usage, which does not appear 
to be affected seriously by such minor alterations. By way of further apology 
for my own inaccuracy, I may say that, though I am now a constant reader of 
Nature, I have not been so for very long, and consequently did not see 
Mr. Meyrick's note on the subject to which he refers. 

F. E. W. VENNING:. 
Haka, Chin Hills, 
19 th January 1910. 






MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 249 

No. XXXIV.— THE PRESERVATION OF NATURAL HISTORY 
SPECIMENS. 

With reference to Mr. Comber's interesting series of papers on the preserv- 
ation of Natural History specimens, I should like to give you a few of my 
experiences which I trust may prove of benefit to some members. 

FORMALIN. 

This is no doubt of the greatest service to the field naturalist when travel- 
ling, as has already been pointed out, when spirit is not available. But it has 
serious drawbacks. Fishes immersed for any length of time in this medicine 
are apt to get brittle as regards their fins and tails. Mr. Boulenger at the 
Natural History Museum was pointing this out to me the other day, and he 
says it is exceedingly annoying when the identification of a particularly 
valuable specimen is desired, to find when attempting to count the fin rays 
this organ break right off. Formalin, too, is a dangerous medicine to recom- 
mend to the tyro, who, ignorant of the right strength to use , will doubtless 
ruin many a valuable specimen until he has learnt, as I have done, from sad 
experience, the right proportions of formalin and water; and here no hard and 
fast rule can be laid down. If used too strong specimens curl up in it. If 
this be the case it can to a certain extent be remedied thus : — take out the 
specimen from the formalin and soak for about 24 hours in water. Then dry 
with a clean cloth and stretch the fish or other specimen out on a piece of 
wood or stick fastening it to this by binding round with stout thread or string 
Next immerse the specimen in strong spirit for several days after which 
the support may be removed, and the specimen will then retain much of its 
former straightness. Formalin also completely destroys the silvery and 
golden lustre on many fishes. I have found it excellent for reptiles 
batrachians, and have at the present time a lizard and snake which I kept for 
over two years in a 25 per cent, solution of formalin. These were subsequently 
transferred to spirit and to-day retain all their colours and marking as they did 
when freshly killed. By the way I have found snakes "go wrong" more 
quickly in spirit than any other specimens. Fishes I have kept for about three 
weeks in a fairly weak solution of formalin and then transferred, retain much 
of their natural brilliancy, but as colour is of little or no importance for the 
determination of a species this counts as trifling. I would strongly urge 
whenever possible the use of spirit and leave formalin — severely alone. For 
soft bodied animals, such as tadpoles, jelly fishes, and the ova of frogs 
formaliu is of the greatest use, but a very weak solution should be used, say, 
about 4 per cent. These should be allowed to thoroughly harden in this before 
being transferred to spirit. The colours of fishes, if desired, may be preserved, 
to a great extent, so Mr. Boulenger informs me, by being kept in weak spirit 
in the dark. But in a hot climate like India this is not always practicable. 
My advice to the amateur would be to experiment with common specimens 
first in different solutions of formalin and spirit keeping a careful watch daily 
32 



250 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TURAL EISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

to see how they are getting on, before trying his hand on valuable specimens. 
It may not be out of place here to urge the absolute necessity for the collection 
of fishes for the National Museum. Things Indian are to a great extent but 
poorly represented there as regards other countries, and a case in point came 
under my notice when I was showing Mr. Boulenger some fishes from Bengal, 
he expressed a wish to retain them in the collection, as it appears the Museum 
had no fishes whatever from that particular locality, with the exception 
of a few I presented some years ago. Specimens, however common, have often 
a particular value as coming from some little known locality. 

GORDON DALGLIESH. 

Brook, Godalming, Surrey. 
March 1910. 

[We cordially endorse Mr. Gordon Dalgleish's appeal for specimens of Indian fishes for 
the National collection, and trust that our members will be able to help in this direction 
At the same time we should like to add that our own Museum is sadly lacking in specimens 
of fishes and batrachians. — Eds.] 



251 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE MEETING- OP MEMBERS HELD ON 3rd FEBRUARY 1910. 

A meeting of the members of the Bombay Natural History Society took 
place on Thursday, 3rd February 1910, at the Society's Rooms, Mr. C. L. Burns 
presiding. 

The election of the following 127 new members since the last meeting was 
duly announced : — 

Mr. H. G. W. Meikle, Bombay ; Capfc. R. E. Lloyd, I.M.S., Calcutta ; Mr. 
R. D. Austead, B.A., Bangalore ; Rev. J. Redmond, Mysore ; Mr. Neville B. 
Parish, Alwar ; The Rector, St. Mary's College, Bombay ; Mr. N. Mosley, 
Multan ; Mr. M. S. Jayakar, M.A., Alibag ; Capt. R. S. Kennedy, I.M.S., 
Calcutta ; Miss A. Thompson, Beetui ; Mr. H. M. M. Davidson, Assam ; 
Mr. C. H. Craven, Chittagong ; Mr. A. C. M. Binny, Ferozepore ; Capt. C. 
Hudson, I.M.S., Bangalore ; Capt. C. Saunders, Wellington ; Mr. W. S. Davis, 
Kurram ; Dr. D. A. Turkhud, M.B., CM., Satara ; Mr. C. Bateman, 
Jalpaiguri ; Mr. F. Dewar, I.C.S., Balaghat, C. P. ; Mr. J. Doyle, Balaghat ; 
Major C. A. Sykes, R.H.A., Bangalore ; Lt. E. J. Headlam, F.R.G.S., R.I M., 
Bombay ; Mr. S, R. Parsons, Mandla ; Lt.-Col. H. C. Bernard, Nasir- 
abad ; Mr. Walter J. Smith, Ceylon ; Mr. Charles Innes, B. Sc, Rangoon ; 
Capt. A. C. Wilkinson, Rawal Pindi : Capt. R. T. Wells, I.M.S. ; Capt. J. 
Cunningham, I.M.S., Bombay ; Capt. W. D. H. Stevenson, I.M.S. , Bombay ; 
Capt. J. Taylor, Bombay ; Mr. R. P. Scott, Bombay ; Mr. Aga Cassem Shah, 
Poona ; Mr. N. O'Reilly Blackwood, Secunderabad ; Mr. H. J. Shaw, 
Bombay; The President, Leicestershire Regiment, Belgaum ; Capt. W. B. T. 
Abbey, I.A., F.R.G.S., Kyaukse ; Mr. Clarence E. Rushton, Mandalay ; Mr. R. 
S. Lister, via Gboom ; Mr. A. A. Blake, Sara ; Mr. H. F. Bowden, Rangoon ; 
Mr. F. B. Thomas, Kanchrapara ; Mr. A. O. Weller, Kanchrapara ; Mr. E. G. 
P. Phythian-Adams, Poona ; Mr. George Evans, Hoshangabad ; Mr. E. F. G. 
Bourchier, Peshawar; Mr. Arthur E. Devas, Quetta ; Mr. Philip Shepherd, 
Quetta ; Mr. H. H. Jenkyns, I.C.S., Lahore ; Capt. George C. Lambton, 
D.S.O., Nilgiris; Mr. H. L. Dutt, Sabour : Mr. G. P. Hector, M.A., B. Sc., 
Dacca ; Mr. Charles Mackinlay, Edinburgh ; Mr. E. Norman, Dacca ; Lt. C. S. 
Carter, R.N., E. I. Station ; Mr. J. E. Armstrong, Katha ; Mr. J. N. D. La- 
Touche, Bombay; Mr. N. B. Baxter, Dhulia ; Mr. A. L.Bacon, Mogok ; 
Mr. C. H. Harrison, I.C.S., Punjab; Mr. F. L. Core, Deesa ; Mr. L. 
M. Stubbs, I.C.S., Jalaun ; Mr. A. P. Morris, B. Sc, U. Burma ; Major A. 
G. Kemball, Nowshera ; Mr. N. L. M. Carruthers, Jhansi ; Mr. A. E. B. 
Parsons, Dargai ; Mr. W. P. Field, Jalpaiguri ; Mr. R. R. Gales, Calcutta ; 
Mr. R. P. W. Strong, Bombay ; Mr. E. G. Drake-Brockman, Dacca ; Mr. W. 
S. Coutts, Dacca ; Major J. H. Hudson, Meerut ; Lieut-Col. Simpson Powell, 
M.D., R.A.M.C., Rangoon ; Col. A. R. Denne, Manipur ; Mr. P. N. Arthur 
Lucas, Bellary ; Dr. W. D. Jones, Kyaukse , Lt.-Col. A. Short, R.H.A., 



252 JOURNAL, BOMB A Y NA TUBAL HISTOR Y SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Mhow ; Mr. E. G-. G-regson, Peshawar ; Mr. J. E. A spin wall, Bombay ; Mr. W. 

E. M. Campbell, I.C.S., Allahabad ; Mr. Charles Legard, Mercara ; Mr. A. 
S. Brook, Ferozepore ; Mr. T. E. Bromley, I.C.S., Khandwa ; Mr. N. J. 
Roughton, I.C S., Khandwa ; Capt. J. L. Lunham, Aurungabad ; Mr. G. 
P. Andrew, I.C.S., Mergui ; Mr. A, D. Spence, Rangoon ; Mr. J. C. Mac- 
Geoige, Moulmein ; Mr. T. S. Pipe, Nasik ; Mr. V. A. Herbert, Moradabad ; 
Mr. F. Roddis, Dacca ; Mr. H. S. Warburton, I.C.S., Lucknow ; Major 
P. Wheatley. R.F.A , Jubbulpore ; Mr. Charles H. Bury, Meerut ; Mr. 
J. W. G. Davis, Mandla ; Mr. Carl. H. A. Muller, Lahore ; Mr. E. W. Stoney, 
C.I.E., Coonoor ; Mr. E. H. Hudson, A.M. I.C E., Jalna , Mr. R. St. J Mitchell, 
Nanded ; Mr. Herbert Ciive, Myitkyina , Major C. F. Harrison, Rangoon ; 
Mr. Walter Armiston, Haldummulle, Ceylon ; Mr. T. M. Evans, Panchgani ; 
Mr C. H. Bennett, Chatrapur ; Capt. Godfrey Heseltine , Madras ; Mr. Edgar 
de Lantour, Sitapur, U.P. ; Mr. N. A. Macleod, Calcutta ; Major F. G, Bayley, 
Trimulgherry ; Lt. G. P. A. Bracken, R.A.M.C., Trimulgherry ; Mr. P. S. 
Patuck, I.C.S., Wardha; Mr. E. P. Comber, Bombay ; Mr. R. C. Bellairs, 
Almora ; Mr. E. J. Murphy, Rangoon ; Mr. F. M. Wainwright, Kistna ; Mr. H. 

F. Saunders, Gwalior ; The Curator, Central Museum, Lahore ; Major R. Bird, 
I.M.S., Calcutta ; H. H. the Raja of Cochin ; Mr. T. H. Waddingham, Phil- 
laur ; Mr. L. B. Holland, Lahore; Mr. A. G. Tweedie, Calcutta; Mr. H.P 
Herbert, Travancore ; Mr. R. W. L. Cater, I.O.S., Sibi, Baluchistan ; Mr. P. H. 
Welman, Bombay; The Mess President, R.A. Mess, Colaba, Bombay ; Mr. A. F. 
Gradon, I.F.S., Jubbulpore ; The Principal, Veterinary College, Palghat, and 
Mr. H. Sharp, Shillong. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 



The Honorary Secretary, Mr. W. S. Millard, acknowledged the following 
contributions to the Museum since the last meeting : — 



Contribution. 



Wild dog (Cuon dukanensis) skin 

Do. do. do. do. 

Walton's Mountain Fox {Vulpes waltoni). 
Small Palm civet (Paradvxurus nigtr) .. 

Small Indian Civet (Viverricula malac 

censh} 

Large Red Plying Sqa\ne\(_Ptero?nys oral). 
2 Squirrels sp. ? 



Locality. 



Kumaon. 
Burma .. 
Gyantse .. 
Madras .,, 



2 Rats (Mus rattvs), 



2 Sind Mole Rats {Gunnomys sindanvs). 

A large number of Bats in spirit, in 
eluding examples of Tatera, Gunomys i 
Mtu,kc 



Donor. 



Pan vel, Colaba Dist 
Chandanpura ... 
S. Shan States , 



Laccadive Islands.. 



Karachi 



Lahore Dist. 



N. F. Troup. 
0. Hopwood. 
Capt. F, Bailey. 
Capt. W. S. Patton, 
I. M.S. 

Rev. J. H. Lord. 
0. O'Donell. 
Capt. R. D. Macgre 

gor, I.M.S. 
B, H. Ellis, 

and Comdr 

dleston. 
E. Comber. 



I.C.S 
Hud- 



Capt. G. Davys, 
l.M.S. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



253 



Contribution. 



1 Markhor head 



Ibex head • 

Urial headj picked up, 39J ins. 
8 Goral heads 



Brow-antlered Deer (Cervtis eldi) 

3 Chinkara heads {Gazella bennetti) ... 



Mounted head of Musk deer 

21 Bird skins including specimens of Ti 
betan Sandgrouse and WaddelPs Babbler 

3 Red breasted Paroquets QPalaarnis 
fasciatus) 

Woodcock (Scolopax rusticula) 

Eastern Solitary SnipeQGall inago solitaria 

Wood Saipe (Gallinago nemoricola) 

Semi-albino Fan-tailed Snipe (£. ecelestis) 

Semi-albino Pin-tailed Snipe {G. stenura). 

Several birds including Cotton Teal (Net 
topus coroma'/idelica), Spotbill (A. pad 
lorhyncha), Garganey (_Q. circia) 

Crested Teal QEunetta falcate*,} 

Semi-albino Babbler 

39 Snakes including a new variety of 
Cobra (Naia tripudians, Dip. ceylonensis, 
Trop.platyceps, Trap. Ueddomi, 0. erytli- 
rogaiter~) 

4 Green Vipers (Lachesis gramineus) 
(alive) 

12 Snakes including V. russelli and S. 

theobaldi ..... 

3 Zamenis rodorachis ladacensis 



A collection of Snakes, including a new 
species (Trop. venningi) . 

10 Snakes, including Ablabc<< frenatus 
and Trop. subminiatu$ 

3 Snakes 

I Himalayan Viper (Ancistrodon himala- 
yanus and Trop. platyceps) 



A collection of 27 Snakes, 2 Mammals and 
a number of Insects , 

1 Krait (Bungarus candidvs) and 1 Trop. 
piscator 

1 Dryophis pulverulentus 

2 Chameleons 

A number of Beetles . 

Do. 

Do. ; 

Do. 

Do 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Locality. 



Donor. 



Chitral 

Do 

Seistan 

Kathgodam ... . 

Thayefcmyo , 

Cutch 

Chamba 

Gyantse, Tibet 

Assam 

Kanara 

Assam 

Do. 
Panvel (Bombay)... 
Ratnagiri 

Daman Road 

Roorkee 

Vellore 

Various 

Tindharia 

Burma 

Mohammerah, Per- 
sian Gulf.... 

Chin Hills .. 

Burma 

Khandesh 

Dalhousie 

Rangoon 

Santa Cruz, Salsette 

Oastle Rock 

Abmedabad 

;!hin Hills 

Mussoorle .... 

Burma . .=..... 

Darjeeling 

Liarhwal 

Salem Dist 

Colombo 

Cuddapah 

Sonapur, Assam ... 



H. H. the Mehter 

of Chitral. 
Do. do. 

Major Kennion. 
H. E. Job n s t o n 

Stewart. 
J". B. Leach, I.C.S. 
H. H. the Rao ol 

Cutch. 
Major Rodon. 

Capt. Kennedy, 
I.M.S. 

E. 0. Shebbeare. 

T. R. Bell. 

E. C. Stuart Baker. 

Do. 
H. C. Wright. 
J. H.Garrett, I.C.S. 



R. L. Sinclair. 
E. H. Kelly. 
J. C. Battie. 



Major F.Wall,!.M.S. 

A. Wright. 

Lt. F. W. Wells. 

Lt. A. T. Wilson. 

Lt. F. E. W. Ven- 
ning. 

D.H. M. Boyle. 
S. D. Smith. 

Col H.W.Barrow, 
R. A. M.C. 

Dr. H. Marshall. 

B. W. Dunlop. 
P. Gerhardt. 
W. BulkJey. 

F. E. W.Venning. 

C. Batten. 

Capt. R. D. Gregory 

E. Ollenbach. 
A. G. Lyell. 
Capt. E. S. Gillett. 

F. AT. Mackwood 
O. Beadon. 

L. G. Middleton. 



254 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 



Contribution. 


Locality. 


Eonor. 


Do 




Capt.E.B.Fredricks 
E. A. D'Abrue. 
T. It. Bell. 
E. Comber. 
S. D. Smith. 










Do. do. «... 

Several snakes, fishes and crustaceans ... .. 






Lt. F. J. Blackman. 
S. H. Prater. 

Anonymous. 
Hurgodum Vunmali 


The collection of Marine shells belonging 


Colaba and Karachi 









Minor contributions were received from Messrs. B. Aitken ; F. H. Abraham ; 
P. C. Briscoe ; B. C. Carter ; A. T. Evans ; W. P. Field ; Miss Goldney ; 
Mr. F. Hannyngton, I.C.S. ; Dr. E. Hunt; Messrs. H. R. Hume; F. G. 
Hutchinson ; A. E. Lowrie ; E. Lund ; Mrs. Millard ; Dr. H. H. Marshall ; 
Messrs. P. L. Piris ; J. M. Rebello ; B. D. Richards ; C J. Silvester ; Dr. D. A. 
Turkhud and Mr. A.Wright. 

ELECTION OF THE COMMITTEE. 

The following gentlemen were elected as office bearers for the present 
year : — President : H. E. Sir George Clarke, F.R.S., G.C.I.E. Vice-Presidents : 
Mr. J. D. Inverarity, B.A., LL.B. ; Rev. F. Dreckmann, S.J. ; and Mr. N. C. 
Macleod. Managing Committee : Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker ; Lt.-Col. W. B. Ban- 
nerman, I.M.S. ; Mr. T. R. D. Bell, I.F.S. ; Mr. H. Bulkley ; Mr. C. L. Burns ; 
Mr. E. Comber, F.Z.S. ; Lt.-Col. G. H.Evans ; Prof. G. A. Gammie ; Mr. E. 
Ernest Green ; Lt.-Col. K. R. Kirtikar, I.M.S. (Retd.) : Mr. H. Maxwell 
Lefroy ; Mr. J. McNeill, I.C.S. ; Mr. G. M. Ryan ; Major F. Wall, I.M.S., 
C.M.Z.S. ; Mr. John Wallace, C. E. ; and Mr. N. B. Kinnear. Honorary 
Librarian : Mr. B. D. Richards. Honorary Treasurer: Mr. L. H. Savile (ex- 
officio). Honorary Secretary : Mr. W, S. Millard (ex-officio), 

THE ACCOUNTS FOR 1909. 



The Honorary Treasurer, Mr. L. H. Savile, presented the statement of 
accounts for 1909, which, he remarked, showed a satisfactory result. The sub- 
scriptions for the year were Rs. 16,831-8-4, showing an increase of Rs. 2,374-8-7 
over the previous year. The entrance fees were Rs. 2,770 compared with 
Rs. 1,480 for 1908 and 294 new members had been elected during 1909 against 
KiO in 1908. 

The accounts were duly passed subject to the usual audit. 

Mr. C. D. Mahaluxmivala exhibited a specimen of a bamboo (Bambusa 
arundinaced) which was now flowering in the Victoria Gardens, Bombay. One 
clump flowered last year and it was considered abnormal, but the same clump 






PROCEEDINGS. 255 

had flowered again this year arid also another clump in a different place. Un- 
fortunately there was no trace as to when these bamboos were planted or from 
whence they came. Some of the seed was exhibited and a young plant raised 
from the seed last year. 

Mr. Mahaluxmivala also exhibited some seeds of the Talipot palm (Corypha 
umbraculifera), one of which flowered last year in the Victoria Gardens and 
another in the Elphinstone Circle Gardens. 

Mr. John Wallace, C.E., and Lt.-Col. K. R. Kirtikar, I.M.S. (Retd.), read a 
paper on " The Giant Creeper " (Calycopteris floribunda), exhibiting specimens 
of the plant and sections of the trunk. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE MEETING HELD ON 7th APRIL 1910. 

A meeting of the members of the Bombay Natural History Society took 
place on Thursday, 7th April 1910, at the Society Rooms, Colonel W. B. 
Bannerman, I.M.S., presiding. 

The election of the following 34 new members since the last meeting was 
duly announced : — Mr. S. F. Ellis, Jacobabad ; Mr. Liladhar Sunderji Roy- 
Sampat, Bombay ; Mr. C. T. Symons, Colombo ; Mr. Herbert A. Heath, 
Matugama, Ceylon ; Mr. W. Lilburn, Lucknow ; Mr. H. P. Thomasset, Cascade, 
Mahe, Seychelles ; The Superintendent, University Museum of Zoology, 
Cambridge, England ; Mr. Melville Leslie, Bombay ; Major W. H. Kenrick, 
I.M.S., Khandwa ; Mr. Harold Fowler, New York City, U.S.A. ; The Principal, 
P. R. Training College, Ahmedabad ; Mr. W. A. H. Miller, Karwar, Kanara ; 
Mr. G. S. Butterworth, Belgaum ; Hon'ble Mr. Justice S. M. Robinson, 
Rangoon ; Major A. D. Greenhill Gardyne, Cawnpore ; Sub-Lt. D. Webster, 
R.N., (H.M.S. " Fox "), East Indies Station ; Miss M. Hazlewood, Rangoon ; 
Mr. W. S. Thorn, Paletwa, N. Aracan ; Capt. G. H. T. Graham, London ; 
Mr. J. M. Wright. I.C.S., Shwegu, Burma ; Mr. L. Donaldson, Phillaur, Punjab ; 
Mr. K. J. Luke, Chatalpara, E. Bengal ; Mr. Robert T. Harrison, A.M. I.C.E., 
Sukkur ; Mr. R. B. MacLachlan, Sukkur ; Mr, F. A. Wrigley, Rangoon ; 
Mr. J. V. Young, I.F.S., Pyinmana ; Dr. P. W. Quinn, Betul, C. P. ; Mr. E. S. 
Thomas, I.C.S., Palghat ; Lt.-Col. R. H. Penton, R.A.M.C., D.S.O., Poona ; 
Mr. H.D.Rice, Maritranve, Mysore ; Capt. R. P. Quin, Cawnpore ; Mr. J. S, 
Fraser, Madras ; Mr. D. Squire, Cannanore, S. Canara ; Mr. W. Harrold, 
Ahmedabad, and Mr. F. M. B. Rosenthal, Secunderabad. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO MUSEUM. 

The Honorary Secretary, Mr. W. S. Millard, acknowledged the following 
contributions to the Museum since the last meeting : — 



Contributions. 


Locality 


Donor. 


2 Panther cubs (alive) 




W. H. Miller. 
General W. Osborn. 


2 Indian Pine Martens iMnstelufiavigula) 


Kangra Dist.,Hima- 
laya?. 



256 JOURNA L, BOMB A Y NA TURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 



Contribution. 



Locality. 



Donor. 



1 Jackal (Canis aureus) 



1 Fox(Bp. 1) 

1 Hairy -footed Flying Squirrel (Sciurop- 
terus pearsoni) • *••• 

Head-skin and skull of Four-horned Ante- 
lope (Tetracerus quadricomis) 

Head of Pelzelin's Gazelle (Gazella 
pelzelni) 

Head, skin and skull of Thar (Hemitragus 
jemlaicus) 

2 Himalayan Serow (Capricornis sum- 
atrensis) skulls 

Deformed Sambhar (Cervus unicolor) skull. 



Savantwadi . 
! Persian Gulf. 
Aracan Hills. 



Muntjac QCervulus muntjac) 

o Bats (sp ?) • 

105 bird skins, including White-spotted 
Blue-throat {Cyaneeula loolji) Red-spot- 
ted Blue-thioa,t(C'yanecula sueicica) Rob- 
in Accentor {Tharrhuleus rubeculotdes), 
Browu Accentor(77tarWtaZeM$ fulveseetts), 
Jerdon's Accentor (Jlharrltaleus jerdoni), 
Black and yellow grosbeak (Py enorham- 
pious icteroides), White-winged grosbeak. 
(^Pyenorhamphus carmipes), Ibis bill, 
{Ibidoiliynchus struthersi), Temmincko 
Stint QTringa temminokij and Brahminy 
Duck (Casavca rutila) in down ...... 



Jamooee, E. B. S. 

By. 
Somaliland 



Kulu 



Nairn Tal 
Burma 



Madura .„ .. 
Darjeeling .. 



Major F. W. Ber 

thon. 
Lt. Carter, R. N. 

C. W. Allen. 

A. G. Tweedie. 

Lt. Hunt, R. N. 

General Osborn. 

Lt. G. Whittel. 
Lt.-Colonel H. B 

Thornhill. 
C. B. Beadnell. 

B. A. D'Abrue. 



60 bird skins, chiefly Cuckoos, including 
Common Cuckoo {Cusulus canorus), Hi- 
malayan Cuckoo {Cuculus saturatus), C. 
polio cephalus, Hierococcyx sparversiden, 
H. varius, Caoomantis merulinus, C'hry- 
sococcyx maculatus, C. xanthorhynchus, 
C. maculatus, Coccystes- eoramandus, 
Surniculus lugubris. and Eudynamh 
honorata 

Scops Owl (Scops giu) '• 

Pied Imperial Pigeon (Myristicivora bico- 
lor) and Sheldrake {Tadorna comuta)... 

2 Aracan Hill Partridges ^ Arbor icola 
intermedia) 

Crested Teal (Eunetta falcata) $ 



1 Snake (Dipsadomorphus for&teni) 

•J0O Insects including 155 Butterflies of 76 
species, some Moths and Dragonflies 
{Newoptera) 

A small collection of Beetles 



Kumaon, Garhwal 
and Kashmir. 



Various ..• 
Kanara ... 

Arakan .., 

Do. 
Roorkee .. 

Orcha 

Various ... 
Darjeeling 



S. L. Whymper. 



E.C. Stuart baker. 
T. R. Bell. 



C. W. Allen. 
Capt. Mainprice, 

R. E. 
H. H. Raja Bahadur 

Orcha. 

Capt. G. H. Graham 
K. A. D'Abrue. 



Minor contributions from L. H, Savile ; G. L. Corbet, I. C. S. ; Col. Bull ; 
E. R. H. Jackson ; Major F. W. Berthon and S. Navalkar. 

PAPER READ. 

The following paper was read : — " The Natural History of Bombay malaria" 
by Dr. C. A. Bentley. 



PROCEEDINGS. 257 

Dr. Bentley, in the course of his paper, said : — 

Modern Preventive Medicine has had to borrow very largely from other 
sciences and in particular has received immense assistance from students of 
Natural History. This is clearly shown by the present state of our knowledge 
regarding malaria. Laveran's discovery first attracted Naturalists to the study 
of malaria, but it was Ross' magnificent work which led to real alliance between 
Natural History and Sanitary science. 

The Natural History of malaria can be approached from three different 
aspects : (1) As it relates to the malarial organism ; (2) as it affects men, the 
human animal ; (3) and lastly as it applies to the alternative host — the 
anopheles mosquito. 

It is the latter aspect with which we shall deal to-night. In November 1908, 
Capt. Liston announced his discovery, that the species of mosquito responsible 
for the dissemination of malaria in Bombay was N. stepliensi. This discovery 
is of very great importance, as a careful examination of Bombay shows that we 
are justified in assuming that N, stepliensi is the only mosquito able to carry 
malaria that is present in the greater part of the city. This being so, it is 
necessary to learn everything we can about the Natural History of this 
mosquito in order. 

Dr. Bentley described at length the different type of breeding places in which 
N. stepliensi was to be found, and after discussing the habits of the insect and 
the causes which lead to its spread, indicated the measures which could be 
adopted for reducing the number of the insects and eventually control it. He 
exhibited specimens of the small mosquito destroying fish " Piku " and some 
of the water-weed Wolffia arliisa. 

Col. Bannerman called attention to the fact that the first intimation that 
N. stephensi was the cause of the epidemic of malaria in Bombay was in a paper 
read before this Society by Capt. Liston, I. M.S., in 1908, and that another 
member of the Society, the late Mr. E. H. Aitken, had been the first to call 
attention to the mosquito devouring fish ,( Piku " referred to and exhibited 
here by Dr. Bentley, 

Col. Bannerman also said it would be a good thing if all the members of the 
Bombay Corporation were members of the Society, so that they could obtain 
some information from such papers as these, since the information would be of 
great value to them. 

A hearty vote of thanks was passed to Dr. Bentley for his interesting paper 
which will be published in full in the Society's Journal. 



CONTENTS OF THIS N U M B E R.—(contd.). 

Page 
Miscellaneous Notes. — 

1. The call of the Sloth- Bear. By F. Dewar, i.c.S 213 

2. Distribution of the Sloth-Bear or Indian Bear (Melursus 

ursinus). By Lt.-Col. L. L. Fenton •< 213 

3. The Baluchistan Bear. By Lt.-Col. L. L. Fenton 214 

4. A Record Panther. By N. B. Kinnear , , 214 

6. Jackal hunting with Wild Dogs. By Major H. W. Berthon 215 

6. The rudimentary clavicles of a Panther. By Major H. W. 

Berthon miK ,. t , 216 

7. Sloth-Bear calling her young when attacked. By W. Gaye 217 

8. Birds feeding their young. By G. S. P. Percival.... 218 

9. Nidification of the Sarus Crane. By Capt. A. H. Mosse 218 

10. The food of the Bufous-backed Shrike (Lanius erytlironotus). 

By Major H. A. F. Magrath . 218 

11. Occurrence of the Bronze-capped Teal {Eunetla falcata) near 

Eoorkee. By Lt. E. H. Kelly, E. E 219 

12. Woodcock {Scolopnx rustieola) in Kanara. By T. B. Bell 219 

13. Occurrence of the Eastern Solitary Snipe (_G. solitaria) at 

Haka, Chin Hills. By F. E. W. Venning -,. 219 

14. Doves nesting on the ground. By Lt.-Col. L. L. Fenton 220 

15. Occurrence of the Lesser Flamingo (Phceniconaias minor) in 

Kathiawar. By Lt.-0ol. L. L. Fenton 221 

16. Breeding of the Great Stone Plover (Esacus recurvirostris). By 

H. R. S. Hasted 221 

17. Two birds 1 nests from Tibet. By Capt. F. M. Bailey 221 

18. Bird notes from a homeward bound steamer in November. By 

Major H. A F. Magrath...,., 222 

19. The Smew (Mergus attellus). By Lieut. R. Francis.... 224 

20. Roller catching its prev in' the water. By Major H. Delme* 

Radcliffe ., 225 

21. Shrikes' Larders. By Capt. J. R. J. Tyrrell, i.m.s 226 

22. Occurrence of the Lesser Florican or Likh (Sypheotis aurita) 

out, of season. By Capt. J. R.J. Tyrrell, i.m.s 227 

S3. Shrikes 1 Larders. By Major H. A. F. Magrath 227 

24. A Snake flirtation. By Coleridge Beadon 228 

25. The food of Crocodiles. By Capt. H. W. Forsyth, e.e 228 

26. Remarks on the varieties and distribution of the Common 

Green Whipsnake QDryophis mycterizans). By Major F. Wall, 

i.m.s., c.m.z.s , .,.„ 229 

27. Note on the breeding of Eohis carinata. By Lt.-Col. W. B. 

Bannerman, i.m.s., m.d., b.Sc , 230 

28. Notes on the viviparous habit of Jerdon's Pit Viper (Lachesis 

jerdoni) and observations on the fastal tooth in the unborn 

embryo. By Major F. Wall, i.ms., c.m.z.S 231 






THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON- 

Plate I —THE WOODCOCK (SGOLOPAX BUSTIOOLA). 
The description of this bird will be found in No. 1, Vol. XX. 

Editors. 



"THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA & CEYLON/' 

BY 

E. C. STUART BAKER, 

A XI) 

" THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA & CEYLON;* 

BY 

E. BLATTER, S.J. 

The attention of mem Iters is drawn to the above series, the first 
parts of which commenced in No. 1, Vol. XX, of the Journal. 
They will be accompanied by the best coloured and black and 
white illustrations. The articles on THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA will 
deal with the Snipes. Bustards, Sandgrouse, Quails, Partridges 
and Pheasants. 

It is hoped that members will continue to try and obtain fresh 
members for the Society. The Entrance Fee is only Rs. 10 and 
the Annual Subscription is a very small one, being only Rs. 15, 
and in return for this all members receive copies of the Journal 
free of cost and postage. 

W. S. Millard, 

Honorary Secretary, 

(J, Apollo Street, Bombay Natural History Society. 

Bombay, October 1910. 



BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 



APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

Ladies and gentlemen desirous of joining the Society are 
requested to fill in and sign this form, and to forward it to the 
address of " The Honorary Secretary, Bombay Natural History 
Society, 6, Apollo Street, Bombay." 




N.B.—The Entrance Fee is Rs. 10, and the Annual Subscription Rs. 15, which entitles the 
member to a copy of the Journal and all the privileges of the Society. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Bombay Natural History Society. 

Oct. 1910. Vol. XX. No. 2. 

THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, 
BURMA AND CEYLON. 

BY 

E. C. Stuart Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Part II. 

(With Plates II & III.) 

(Continued from "page 32 of this Volume.) 

Family— CHAR ADRIIDvE . 

Genus GALLINAGO. 

The Genus Gallinago contains seven species of Snipe as found in 
India in addition to the sub-species G. raddei. Of these seven 
species one is the Jacksnipe, G. gallinula, which is by many 
naturalists placed in a separate genus, LimnocrypAes. The differ- 
ences, however, between this and the other Snipe consist mainly 
in their internal structure, such as the sternum which has four 
instead of two emarginations. These differences are not apparent 
to the Field Naturalist or sportsman, and I therefore follow 
Blanford and unite all our Indian Snipes in one genus. 

Since the fourth volume of the " Avifauna of British India " was 
written we have added both Gallinago "major and Gallinago megakc 
to our list of Indian birds so that these have now to be incorpo- 
rated in the key to the species. 

The differences between the Common Fantail, G. coelestis typica, 
and the Eastern Fantail, G. coelestis raddei, all depend upon 

comparison and are dealt with when these birds are described. 

l 



260 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

The following key is one which should suffice to enable any one 
to distinguish the various Snipes and the distinguishing measure- 
ments given in it allow for an ample margin on either side. Thus 
it will be found that whereas the Jacksnipes bill rarely exceeds 
1-8, that of the other Snipes will but seldom be found under 2*2 
and that, probably, only in birds of the first year. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF GALLINAGO. 

A. — A pale median band on crown, bill exceeding 2". 

a. Wing exceeding 6", borders of scapulars white, solitaria. 

b. Wing under 6", borders of scapulars buff or 
rufous buff. 

a~ Distance between tip of shortest secondary 

and that of longest primary not exceeding 2". nemoricola. 

h 2 Distance between tip of shortest secondary 

and that of longest primary exceeding 2". 

a? Outer tail feathers narrow and stiff, under 

•3" broad. 

a 4 Tail feathers 26 in number, the 8 outer 

on each side less than -2" broad ... stenura. 
b' 1 Tail feathers 20 in number, the 6 outer 

on each side less than -3" broad ... megala. 
/> :! Outer tail feathers not exceptionally nar- 
row or stiff. 
a 5 Three outer tail feathers not pure white 
and marked with dusky spots and 
bars ... ... ... ... ... coelestis. 

b° Three outer tail feathers pure white 

unmarked ... ... ... ... major. 

B. — No pale median band on crown, bill always less 

than 2" ... ... ... ... ... ... gallinula. 

Gallinago solitaria. 

The Eastern Solitary Snipe. 

Gallinago solitaria.— Hodg. Gleanings in Science, iii, p. 238, 

(1831); id. J. A. S. Bengal, vi, p. 491; Blyth, Cat., p. 272; 

Jerdon, B. of I., iii, p. 673 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. Bengal, xxxvii, 

pt. 2, p. 70 ; Blanford, ibid, xli, p. 73 ; Hume and Hender, Ladak 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 261 

to Yarkand, p. 286 ; Prjev. In Rowley Orn. Misc., iii, p. 91 
Hume Cat. 869; Scully, S. F., viii, p. 353; Hume and Marsh 
Game B., iii, p. 333 ; Hume, S. F., ix, p. 283 ; Sculle} r , J. A. S 
Bengal, lvi, p. 87 ; Hume, S. F., xi, p. 319 ; Fletcher, "Asian," Feb 
1898; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 654 ; id Hand-list, Vol. i, p 
166 ; Blanford, Avifauna B. I., iv, p. 290 ; Oates, Cat., Eggs, B. I., 
ii, p. 64 ; id, Game B. of In., ii, p. 446 ; Finn, Indian Waders, 
p. 142. 

Scolopax solitaria. — Seebohm. Charadriidae, p. 475. 

Vernacular names. — Bon chaha, Hindi ; Bharka, Nepal ; Simpoo, 
Khasia ; Daodidap gophu, Cachari ; Boner kocha, Assamese. 

Description. — Adult male. — Crown black, spotted with rufous 
and with a narrow white median band often much broken up with 
brown. A broken supercilium narrowing behind the eye white, 
more or less mixed with brown. Loral streak dark brown, more 
or less mixed with rufous. Chin, sides of head and throat white, 
speckled with dark brown and rufous, the centre of the throat 
almost pure white. Neck all round rufous brown, much mixed 
with white below, darker and less mixed with white above but 
having also dark brown or black bars. Back and scapulars black 
with numerous broken bars and spots of rufous and the scapulars 
with broad white outer edges, in some cases tinged with rufous. 
Lower back deep brown with whitish tips and bars, rump with 
rufous spots, shorter tail coverts dark brown with rufous bars and 
longer coverts almost uniform olive brown, rayed darker and with 
white bars at the tips. Median tail feathers black, tipped whitish 
and with a narrow black and a broad subterminal band of rufous ; 
outer tail feathers irregularly barred black and white. Breast 
brown, more or less speckled and spotted with white which forms 
into broad bars where the breast and abdomen meet. Abdomen 
white, faintly barred at the sides ; flanks, axillaries and underwing 
coverts barred brown and white, the latter predominating. 
Undertail coverts white, sometimes practically unmarked and 
sometimes faintly barred with dusky brown and often with a faint 
rufous tinge. 

Wing coverts brown, speckled with rufous next the scapulars 
and elsewhere barred with rufous and black and tipped white ; 



262 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

the edge of the shoulder is also barred with white ; primaries dark 
brown edged and tipped with white, the edges broadest on the 
outermost quill and almost disappearing on the innermost ; 
secondaries dark brown, tipped white with frecklings of rufous and 
black at the tip which in the inner secondaries become regular 
bars throughout the whole length of the feathers. 

Bill greenish plumbeous, darkest at the tip where it is almost 
black, and yellowish at the base of the lower mandible ; iris dark 
brown ; feet and legs pale yellowish plumbeous, the soles yellow 
ochre and claws horny brown. 

" Bill plumbeous, black at tip, base of lower mandible yellowish 
brown ; feet dull olive or pale yellowish green, the soles yellowish ; 
claws horny black; iris dark brown " (Scully). 

"Total length 11 inches, culmen 2-9", wing 6-3", tail 2-3", 
tarsus 1-3"" (Sharpe). 

"Wing 6-25" to 6-8"; bill 2-52" to 2-87" (no male above 
2-77") ; weight 5 oz. to 8 oz. " (Hume). 

" The irides are dark brown ; the legs and feet in adults are 
dull olive or yellowish green, or greenish or dull pale yellow — in 
young birds ashy with a greenish tinge ; the claws black or brown- 
ish black ; the terminal one-third of the bill is black or brownish 
black, the basal portions generally yellowish brown, bluish along 
commissure, but the upper mandible often has a greenish ashy or 
plumbeous, or vinous or fleslry tinge, and sometimes is plumbeous 
everywhere except at the dark tip " (Hume). 

Adult female. — Similar to the male. 

"Total length 11 inches,- culmen 2-8", wing 6-0", tail 2-5", 
tarsus 1-3" " (Sharpe). 

" The sexes do not, judged by my measurements, appear to 
differ appreciably in size, but the three largest birds measured were 
females and the two smallest males, so that probably, age for age, 
if one could make sure of this, the females are the largest" 
(Hume). 

Measurements of the specimens in the Bombay Natural History 
Society's possession and in the Asiatic Museum together with a 
few others which have passed through my hands do not shew much 
variation in size between the male and female. The average 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 263 

measurements for both sexes are, Wing 6*41 "; Bill from gape 

2-76"; Tarsus 1-30." The smallest bird, a $ from the Indian 

Museum, has a wing of 6 - 02" and the largest, anunsexed bird from 

the same place, has the wing 6*68". The bills vary in length 

between 2-62" and 3'02" and the tarsi between 1-12" — that of a 

curiously short-legged bird — and 1-5." 

The depth of the bill at the extreme base is only -32" as against 

•5" in that of the Wood Snipe and the length and slenderness of 

the bill of the Solitary Snipe is alone sufficient to distinguish it 

from the other. In general appearance the Solitaiy Snipe 

is a far paler coloured bird than any of the other snipe and this 

difference is even more conspicuous in life than when the bird is 

made into a skin. In build it is also slighter, its neck longer and 

it seems to stand higher on its legs, though its tarsus is really no 

longer than that of the Wood Snipe. 

The British Museum has a fine series of this Snipe, over 40 

specimens, but of these only 1 1 are sexed, 7 females and 4 males, 

and it is hardly safe to generalize as to comparative size of the 

sexes on such scanty material. It is, however, more than possible 

that a large series of sexed birds might show that the female 

Solitary Snipe is bigger than the male, a fact usual, indeed, with 

most known species of the Genus Gallinago. An examination of 

those species of Gallinago of which the British Museum has fairly 

big series shews the following comparative measurements of males 

and females : — 

Males. 
Bill 



Gallii 


ago 


stenura 


2-3 


55 




megala 


2-3 


55 




major 


2-45 


55 




nigrigenis 


2-75 


55 




coelestis 


2-8 


55 




frenata 


2-8 





Females. 




Wing 


Bill 


Wing 


•4-9 . 


.. 2-45 


5-1 


5-4 . 


.. 2-6 


5-6 


5-55 . 


.. 2-5 


5-3 


5-1 . 


. 2-9 


5-1 


5-2 . 


.. 2-8 


5-3 


4-9 . 


.. 2-9 


4-7 


5-0 . 


.. 2-8 


5-25 



,, paraguayae 2-6 

From the above we find that in the species stenura, megala, and 

pa/raguayae both culmen and wing are longer in the female than 

in the male; in major and frenata the bill is longer but the wing 

shorter, but of the latter species there are only 4 females sexed 



264 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

out of the whole series ; in nigrigenis the "bill is longer and the 
wing the same and finally, in coelestis we have the bill the same 
and the wing longer in the female. 

My own experiences go to shew that both in the case of stenura 
and coelestis the female though, perhaps, a less bulky birdi, has wing 
and bill consistently though but slightly longer than it is in the 
male. At the same time, I have not had sufficient material to 
work on, as regards the other species, to enable me to assert that 
such is alwaj^s the case with birds of this genus. 

Distribution. — The Solitary Snipe is found throughout Eastern 
Asia from Japan as far West as the Altai mountains and as far South 
as the Himalayas and the Chin Hills extending further South during 
the Winter into the plains of China and India. 

Within the limits of the Indian Empire the Solitary Snipe 
breeds throughout the Himalayas from Western Kashmir to the 
extreme East of Assam, both North and South of the Brahmaputra, 
and thence through the Chin and Shan Hills wherever these are of 
sufficient elevation. At this season it may be found at all heights 
between 15,000ft. and 9,000, possibly breeding at rather lower 
elevation than this as I shot a specimen in Ma3^ in N. Cachar at 
6,000ffc. The testes of this bird were much swollen and it was 
evidently breeding either in the place where shot or in the adjoining 
Naga Hills which ran some 2,000ft. higher. 

As soon as the cold weather sets in the Solitary Snipe moves 
further South and to lower elevations, but it is in no sense migra- 
tory in India as is the Woodcock, seldom leaving the foot hills for 
the plains and only occurring in the latter as a rare straggler. On 
September 14th, 1879, Mr. A. Guthree obtained a specimen near 
Benares and in 1898 Mr. F. W. F. Fletcher and Mr. W. Hamilton 
shot a bird of this species near Devala in the S. E. Wynaad. 

I have records of its occurrence in Cachar (W. Cathcart), Sylhet 
(St. J. Hickman), Dibrugarh, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Chittagong, 
N. Cachar, Khasi and Garo Hills, and between October and March 
it undoubtedly occurs regularly in small numbers all along the 
foot of the Himalayas throughout the Dooars. 

The extent to which the Solitary Snipe is migratory has never 
been well worked out. In Japan it would appear that it is resi- 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 265 

dent throughout the year, perhaps working South during the cold 
season, but in China it is more truly migratory in its habits, 
breeding in North-Eastern Siberia and extending well into China 
in the winter. On the other hand in Turkestan, the Altai and 
possibly also Tibet the bird is probably only locally migratory to 
the extent of altering the elevation of its haunts with the varying 
seasons. 

Mr. H. E. Dresser, who has lately been working at this genus, 
has very kindly sent me in epistola, the result of his researches in 
regard to the destribution of this snipe. He writes : — 

" Gallinago solitaria breeds on all the mountain ranges of Asia 
between about 57° and 27° N. lat., also on the Commander 
Islands, in Kamchatka, Saghalien, Japan, the Corea, North China, 
Manchuria, Mongolia, Dauria, the Southern half of the Irkutsk, 
Government, the Bureja and Stanovoi mountains, Sajan, the Altai 
Tarbagatai, Alatan, and the mountains of Turkestan at an altitude 
of from 4,000 to 14,000 feet, also in Tibet and the Himalajras. 
In the autumn and winter it is found near Irkutsk, Krasuojarsk, 
Ust Kamenogorsk, on the Irtesh at Askabad and in Eastern 
Persia where Mr. Zarudny obtained it on the 2nd of October 1898 
atNeizar in Seistan, on the 19th of October at Tebbess, on the 21st 
and 22nd of October at Kelata-Marg, on the 23rd of October at 
Pud-i-Akhangerun, and on the 31st of October at Kerat, all these 
places being in Seistan. The typical form is found in Turkestan, 
the Altai, the Altyn-Tag mountains, Zaidan, the Southern Koko- 
Nor mountains, Nan-shan, Upper Goango, and South-Western 
Mongolia — the Eastern form (Gallinago solitaria japonica) from 
the Sayans, East to the Commander Islands, and South to Pekin. 
Some specimens from Krasno Yarsk on the Yenesei are inter- 
mediate, whereas others belong to the Eastern form. " 

The Solitary Snipe is by no means a common bird anywhere 
within our limits, although Hume says that "in the Himalayas 
at all seasons it is at least ten times as numerous as the Wood 
Snipe. It is just as commonly met with in twos and threes 
as singly, whereas (in the hills at any rate) the Wood Snipe 
is always solitary. " Scully also reported that " the Solitary 
Snipe is not uncommon in the Valley of Nepal from October 



266 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

to the beginning of March, being represented in larger numbers 
than either the Woodcock or Wood Snipe." As, however, Scully 
also says that the Woodcock " is not at all common in the 
Valley and can only be obtained by hard work, " we need not 
infer that the Solitary Snipe occurs in any great numbers. 

This bird is in all its ways far more a true snipe than is the 
Wood Snipe and in flight and voice is very similar to the Fantail 
and Pintail. On the wing it is strong and quick and it indulges j 
in the same twists and turns as does the Pintail, rising with the 
same loud "pench" as does that bird, though its voice is shriller 
and louder, and its flight, perhaps, not so quick. 

Hume says " they do not seem to care much for cover. I have 
constantly seen them along the margins of little streams, in bare 
rocky ravines and valleys, where there were only small corners and 
nooks of turf and mossy swamp, and no cover a foot high. I have, 
no doubt, found them in small open swamps in the middle of 
jungle, but they stick to the grass and low rushes, and I never 
observed them in scrub or rinjal jungle. I have known Wood 
Snipe and the Eastern Solitary Snipe flushed within a short 
distance of each other ; but, as a rule, the Wood Snipe is to be 
seen only in tiny swamps or morasses, partly or wholly sirrrounded 
by thick cover — the Solitary Snipe in little swampy places on open, 
grassy hill-sides or along the margins of rocky-bedded bare banked 
streams." 

It however does sometimes actually frequent forest land, for one 
shot by Major Wilson in Shillong was found in grass land more or 
less covered with pine forest and the breeding male shot by myself 
in North Oachar was put up out of bracken in oak forest, the trees 
being quite close together and much matted and covered with 
orchids and other parasites. 

Such records as I have of birds shot along the foot-hills of the 
Himalayas seem to have been all obtained from grass bordering 
patches of swamp, situated either at the bottoms of grassy hills or 
else in comparatively open ravines. 

Major Wilson, writing to me about this snipe, says "I have only 
killed about half a dozen of these in my time and all round about 
Shillong. I found them in the same sort of around as the 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 267 

ordinary snipe and never in matted grass such as the Wood Snipe 
inhabits. " 

"On March the 13th, 1890, when shooting with Mr. W. H. 
Dobbie, I killed three Solitary Snipes all within a few yards of one 
another." 

Hume found, in the stomachs of those he examined, small insects 
and tinv grubs, in two or three were found masses of tiny black 
coleoptera and in one some minute shells. In the one bird I have 
examined there were numerous tiny shells and what looked like 
the remains of some grey-coloured caterpillars. 

From the formation of the bill of birds of this sub-family one 
would expect to find them all more or less addicted to boring in 
the earth for their food. The bills of all Snipes are so constructed 
that by elevating the end of the maxilla, or upper mandible, they 
can be opened for about one-third of their length whilst the gape 
itself is still kept closed. This enables the Snipe to thrust its bill 
into the soft ground or slush in which it feeds and having found 
its prey to grasp it without resorting to the great muscular effort 
which should be necessitated by an attempt to force open the whole 
bill from gape to tip. 

Knowing this fact, an examination of the bill of each species may 
be found to be some guide to help us to ascertain the food on which 
it principally subsists, for we shall find the nervous and muscular 
structure of the bill most developed in those species which resort 
most to boring in their search for food. 

In Gcdlinago solitaria Ave do not find the retractile muscles and 
nerves very highly developed and there are not the strong terminal 
pits which we see in the bill of the Common Snipe and, to a lesser 
degree, in the Pintail and Woodcock. It is probable, therefore, 
that the Solitary Snipe feeds principal^ upon such insects and 
surface shells, etc., as it can obtain above ground, resorting to 
boring for worms and similar food only when forced to do so by 
the absence of any other. 

During the breeding season the Solitaiy Snipe bleats or drums 
in much the same manner as does the Fantail. Hume observes : "In 
May . . . the males are often to be seen and heard in the higher 
portion of the hills soaring to a considerable height, repeatedly 



268 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

uttering a loud, sharp, jerky call, and then descending rapidly with 
quivering wings and out-spread tail, producing a harsh buzzing 
sound something like, but shriller and louder than, that produced 
by the Common Snipe, and this though they do not descend as 
rapidly as this latter. " 

The Solitary Snipe is a most excellent bird for the table, though 
as Hume says, perhaps less so than some other members of the 
genus. 

Nidification. — Gallinago solitaria is known to breed through- 
out its Indian range at suitable elevations. Hume records : " The 

breeding season commences in May The nest, such as it 

is, is usually placed on grass or moss, close to some stream, often 
more or less overhung by some tuft of grass or rushes. It consists 
at most of a few dead rushes or scraps of dry grass or moss, sur- 
rounding or at times lining a little depression in the moss, turf or 
ground. In one case I was told there was no nest at all, the eggs 
being laid simply in a circular shallow depression in deep, spongy' 
club moss, apparently merely hollowed by the pressure of the bird's 
body." 

" I have never myself seen a nest, but have this information from 
natives who have repeatedly seen the eggs, always at places high 
up on snow-capped ranges, and on snow-fed streams. " 

" I have never succeeded in securing or even getting a sight of 
the eggs, though on one occasion several (subsequently unfortu- 
nately destroyed) were collected for me in Kashmir. '" 

Oates has shewn however in his " Game Birds," p. 442, that the 
eggs Mandelli obtained from Sikkim and believed to be those of the 
Wood Snipe were almost certainly of this species. As regards these 
eggs, Herr. Otto Moller gave Hume the following details : — 

" The eggs were found in Native Sikkim, just opposite Darjee- 
ling. Mandelli several times pointed out to me the spur where 
they were found, the elevation of which is, I should say, between 
eight to nine thousand feet. The eggs, eleven in number, were 

procured during the latter part of June but the eggs, 

though clearly all belonging to the same species, equally clearly 
belonged to four different nests and the men could not point out 
the clutch to which the skin belonged. " 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 269 

Hume describes these eggs as being broad ovals of regular peg- 
top shape with stout compact shells, very faintly glossed. He adds : 
" The ground is a pale pinky stone colour of varying shades some- 
times almost white, sometimes browner, sometimes more decidedly 
pink, densely and boldly blotched (the blotches often longitudinal 
in their character and radiating in curved lines from the broad 
apex) with a rich, at times brownish, maroon, almost black in 
some spots, browner in some eggs, redder in others, this blotching 
being generally intermingled with very similarly shaped, sub- 
surface looking pale grey or inky purple patches or clouds. " 

" In some eggs the markings are almost entirely confined to the 
upper one-third of the eggs, where they are in places all but 
confluent. In others the markings, though in such cases often 
less densely set, extend over the entire upper half of the egg ; but 
as a rule but few markings, and then much reduced in size, extend 
over the lower half of the egg. " 

" The eggs, I have measured, varied from l - 66 to l - 76 in length, 
and from 1*2 to 1-28 in breadth, but the average of 10 eggs is 
1-71 by 1-24." 

Oates, in describing the eggs of the Solitary Snipe in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum, notes that " they are easily distin- 
guished from the eggs of all other snipes in the collection by reason 

of their pinkish-buff ground colour Many of the blotches 

are streaky and make an angle with the major axis, seeming to be, 
as it were, twisted round the egg from right to left, when the 
specimen is viewed with the broad end uppermost. " 

The Collection contains 3 of Mandelli's eggs, so the above 
reference to the pinkish ground colour may be considered applicable 
to those as well as the others and agrees with Hume's own descrip- 
tion. The other Solitary Snipe's eggs in the Collection are two 
clutches from Ta-tran-la, Tibet, and were taken at an elevation of 
12,000 ft. 

In my own Collection I have a clutch of four eggs from Turkistan 
and a single egg from Innakul, the latter of which was given me 
by the Hon'ble Walter Rothschild out of a clutch of four eggs in the 
Tring Museum. All the eggs have the drab-yellow ground colour 
and vandyke brown markings of ordinary snipe's eggs with no 



270 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

trace of the pink tinge mentioned hy Oates and shewn in the plate 
(III No. 9) in the second Volume of the Catalogue of Bird" s Eggs 
in the British Museum. All, however, have the same curious 
twisted character in the markings. 

The Plate of the Solitary Snipe is decidedly good. Many birds 
are considerably paler in general tone than the bird depicted 
which, indeed, must have been darker than the average, though I 
have seen specimens even darker than this. The staring white 
rim round the eye is not correct and the colours of the soft parts are 
not normal. I doubt if airy bird ever possessed quite such vivid 
green legs as these and the greater number have them more a 
dull yellow-green with a distinctly livid tinge. 

The bill is correctly coloured, but that the terminal third should 
be darker. It must, however, be remembered that though the 
brown tinge given here is correct for some birds, in many the bill 
will be found to be coloured a livid green at the base, more espe- 
cially about the gape. 

GALLINAGO NEMORICOLA. 

The Wood Snipe. 

Scolopax gallinago. — Hodg., Gleanings in Science, iii, p. 240. 

Gallinago nemoricola.—Hodg., J. A. S. Bengal, vi, p. 490 ; Blyth, 
Cat., p. 272 ; Jerdon, B. of India, iii, p. 672 ; Hume and Davidson, 
Str. F., vi, p. 459 ; Hume Cat. No. 868 ; Hume Str. F., viii, p. 112 ; 
Legge, B. of Ceylon, p. 814 ; Hume and Marshall, Game Birds of 
India, iii, p. 325; Butler Str. F., ix, p. 428; Reid, Str. F., x, 
p. 68 ; Ditmas, ibid, p. 173 ; Oates, B. of B. ii, p. 385; Barnes, B. 
of Bombay, p. 344 ; Davison, Str. F., x, p. 413 ; Hume, ibid xi, p. 
318 ; Oates, Hume's Nests and Eggs Ind. B., iii, p. 350 ; Sharpe, 
Cat. B. M., xxiv, p. 657 ; Oates, Cat. Eggs B. M, ii, p. 64 ; Sharpe, 
Hand List of B. of B. M., i, p. 166 ; Blanford, Aviffauna of B. I., iv, 
p. 285 ; Oates, Game B. of In., i, p. 439 ; Finn, Indian Waders, 
p. 141. 

Scolopax nemoricola. — Jerd., 111., Ind. Orni., pi. ix ; Nevill, J. A. 
S. B. (Ceylon), 1867-70, p. 138 ; Seebohm, Geogr. Distr. Churadri- 
idge, p. 474. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 271 

Description. — Adult male. — Forehead brown, changing to black on 
the crown and nape ; a rufous median stripe ; supercilium and sides 
of the head white, fulvous white or pale fulvous, speckled with 
brown and with broad brown bands running from the bores 
and from under the ear coverts to the nape. Chin white, generally 
unspeckled, sometimes faintly dotted with brown. Upper back and 
scapulars velvety black, the former near the nape much marked 
with rufous and the latter broadly edged with the same ; lower 
back and rump duller black with rufous bars, more or less whitish 
in front on the former ; upper tail coverts barred rufous and black- 
ish brown, the former colour predominating. Central tail feathers 
black with two rufous bars and tips, the subterminal bars very 
broad; outer tail feathers barred dull white and black. Breast 
fulvous, or fulvous white barred brown, remainder of lower parts, 
including the abdomen, white barred closely with brown and with the 
undertail coverts generally strongly tinged with rufous. Auxilia- 
ries and underwing coverts dark brown with narrow white 
bars. Wings brown, the coverts edged and barred with fulvous, the 
primaries and primary coverts tipped with a pale edging, inner 
secondaries barred throughout with fulvous or fulvous rufous. 

Irides dark brown, bill horny brown, more or less tinged with 
green, the tip darker and the basal two-thirds of the lower mandi- 
ble yellowish ; legs dark plumbeous green. 

Wing 5-25" to 5-75"; bill from gape 2-4" to 2-65"; tarsus 1-2" 
to 1-5". 

Eliminating the largest and the smallest birds the tarsus 
only varies between 1-3" and 1-4" and the extremes both ways are 
probably abnormal. 

Adult female.— Does not differ from the male and is pro- 
bably about the same in size or very little bigger, though with a 
longer bill. The two longest bills I have personally measured 
were 2-60" and 2-65" and both belonged to female birds. 

Young bird. — Judging from a single specimen of a young bird 
in the Indian Museum with a wing of 5-02" and a bill of 2-38" it 
would appear that in young birds the darker colours predominate 
over the paler more than in the adult. The dark bars on the 
lower plumage are distinctly broader and more close together, and 



272 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

the whole appearance in this specimen is far darker than I have 

seen in any acralt bird. 

Sharpe does not differentiate between the male and female, but 

the average measurements of the British Museum birds, including 

both sexes, are bigger than those I have handled. In the former 

the wing is given as 5-7" and the culmen as 2 -65". 

The depth of the bill in those I have measured averages about 

•5", the heavy base being very conspicuous when compared with 

other Snipe. 

The sportsmen will generally be able i to recognise the Wood 

Snipe by its comparatively dark plumage and rather squat heavy 

shape and beak. 

"Length 11-0" to 12-5"; expanse 18" to 19-75"; wing 5-4" 

to 5-7" ; tail from vent 2-5" to 2-9" ; tarsus 1-41" to 1-49" ; bill 

from gape 2-41" to 2-62" ; weight 4-9" to 6-1" oz." (Hume). 
Jerdon gives the weight as up to 7 oz. and Hodgson, amongst 

some 20 birds weighed, obtained one of 6- 75 oz. 

" The irides are hazel to deep brown ; the front of the legs 
and toes are grey, sometimes, perhaps commonly, bluish, sometimes 
more plumbeous or slaty and sometimes again with a drabby shade, 
or again greenish, and generally everywhere paler in the female, 
the back of the legs and soles fleshy, sometimes pinky, sometimes 
bluish or dusky ; the claws horny brown to almost black ; of the 
bill nearly the terminal one-third is brown to blackish brown ; the 
basal two-thirds much paler and with a tinge sometimes reddish 
fleshy, sometimes yellowish fleshy, sometimes livid, sometimes 
drab" (Hume). 

Distribution. — Blanford thus defines the distribution of the Wood 
Snipe within our limits, outside of which it has not yet been 
obtained. " In the Himalayas as far as Dalhousie to the west- 
ward and Sikkim to the east, and probably further in the latter 
direction ; also in the hills south of Assam and in Manipur 
occasionally in Burmah even as far south as Tenasserim, and as a 
winter visitor only, in the hills of Southern India — Ooorg, Wynaad, 
Nilgiris, Anaimalais, Shevroys and probably others. In one case 
this species is said to have been recognised in Ceylon. A very 
few specimens have been obtained whilst migrating, one at 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 273 

Calcutta by Blyth, two at Russelkonda by Macmaster, one in 
Serguja by Bull, and probable occurrences have been recorded at 
Nasik and Dharwar." 

The Wood Snipe extends all along the Himalayas from the 
Eastern point mentioned by Blanford, and I have had either 
records of its occurrence or specimens sent me from the Dooars, 
Buxa, Jalpaiguri, Barpeta (South of Bhutan) and Tezpur (South 
of the Dafla Hills), Cachar, Sylhet and Myitkyina (Capt. Clifford), 
thus linking up its range almost from point to point.* 

As regards these birds'* visits to the Southern Hills these are, no 
doubt, more or less the result of a migratory movement but as we 
get to know more about this rare Snipe it will probably be found 
that its migrations are of a very local character and it would not 
surprise me to find that over the greater portion of its habitat it is 
a permanent resident. The dates on which specimens of the Wood 
Snipe have been obtained, for me, shew that in some cases it is not 
a bird of high elevations alone and that it almost certainly breeds 
well below 2,000 feet. 

From Jalpai I have received a bird shot in May in the swamps 
at the foot of the Hills; my father, E. B. Baker, shot several speci- 
mens in Purnea and Maldah in April and May whilst returning 
from Tiger shoots, and Major Wilson records his seeing many of 
these Snipes in May in Manipur at about 2,000 feet elevation. It 
is quite possible that if we knew the haunts of this Snipe and if 
we could visit them at the proper season we should not find them 
nearly as uncommon as they have been hitherto considered. 

Damant said that he found it common in Manipur and that one 
morning he killed five shooting in long grass from the back of an 
elephant. 

Baldwin also came upon a number together when shooting in 
the Philibet district in January 1872. He Avrites:— " I came across 
not one, but over a dozen of these birds ; they were close to one 

\ anotner -we soon put up several Common Snipes and 

J presently my companion fired at one, and I then saw a large dark 
bird, which I thought at the time was a Solitary Snipe, rise up 
with a croak, and after curving about, drop close by. We went 



* There is in the Society's collection a specimen of a Wood Snipe ^in spirit) shot at 
Thana, near Bombay, by Ma-. Thos. H. Moore in January, 1896.— Eds. 



274 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HLSTORY SOCJJETY, Vol. XX. 

up and not one, but three rose — two of which fell to oiir shots. 
We soon found several more and nine were killed altogether ; they 
offered the easiest of shots, and did not rise until the elephants 
were close on them. They were particularly fine gamey birds and 
proved most excellent for the table." 

Major Wilson has been good enough to send me copies of his 
notes on this bird as found in Manipur and these I quote in extenso. 

" The only time I ever made what may be called anything like 
a bag of Wood Snipe was in the year 1896, close to Manipur. I 
was sent out into cholera-camp in May and while there discovered 
a valley about 4 miles from our final camp, which seemed absolu- 
tely crawling with Black Partridges and where also I saw many 
Wood Snipes. The Gurkha, as is well known, is an extremely 
keen shikari, and unfortunately one regardless of the breeding 
season. I accordingly issued orders that no one was to fire a shot 
in this valley, till I could shoot it myself. In October of the same 
year I managed to get away. The following is a copy of an entry 
in my shooting diary : — 

" October 1, 1896. — Went over to the Choonbutti (there was an 
old Manipuri lime kiln, near which we camped, in my reserved 
valley) with H — of my Regiment, we did not find nearly so many 
partridges as I expected, and the grass was very heavy, still we 
killed fifteen brace of black partridges, five and-a-half couple of 
Snipe, of which two and-a-half couple were Wood Snipe, and one 
quail. The grass was so stiff the dogs rubbed their noses sore. 

" October 2. — Twenty-two and-a-half brace of partridges, eight 
and-a-half couple of Snipe, of which four couple were Wood Snipe. 

" We could have killed a good many more Wood Snipe had we 
troubled to go after them, but if a bird flew out of the line we 
were beating, we never followed it up, as we wanted to make a 
really good bag of partridges. 

" These birds were all lying in heavy grass up to our knees. 

" I think the name of this bird somewhat of a misnomer 
because out of those I have shot, a fair number, I have never once 
flushed one in a wood, though once I flushed one in a jheel in the 
midst of tree jungles and he pitched in the forest and I killed him 
there. 






THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 275 

li The Wood Snipe lies in covert which is too thick for the ordi- 
nary Snipe to run about in and he also sometimes favours very high 
grass. The places he seems to like best are valleys in the hills 
which are full of thick matted grass growing on the sites of old 
rice khets. 

" He lies very close and is consequently rather difficult to flush 
even with a dog and when flushed flies heavily, and seldom goes 
more than a couple of hundred yards. 

" Occasionally when flushed he utters a croaking note, which 
sounds like ' Tok-Tok '." 

The Wood Snipe obtained by my father in Purnea and Maldah 
were shot by him in 1882 in company with Mr. J. Shillingford, 
Mr. G. Hennessy and others during a couple of tiger shoots held 
in April and Maj^ in the two districts. 

My father told me that one day late in April when coming back 
from a successful tiger shoot in Maldah the line was engaged in 
shooting anything that might get up before the elephants as they 
wended their way home to camp. In this way a few hog deer 
and various birds were added to the bag, and whilst going past 
a number of tiny swamps covered with dense sungrass, one of the 
line put up and dropped a bird ; he thought to be a Woodcock. 
On search being made for this, several more were put up and a 
good many shot, my father himself securing four. Further on the 
same evening whilst working through similar places others were 
-disturbed and two more shot and on following days yet others 
were brought to bag. 

The same year and in the succeeding month, May, whilst shoot- 
ing in Purnea, a similar experience was met with and more of 
these birds killed. I cannot now remember what was the actual 
number brought to bag, but from what my father told me they 
must have been fairly numerous, especially in Maldah. 

He described the birds as being very slow and owlish in their 
flight. They rose with a low croaking cry, flattered heavily over 
the grass and ekra in a fitful and undecided manner and then 
flopped into cover again before they had covered a hundred yards. 

The Wood Snipe, not only in appearance but in flight and 
habits, is far more like the Woodcock than is the Solitary Snipe- 



276 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

It may not perhaps haunt forest and brake as does the Woodcock,, 
but on the other hand it is never found in the short grass and open 
swamps frequented by the Solitary Snipe. Its favourite haunts 
seem to be those described above by Major Wilson or, when in the 
plains, huge fields of dense sungrass, ekra or elephant grass which 
have in their midst small pools and swamps hidden away by the- 
rank vegetation. In Maldah and Purnea they were found in tiny 
pools only a few yards across, which were covered with coarse" 
weeds and grass so high and dense that they would have been) 
unworkable except from elephants. 

In flight, as may be seen from the descriptions already given,, 
it closely resembles the Woodcock and is, perhaps,, even slower.. 
It pursues the same wavering, bat-like course in its mode of pro- 
gression, makes the same unlooked-for darts to one side or the' 
other and finally has the same headlong tumble into cover, giving, 
one the idea that it has died suddenly and fallen to earth- 
It is, however, a very shy retiring bird and never, like the Wood- 
cock, frequents the haunts of men. This shyness and also the un- 
healthiness of its habitat along the Terai will probably always 
prevent us learning very much about it. 

Nidification. — There is nothing on record about the nidification 
of the Wood Snipe at present except in connection with the eggs 
obtained by Mandelli in Sikkim. Three of these eggs are in the 
British Museum, but one of them is marked "869 Gallinago 
solitaria, Native Sikkim, 18-6-79 " and, as Oates remarks, it seems 
possible that Mandelli's reputed eggs of the Wood Snipe were 
afterwards discovered to be the eggs of the Solitary Snipe, probably 
by the identification of a skin. 

At the same time it must be noted that Hume distinctly states 
that when Mandelli's collectors brought in these eggs they brought 
in with them the skin of a Wood Snipe. The date and name on the 
eggs, however, would seem to shew that this skin afterwards proved 
to be that of a Solitary Snipe. 

My own experience, meagre as it is, as regards their nidification, 
would appear to confirm Oates' opinion. On the 11th June 1908, 
one of my Khasia collectors brought in to me a Wood Snipe 
together with a single egg and some fine tangled grass, which he- 



I 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA, BURMA AND CEYLON. 277 

said had composed the nest and which was clogged and matted 
with the contents of other eggs which had been broken by the 
trapped bird. Unfortunately the egg, which was saved, is un- 
doubtedly an abnormally small one, and my collector informed me 
that when he set the nooses for the bird he saw that there were 
three big and one much smaller egg, but that in colouration they 
were all alike. 

The single egg measures only l*5"xl'04" and is much like 
many eggs I have seen of Gallinago eoelestis, but is unusually 
brown in tint. The ground is a pale stone colour and the mark- 
ings consist of heavy blotchings of vandyke brown with a few 
underlying ones of grey or lavender. The smaller half of the egg- 
is but very sparsely marked, but on the larger third the blotches 
form a deep dark ring, inside which again the markings are 
numerous but not confluent. 

The texture is fine and smooth with a faint gloss and the shape 
is the ordinary sub-pyriform shape of most Snipes' eggs. 

Hume, writing of the breeding of this snipe, writes : — "That they 
breed in the Himalayas between elevations of about seven and ten 
thousand feet (and perhaps, though I doubt it, considerably higher) 
is certain. That they begin to lay early too is probable. Hodgson 
notes that on the 10th March the eggs in the ovary of a female 
were swelling, and another shot early in April contained a nearly 
full-sized but unshelled egg. But no European, I believe, has 
ever yet taken the nest, though Mr. A. Gr. Young writes that he 
hwivs they do breed in Kulu." 

It is more than probable that we shall eventually find that the 
Wood Snipe breeds at far lower altitudes than 7,000 feet. My 
own nest was taken near Shillong at under 4,000 feet, and in 
Manipur it is almost certain that they breed at but little over 2,000 
feet, whilst it also seems possible that they are permanent residents 
at the foot of the Himalayas throughout the Dooars. 

The Plate of the Wood Snipe is excellent, both in colouration 
and attitude. In many birds the bill has a faint green tinge 
about the base but normally, I think, the colour is much the same 
as that shewn, though perhaps not quite so clear and hard as here 
depicted. 



278 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

The legs and feet are very well coloured, but the colouration 
varies much and is often just as distinctly greenish as they are 
here shewn bluish. 

The attitudes of the birds in this plate and that of the Solitary 
Snipe show well the characteristics of the two species ; the active, 
•quick moving character of the Solitary Snipe, as compared with the 
heavy, slow disposition of the Wood Snipe. 



279 

THE COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA 

(INCLUDING THOSE MET WITH IN THE HILL 
STATIONS OF THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY). 

BY 

T. R. Bell, i.f.s. 

Part VIII. 

( Continued from page 879 of Volume XIX.) 

58. Vanessa cardui, Linn. — (Plate B, fig. 9c?). Male and female upper- 
side : forewing : interspace 1 and extreme base of wing dusky-black, irrorated 
with golden scales ; apical half of wing and termen dusky-black ; discal and 
medial area of wing ochraceous orange with the following black markings : 
an irregular oblique band consisting of two detached spots across middle of 
cell, a patch in base of interspace 2 and a curved transverse bar across 
interspace 1 ; on the black apical area an obliquely placed series of three 
quadrate white spots from costa followed by a curved transverse series of 
four white spots and on the broad dusky-black terminal margin an obscure 
transverse series of pale, slender, lunular marks. Hindwing dusky-brown 
covered with long, silky, brown hairs at base ; a large spot beyond apex of 
cell, a broad, transverse, discal, irregular band and the termen ochraceous 
orange ; the ochraceous discal band does not extend to the costa and 
bears a round black spot in each of the interspaces 2-6 ; on the termen 
there is an inner transverse series of black lunules and an outer series of 
black spots at the apices of the veins. Underside : forewing, cell and 
discal area from vein 1 irregularly to vein 4 ochraceous orange, rest of the 
wing greyish brown ; base of cell red, apical portion white, black marking 
in and below cell much as on the upperside ; beyond the cell the white 
markings on the apical area and on the termen as on the upperside. 
Hindwing mottled with olive-brown and ochraceous, the olive-brown mark- 
ings with slender white margins ; a postdiscal transverse series of ocelli 
in interspaces 2-6, those in interspaces 3 and 4 with blue, the rest with 
black centres ; all with inner rings of ochraceous and outer rings of black ; 
a series of black subterminal lunules and terminal black spots as on the 
upperside but not so distinct. Antennae brown, ochraceous yellow at the 
apex ; head, thorax and abdomen with ochraceous pubescence, the thorax 
beneath the pubescence metallic green ; on the underside the palpi, thorax 
and abdomen pale ochraceous white. Exp. 58-68 mm. 

Larva. — The larva is the type of Junonia larvee. Head parallel-sided, 
flat-faced, with distinct central depressed line ; covered with erect, rather 
long, white seta9 which are shortest on the face ; a few brown tubercles on 
vertex of each lobe bearing black setee ; colour from light red-brown to 



280 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIET1 , Vol. XX. 

black. Segment 2 slightly smaller than the head with a double row of 
numerous erect, long, white hairs as a collar and two bunches of similar 
hairs in front of each spiracle. Segments 3 and 4 have a subdorsal and 
lateral branched spine, or a pedicel with spinules. Segments 13 and 14 
have only the lateral pedicel. The dorsal spines of the segments 5-12 are 
nearer the front margin than the others. The usual little spines on leg- 
bases (for disposition of all these pedicels see Junonia of any species). 
Spiracles oval, large, black. Body surface velvety, covered densely with 
longish white hairs. All spines or pedicels arise from a more or less 
deeply rose-coloured, truncated, conical tubercle. Ventrum slightly hairy. 
Colour of body bright yellow smudged and spotted black to a varying 
degree, sometimes so much as to be completely black ; always a broad 
marginal yellow band and a double yellow dorsal line ; spines are trans- 
lucent white, the spinules black. L : 40 mm. ; B : 5"5 mm. 

Pupa. — Is of the Junonia type but slender. Head and segment 2 to 
base of shoulder-point quite square seen from above, blunt in front 
where the margin is slightly concave between the eyes ; there is a 
slight carination over each eye reaching back to front margin of segment 
2, these carinations converging backwards. Dorsal line of the head, 
segment 2 and thorax in one plane : at 45° to the longitudinal axis 
of pupa as far as apex of the last, the descent from it to segment 5 over 
segment 4 short ; both segment 2 and thorax convex transversely to length 
of pupa, the former not broad between its margins, the latter carinated 
lowly from front margin to apex where the carination ends in a low 
triangular pyramid. Constriction behind thorax slight dorsally, slighter 
laterally. Abdomen dorsally somewhat convex from segment 5 to cremas- 
ter, circular in transverse section ; ventral line straight, somewhat bulged 
along wing-junction-line. Wings expanded slightly laterally from a small 
shoulder-point in a concave line very shortly to a second point immediate- 
ly behind and opposite segment margin 3-4, after which the expansion gra- 
dually narrows to lose itself in body-surface at segment 6-7. Cremaster 
ordinary, oblong in shape, rounded at extremity with rather strong ventral 
and slight dorsal extensor ridges. Spiracular expansions of segment 2 in- 
dicated by a flush, longly oval, grey surface on front margin of segment 3 
on each side ; the other spiracles longly oval, of ordinary size, flush, brown. 
Surface of pupa finely and superficially corrugated-rugose ; segments 6-13 
have a minute dorsal, pointed tubercle ; segments 8-12 a still smaller 
supra- and subspiracular point ; segments 4-12 a small, conical conspicuous, 
subdorsal point, those on segments 7-10 being slightly largest. Colour of 
pupa is variable, green and gold in some cases, gold in others, pink-brown 
and gold again in some, the gold being always strongly developed dorsally 
and on the points. L : 23'5 mm ; B : 8 -25 mm. at shoulders ; the height is 
•equal at apex of thorax and at segment-margin 7-8. 






COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 281 

Habits. — The imago lays single eggs on the young shoots of the 
foodplairL The larva, after emerging from the egg, makes a hid- 
ing place amongst the young leaves by drawing them together 
with silks ; when larger, from the third moult onwards, it makes a 
cell at the point of a leaf with a lot of untidy web, eating the 
same leaf the cell is on. It lies with its head turned round on its 
side when at rest and shams death when disturbed, falling to the 
ground when possible. The pupa is fixed to a horizontal or verti- 
cal surface, hanging perpendicularly down, the suspension free but 
firm. The insect is our English " Painted Ladjr " and is found all 
over India, most plentifully in the hills, though it exists in great 
numbers in certain years also in the plains. It is a quick, strong- 
flier and at times goes long distances. Generally, however, it 
takes short flights, rising from the ground to rest again a short 
distance off. It nearly always sits with its wings closed and often 
draws the front wings into the hinder ones, leaving just the costa 
and apical part visible. The underside is so designed as to har- 
monise perfectly with gravelly, sparsely grass or herb-covered soil 
which it nearly always affects and, once settled, it is difficult to 
see. It frequents flowers, generally preferring those of creeping, 
low plants and, when feeding thus, it holds the wings half open ; 
also when basking in the sun. The distribution of the insect is 
all but woi'ldwide ; it has been found in all parts of India, Ceylon, 
Assam, Burma and Tenasserim. The foodplants of the caterpillar 
in England are thistles, upon one species of which it has been bred 
in Kashmir also ; Mallow, Burdock, Viper's Bugioss, and Nettles 
even, belonging to the botanical families Composites (Garduus, 
Thistle and Arctium Lappa, Burdock), Malvacece (Malva, Mallow), 
Boraginece (Uchium, Viper's Bugioss), Urticacece (Urtica, Nettle) are 
eaten at home in England ; in Kanara, here in Bombay, the larva 
has been found on Zornia cliphylla of the Leguminosece and the com- 
positaceous Blumea. By which it will be seen that there is no limit 
to the distribution arising from the want of things to feed on. The 
butterfly has been found in great numbers in the Sind deserts as 
well as in the dense forests of Kanara, though in the latter it is 
really plentiful only in certain years. 
59. Vanessa indica, Herbst.— Male and female resemble V. cardui but the 



282 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCLETY, Vol. XX. 

ground-colour is darker both on the upper and under sides and the orange 
markings deeper and richer in tint. Dffiers also as follows: — Upperside 
forewing : the ochraceous red on disc and across cell proportionately of 
less extent and uniform, not getting paler towards apex of cell ; the upper 
four spots of the preapical series on the black apical area minute. Hind- 
wing : the postdiscal transverse band much narrower and shorter, not 
extending below vein 1, margined inwardly by a series of broad, black, 
subcrescentic marks ; the tornal angle with a small patch of violet scales 
bordered inwardly by a short, thick, black, transverse line. Underside very 
much darker than in V. cardui, the orange-red on disc and cell of forewing 
restricted as on upperside ; three small, transversely-placed, blue spots 
beyond the cell. Hindwing : the mottling comparatively very dark, pur- 
plish black with slender white margins, shaded on disc with rich dark 
olive-brown ; the postdiscal series of ocelli dark and somewhat obscure ; an 
inner, subterminal, transverse series of blue and an outer, very much 
slenderer, transverse series of black lunules. Cilia of both fore and hind- 
wings white, alternated with brown. Antennee black, tipped with pale 
ochraceous ; head, thorax and abdomen with dark oli^e-brown pubescence ; 
beneath, the palpi, thorax and abdomen pale ochraceous brown. JExp. 
•58-70 mm. 

This butterfly has not been bred as far as is known. It is a very close 
relation of our English Red Admiral, differing only in the greater irregu- 
larity of the orange markings on the upperside. It is not really a butterfly 
that ought to have been mentioned in these papers but, on second thought, 
it was thought advisable to include it because it has such a wide range in 
India. It hardly ever occurs in the plains and certainly never breeds 
there ; it is found generally above 2,000 feet in the hills : the Himalayas, 
the Nilgiris, &c, but not, as far as has yet been ascertained, anywhere in 
the Western Ghats from Thana to Kanara in the Bombay Presidency. The 
butterfly extends to Southern Europe and the Canaries, eastwards to 
China, Japan and the Malay Peninsula. 

The following is a description of the larva, pupa and habits of the Red 
Admiral or Vanessa atalanta, which will probably be similar to those of the 
above. 

Larva. — The larva is of the typical nymphaline sort, all spines of equal 
length, branched on all segments except head and segment 2, where they 
are much shorter and simple ; body cylindrical with anal end sloping, the 
anal flap triangular with somewhat tumid end or point. Segment 12 is 
somewhat triangularly produced back in the dorsal line. Head heart-shap- 
ed, flat-faced, somewhat bi-lobed, shiny, bronze-black covered with light 
hair-bearing ochraceous tubercles ; ten short, cylindrical, blunt, simple 
spines round margin of face with four more in a row in front ; two slightly 
larger lower down, subdorsal, one on each side of clypeus apex ; antennal 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 283 

basal joint ochreous, the other two black ; eyes prominent, black ; labrum 
black. Clypeus large, triangular, not very distinct. Segment 2 the same 
breadth or somewhat broader than head but not so high, with a row of 
eight simple, short, triangular, black teeth or tubercles from spiracle to 
spiracle, and a simple, cylindrical, short, spine underneath spiracle ; on seg- 
ments 3 and 4 this simple spine is present in the same position and, besides,, 
a subdorsal and lateral black spine, pointed and set with fine hair-like- 
spinules directed out and upwards, also black. Segments 13 and 14, the 
former segment being short, have each a dorsolateral similar watery- 
ochraceous spine, situated near the hinder margins. Segments 5-12 have 
each a dorsal, subdorsal, supraspiracular and subspiracular similar spine, 
all more or less ochraceous and set with black spinules, all except the 
subspiracular spines on segments 8-9 being surrounded at the base with 
orange somewhat broadly. Spiracles shiny black, oval, of usual size. Sur- 
face of body set all over with very minute, white, depressed tubercles, each 
bearing a fine, white short hair ; spiracular region rather more thickly white 
haired. Colour of larva black, speckled yellow all over — or yellow speckled 
j all over black with a broad yellow subspiracular band from segment 5 to' 
segment 12 interrupted broadly by the tubercles ; belly dark ; legs black. 
The subspiracular spines are somewhat shorter than others, those on seg- 
ments 3 and 4 being, perhaps, just a little stronger than any. L : 35 mm, 
stretched ; B : 6 mm. without spines, 9 mm. with them. 

Pupa. — The pupa is of the usual Vanessa type, i.e., when seen from above 
the lateral outline is as follows : head parallel-sided, the front concave with 
the head-points short, broad and blunt ; breadth of pupa increasing some- 
what suddenly to a sharp tooth at shoulder ; then concave to another simi- 
lar tooth in a line with apex of thorax, where the breadth of pupa is very 
much the same ; then concave again, but very shallowly, to segment 7-8, 
where the wings are slightly bulged and the pupa is not so broad ; then 
decreasing in a straight line to the strong, truncated-triangular cremas- 
ter with slight dorsal and strong ventral extensor-ridges, the clasper-scar 
being a double circle inside the latter. The dorsal outline seen from the 
side is : head and vertex, segment 2, both short, the front slope of thorax 
at an angle of 45° to the longitudinal axis ; the thorax is carinated in 
dorsal line strongly, ending in a small triangular pyramid just before hinder 
margin to which the fall is nearly perpendicular, segment 4 being inclined 
at 45° towards segment 5 which is parallel to longitudinal axis and forms 
the bottom of the considerable dorsal constriction : the dorsal line again 
rises in segment 6, very slightly in 7, whence it is strongly curved down to 
end. Ventral line slightly bulged out towards centre though fairly 
straight from head to segment 11, after which, bent down. Surface of pupa 
smooth in the main, with an irregular net-work of thin, slightly impressed 
lines all over, the antennae ringed, the proboscis slightly longer than wings- - r 



•284 JO URNAL, B OMB A Y NA TUBAL HIST OB Y SO CIBTY, Vol. XX. 

-there is a slight carination from each head-point to the dorsal carination 
■of thorax at hinder margin of segment 2 and another from apex of this 
latter carination to hinder margin of thorax laterally ; there is a lateral, 
small, conical, pointed tubercle centrally on segments 3-12, slight on seg- 
ments 5 and 12, strongest on 7, 8, 9 ; signs of dorsal similar tubercles on 
segments 5-12 ; hardly a vestige of the supra or subspiracular ones. 
Spiracles of segment 2 mere red-brown slits ; the rest oval, colour of pupa 
•slightly convex, with red-brown, narrowly oval centres. The abdomen is 
somewhat laterally compressed ; the lateral constriction is much slighter 
than dorsal. Colour is a light violet grey-brown with golden reflexions ; 
-each tubercle being touched with gold, the dorsal ones surrounded with 
gold on the abdomen, the lateral one on thorax also and on segments 4, 6, 
8, those on 3 and 8 largely ; the golden reflexion on the wings is greenish 
arid subcutaneous in appearance. L : 21 mm. ; B at shoulder-points : 8 mm. ; 
4*5 mm. at head ; 7 mm. at segment 8 ; H. at segment 8 : 8 mm. 

Habits. — Egg laid underneath point of leaf, larva makes a little 
untidy web-cell by turning over point ; continues this in after 
stages, but of course has to use whole leaves later on ; uses much 
web ; lies generally on the upper surface of the chamber thus made 
and very generally curled round with its head on its side and the 
body contracted to appear thicker and shorter than it really is. 
Pupates in a dark corner, if possible, either against a perpendicular 
surface or from a horizontal one, the attachment being free but 
firm. Butterfly is fond of the sun, perches and basks on the 
ground with wings fairly widely open, is fond of sucking at 
flowers, rotten fruits, &c. ; can fly well and rapidly and takes long- 
flights ; rests with wings closed, the front wings sunk within the 
hinder. The place chosen for ovipositing is generally in a sunny 
place along a wall or hedge or ditch. The larvae are somewhat 
liable to be parasitised by ichneumons. The food plants are 
nettles (U'rtica.') 

Bingham enumerates twelve species of the genus Vanessa as 
inhabiting British India, besides two races and one variety. 
Some of them are very like the Tortoise-shells at home, others like 
the Comma. The genus is world-wide in its distribution, existing 
in both hemispheres, and the majority are palsearctic and nearctic, 
only a few species extending to the Tropics. The majority of the 
Indian species are found in the Himalayas and along the northern 
limits of British India. All feed in the larval stage on nettles, 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS 01 INDIA. 285 

willows, poplars, some Satiifragacece (Gooseberry and Currant), 
the Painted Lady on Thistles and other Compositce, Leguminosece, 
Malvacece, &c. The type of the genus is the Red Admiral. 

60. Hypolimnas bolina, Linn. [PL B., fig. 7 d 1 , 7a $ ] — Wet-season form. — 
Male upperside velvety black. Forewing : an oval shining irridescent blue 
patch, broadly centred with white and traversed by the black veins obliquely 
.crossing interspaces 3, 4, 5 ; two preapical, obliquely-placed, elongate, white 
spots and a postdiscal, inwardly-curved, transverse series of minute white 
dots. Hindwing : a central, oval, shining, irridescent blue patch, broadly 
•centred with white and traversed by the black veins as on the forewing, 
but larger ; a postdiscal series of minute white dots, in continuation of that 
on the forewing. Fore and hindwings : cilia white, alternated with black. 
Underside deep purplish brown. Forewing: some minute white flecks on 
and just below basal half of costal margin, with a row of three or four 
larger spots below them, an oblique discal series of three very slender 
streaks and elongate oval spots from costa to interspace 3, two preapical 
white spots continued as a postdiscal transverse row of white spots 
■&& on upperside, followed by an inner and an outer transverse subter- 
minal series of lunular white marks and a terminal dark line. The 
series of lunular white marks sometimes complete but generally well 
defined only below vein 5. Hindwing: a tolerably broad, discal, white 
band traversed by the black veins ; a postdiscal transverse series of 
minute white dots in continuation of that on the forewing ; an inner 
subterminal series of elongate whitish markings and an outer subtermi- 
nal slender, white, lunular, broad line, followed by a terminal dark line. 
Antennse, head, thorax and abdomen black ; beneath, the palpi, thorax and 
abdomen dark purplish brown. 

Female upperside dark velvety brown, paling towards the outer margins. 
Forewing : three or four irridescent blue spots from base of cell along and 
just below costa to before the middle, from the middle of costa an oblique 
■series of rich irridescent blue marks to interspace 3 ; a postdiscal, sinuous, 
transverse series of white spots, an inner subterminal series of short trans- 
verse white, narrow markings in the interspaces and an outer subterminal 
series of white lunules. Hindwing : a postdiscal transverse series of white 
spots followed by a series of double cone-shaped white marks, one in each 
interspace, and an outer subterminal series of white lunules. Underside 
dull brown. Forewing : minute white flecks on, and one or two white spots 
just below basal half of costal margin ; an oblique discal series of spots, two 
preapical spots, a postdiscal transverse series of spots, an inner subterminal 
series of somewhat cone-shaped marks and an outer subterminal series of 
lunules white, often sullied with yellowish. Hindwing as on upper- 
side but with the addition of a very broad discal, somewhat diffuse and 
•obscure, whitish, transverse band and the cone-shaped inner subterminal 



286 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

white markings of the upperside more continuous, separated only by the- 
slender brown veins. Antennse, head, thorax and abdomen as in male. 

Dry season form. — Male and female similar to the male and female of the' 
wet-season form but with the following differences :— larger ; the irridescent 
blue patches proportionately larger ; the hindwing in the male with, on the^ 
upperside, a more or less well-marked subterminal highly sinuous pale line ;. 
the forewing in the female with, on the upperside, one or two irridescent 
blue spots just below basal half of the costa ; the inner .subterminal trans- 
verse line of white markings much broader, each emerginate on the inner 
side. Underside: male: ground-colour hair-brown; basal half of forewing 
dark brown. Hindwing : the discal band and inner subterminal markings 
broader, diffuse and irrorated with dusky scales. — Female : hindwing entirely 
without the transverse broad, discal, whitish band, or sometimes this band 
represented only by a pale shading. Exp. Male: 52-96 mm.; female:: 
62-114 mm. 

This is a variable insect. — Male: the blue patch on the upperside of the- 
hindwing is sometimes in both seasonal forms entirely devoid of the pale 
centering, and, in the " dry season" form, specimens occasionally occur in, 
which the inner and outer subterminal markings on upperside of hindwing 
are just as prominently developed as in the female, but they are then always 
nearly pure white. Female : the discal oblique irridescent blue spots on. 
the upperside of the forewing in both seasonal forms occasionally reduced 
to one spot. The underside in both seasonal forms is also variable as> 
to the presence or absence of the discal white band and subterminal white 
markings on the forewing, these latter are often much reduced in size. 

In the above description the forms are alluded to as " wet " and " dry " 
by Colonel Bingham. This is not really quite correct. The size and 
brilliance and depth of colour depend more upon the plenty and succulence 
of the food-plants than upon the actual state of the atmosphere. It is in 
the wet season that the weeds upon which the larvee feed are most nume- 
rous, and, generally, from the middle to the end of the period, that is,. 
from the end of July onwards to, say, in low-lying damp situations, the 
end of December or even later. During the rest of the year to well on into 
the monsoon, the herbaceous growth is poor and sparse. So it comes about 
that the larva of the so-called " wet " form is not so well nourished as- 
that of the later one and produces consequently a smaller and less brilli- 
antly coloured imago. It would thus appear that instead of " wet " and 
" dry " seasonal forms, it would be more accurate to speak of, say, "starved" 
and " well-fed " seasonal insects. 

The pictures of the male and female in the coloured Plate B are, on the- 
whole, very good, except that, in the male, the postdiscal series of minute 
white dots on the upperside of forewing is absent. The dots are invariably 
present in the butterfly. The tone of the ground-colour in both figures i& 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 287 

reddish ; there should be no red in it. This tint is particularly stron^ in 
the figure of the female and especially on the underside. The blue 
irridescence is wonderfully well reproduced. 

Eijcj, — Is nearly spherical, broadest at a third of height from base. There 
are 10 thin, high, distinct meridional ridges from base which lose them- 
selves on the vertex where there is a round, smooth, shiny space. Colour 
as glassy green. The egg is very small for the size of the insect. Breadth 
0*6 mm ; height very nearly the same. 

Larva. — The larva is spined, has a cylindrical black body with greyish 
•satiny marbling ; the head has two long horns, these horns being generally 
black, while the rest of the head is yellow. Head is heart-shaped, the face 
is very slightly convex in centre and is broadest across apex ; on the vertex 
■of each lobe is an erect, spinous, hard process or horn in the same plane as 
the face and diverging one from the other, separated somewhat narrowly 
at bases by a triangular sinus ; the top of each horn is more coarsely and. 
densely spined than the stems, where the little spines are sharp and 
thickened at the bases ; the colour of head is brown-yellowish and shiny 
with a round black spot at the base of each cheek ; the horns are generally 
black. Segment 2 is nearly as broad as the head. The body is cylindri- 
cal, constricted at the segment-margins somewhat, perpendicular and high 
at anal end which is rounded. Spiracles are oval, black and rather large. 
Surface of the body is velvety looking ; there are the following spines : on 
segment 2 : a central row of 8 small simple spinous hairs, four on each side 
of dorsal line, and 2 antespiracular, spinous processes one below the other, 
the lower being the larger of the two, though both are small ; segments 3 
and 4 : a large subdorsal and lateral spinous process and 2 small subspira- 
cular ones both on the same level, one behind the other, and half 
the size of the others ; segments 5 to 11 have each a dorsal, subdorsal, 
supraspiracular and subspiracular spinous process as well as 2 small ones 
below the last, one below the other on segments 5 and 11, both at the 
same level on segments 7 to 10 and a triangle of 3 on segment 6 ; seg- 
ment 12 : 2 large dorsal spinous processes, one near front margin, one near 
hinder margin, a subdorsal one, a supraspiracular one somewhat nearer 
the front margin, and a subspiracular one as well as a single small one 
underneath the last ; segment 18 has a single lateral process and the 
anal flap has one on the margin about middle. The colour of the body is 
velvety black indistinctly marbled with satiny greyish ; the neck or front 
part of segment 2 is orange ; latter half of anal flap is dirty brown as well 
as prolegs and true legs ; all spinous processes are dirty light reddish- 
yellow in colour. The processes are about equal in length to each other 
throughout, except the small ones above mentioned, which are much 
smaller. L : 57 mm. ; B: 5 mm. ; L of head-horns : 3"o mm. ; L of spinous 
processes : 3 mm. 



288 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX, 

Pupa. — It is a thick, stout pupa, as broad at the shoulders as at segment 
7-8, where it is nearly quite circular in transverse section ; the thorax at 
its highest point is as high as the abdomen at segment 7-8 ; constriction 
behind thorax is dorsally pronounced but wide and gradual laterally. 
Head is thick, square and short, not visibly separated from segment 2, and 
has a small, rounded, flat-edged projection on each eye pointing forwards. 
Segments 2 and 3 and head are all in one piece so to speak. Thorax is. 
high, carinated in dorsal line somewhat on front slope, the shoulder produced 
into two stout short points. Wings somewhat expanded laterally from 
shoulders to constriction. Transverse section of abdomen circular, the last 
five segments contracted a good deal, especially ventrally, so that the last 
segment and cremaster are nearly at right angles to the longitudinal axis of 
the pupa. Cremaster large, stout, triangular, flattened above and below with 
the suspensory hairs or hooklets at the very extremity. Spiracles blackish, 
shiny, oval, convex. Surface of body is rough ; there is a conical lateral 
tubercle on thorax, a dorsal row of 6 sharply conical tubercles on segments 
6-11, one to each segment ; a subdorsal row of similar rather larger ones on 
segments 7-11, one to each ; these subdorsal tubercles existing also on the 
other segments but being there smaller than the dorsal ones ; a lateral row 
of 6 similar ones on segments 6-11, of which only those on segments 7 and 8 
are of the size of dorsal ones, the others being mere dots ; anal segment has 
two small thick tubercles, one on each side of base of cremaster. Colour of 
pupa is dark brown-grey splotched with grey on wings and segments 4-5' 
principally. L : 20 mm. ; B : 8 mm. ; L of longest tubercle : 1 mm. 

Habits. — The eggs are laid singly or in groups of six or seven 
on the undersides of very young leaves just above the ground;, 
the larva is generally found, when full grown or moderately large,, 
crawling about on the ground, but rests, if possible, half on the stem 
of its plant, half under a leaf. The butterfly is one of the com- 
monest in the better wooded parts of India, the female especially 
being one of those most often met with in gardens, plantations and 
woods where there is a plentiful ground-flora of urticaceous plants 
which constitute the food of the larvge. These butterflies may be 
seen at all times of the year, but more especially in the damp months, 
flying about near the ground upon which they constantly settle, i. 
often walking from one small plant to another ; at times they fly ! 
into the verandahs of houses and settle on the ceilings and walls 
with their wings folded over their backs and remain stationary for 
hours together ; in the jungles they are constantly found resting 
similarly on the undersides of branches, leaves, &c. The males are 
fond of the sun and sit upon leaves and sticks with the wings 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 289^ 

often outspread exposing the glorious irridescent purple and blue' 
colours so characteristic of the insect ; t\\ej are very pugnacious- 
and attack any other butterfly flying past with great zest and 
pertinacity, chasing it for considerable distances, to return always- 
to the same perch on leaf or stick. This is perhaps the reason why 
so many ragged specimens of the sex exist as compared to the 
females ; and it is not an easy matter to catch a perfect male. The' 
males are found even on the tops of the highest hills, where the 
females are rarely met with ; they go up to enjoy the sunlight and; 
free air ; perhaps, also, they are fond of company and enjoy the* 
pleasure of hunting the males of other species that come up to* 
bask in numbers during the hottest hours of the day. The larvae 
are active and eat voraciously. The pupa is formed on the under- 
side of a leaf, sometimes from the perpendicular face of a rock or 
from a branch of a tree ; and alwa} T s hangs loosely, though it is- 
quite strongly attached to a copious pad of silk. By colour, shape* 
and general appearance it is "protected" and is not easily dis- 
covered. In the months when the food-plant is plentiful (generally 
from October to Januaiy) the development from egg to imago is very 
rapid, in the really dry weather the time is more prolonged. The- 
food-plants of the larva are all urticaceous, that is belonging to> 
the same family as the figs and jack-fruit ; only they are herbaceous- 
and not trees. Two of the plants it has been found on are Fleurya 
interru'ptoj, Gaud, and Elatostemma cuneatum, Wight. It is said that 
the larva feeds also on the food-plant of the next species, viz.,. 
Portulaca oleracea, Linn., but this requires confirmation. This 
species is distributed throughout Indian limits and extends to the- 
Malayan subregion and China. 

Dr F. Moore gives the genus Hypolimnas, Hiibner, as a synonym i 
of Apatura, Fabricius. The type of Apatura is Apatura iris, the- 
purple Emperor of Europe and the larvae of it and Hypolimnas- 
, bolina and misippus have nothing to do with each other, being very 
dissimilar. As remarked before, the larvae of Apatura camiba,. 
Euripus consimilis and Apatura iris are very similar, those of" 
Gharaxes and Eulepis are rather like them ; they are all naked, 
except the heads which are armed; those of Hypolimnas have 
armed bodies like in the vanessine group. 



290 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

61. Hypolimnas misippus, Linn. (PL B., figs. 8 c?,8a $).— Male upperside 
rich velvety dark brownish black. Forewing : a broad, oval, oblique white 
spot from below vein 3 to vein 7 and a preapical smaller similar white spot ; 
both spots crossed by black veins and surrounded by irridescent blue. 
Hindwing with a much larger, similarly rounded, white spot surrounded by 
irridescent blue, but the veins crossing it yellowish, not so prominent as on 
the forewing ; two or three minute specks of white at the tornus. Cilia of 
both fore and hindwings white alternated with black. Underside forewing : 
bases of interspaces 1 and 2 and cell rich light castaneous, discal area 
fuscous brown ; apical half golden brown ; basal half of costal margin flecked 
with white ; cell anteriorly black with three white spots ; a narrow, transverse, 
very short, white mark beyond apex of cell ; a very broad somewhat oval 
discal white patch from costa to middle of interspace 2 edged with diffuse 
dusky black ; the preapical white spot as on the upperside but not surrounded 
with blue, continued posteriorly as a transverse series of small postdiscal 
white spots ; an outer transverse series of white lunules divided by a sinuous 
black line followed by a terminal black line. Hindwing : basal and postdis- 
cal areas chestnut-red ; a black spot at base of vein 8 defined by white lines ; 
a very broad medio-discal white band from costa to dorsum, crossed at apex 
of interspace 1« by a transverse black mark, beyond the middle of inter- 
space 7 by a broad black bar and, in interspace 7, bordered inwardly by 
black ; a postdiscal series of small white spots in continuation of those on 
the forewing ; an inner subterminal series of paired, sub triangular, small 
white spots, an outer subterminal line of slender white lunules, an interven- 
ing black sinuous line between the two series and a black terminal line. 
Cilia of both wings white alternated with black. Antennae, head, thorax 
and abdomen dark brown ; beneath, the palpi and thorax white, the abdo- 
men black banded white. Female is polymorphic, that is, has several 
different forms. 

First form.— Upperside: rich tawny. Forewing: the costa, the apical 
half of the wing and the termen black, the inner margin of this 
black area follows a line crossing the cell obliquely and curving round to 
near the apex of interspace 1« ; a white spot beyond apex of cell ; an 
oblique band of elongate white spots, a more transverse, short, subapical 
series of three or four much smaller white spots, and an inner and an outer 
subterminal transverse series of very small, slender, white lunules. Hind- 
wing : a transverse round spot in centre of interspace 7, a dusky spot show- 
ing through from underside at end of cell, the terminal margin broadly 
black, the latter traversed by two transverse series of paired, white, small 
lunules. Cilia of both wings alternated white and black. Underside : paler 
tawny yellow, the disc of the forewing deeper tawny ; the markings are 
much as on the upperside but differ as follows : — Forewing : three white 
spots along the anterior margin of cell, the black on the apical area beyond 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 291 

the oblique band of white spots replaced by golden. Hindwing : a black 
spot at base of vein 8, another at base of interspace 5, and a postdiscal 
transverse series of small white spots in addition to the markings as on the 
upperside. 

Second form. — Similar to the above but the disc of the hindwing on both 
upper and under sides white. — alcippoides, Butler. 

Third form. — Similar to the first form, but on the forewing, the oblique 
series of elongate spots yellowish and the middle portion of the black 
apical area tawny. Exp. 70-90 mm. 

Larva. — The caterpillar is extremely like that of the preceding species ; 
body thickest in the middle, tapering to head in the front three segments 
and very little to anal end in segments 13 and 14 ; these last two segments 
have the dorsal line a quarter-circle curve, the anal flap itself being in a 
plane at an angle of 90° to the longitudinal axis of the larva : this flap is 
rather large, triangular in shape, with the apical portion somewhat swollen 
in the centre ; the legs are not large, the prolegs are cylindrical and stout. 
The head is nearly square, somewhat convex laterally, conspicuously 
bilobed with a cylindrical, not very stout, tuberculate horn or process on 
the vertex of each lobe, these horns being very slightly curved and directed 
somewhat forwards out of the plane of the face ; the face is nearly flat ; the 
clypeus fairly large and triangular ; the surface distantly lowly-tuber- 
culate, each tubercle bearing a short hair ; some longer hairs at base 
and sides of face ; the colour of head is orange with a broad black 
line on each side of clypeus, not reaching its vertex nor its base and a 
shorter and narrower one above, nearer the vertex of head ; the horns and 
eyes are black, the jaws and ligula dark coloured, the labrum and second 
antennal joint dirty watery white. The surface of the body is dull and 
somewhat velvety with the usual spinous processes : one subdorsal, one 
dorsolateral, one supra and one subspiracular and two or three more small 
ones below that again — as in Hypolimnas bolina ; all processes are dirty 
glassy white as well as the spines at their bases ; the spines further up are 
black ; the surface is covered also distantly with minute white tubercles 
arranged more or less in transverse rows across the segments. Spiracles 
deep black with narrow, raised, shiny, black borders and are oval, flush, 
rather large. The colour of body is chiefly black, velvety in a dorsal, rather 
narrow band and in the lateral centre of each segment, smoky with a green- 
ish tinge elsewhere ; many minute, orange circles surrounding the minute 
tubercles ; the spiracles also surrounded with orange and the subspiracular 
region blotched orange ; belly smoky black ; pseudo-legs and true legs shiny 
orange. L: 48 mm; B: 7 mm; L. of body spinous processes: 2*5 mm; of 
horns : 3 mm. 

Pupa. — The chrysalis of this species is very similar indeed to that of the 
last ; there is so little difference in shape, colour or anything else that it 



292 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

needs no separate description. In size the variation is less, as might be 
expected from the small difference in the measurements of the imagines of 
the present species as compared to those of the preceding. 

Habits. — The ways of the larva are much the same as for the last 
species except that, the food being somewhat more limited, it is 
not so commonly met with ; it is not so plentiful in the regions of 
heavy rainfall and forest as H. bolina. The butterfly has also much 
the same habits as that species though the female is very much 
more rarely seen than the male, which is not the case with 
H. bolina. The male sits on the undersides of leaves within two 
to six feet of the ground when resting during the day-time and at 
night when the wings are closed over its back, the forewings 
sunk between the hindwings ; it is not quite so pugnacious as the 
preceding species and is only very occasionally seen in houses — 
probably because the individuals are not numerous enough. The 
insects are not often seen at flowers. The flight is strong,' though 
never long sustained, of the ordinary " skipping " type, though less 
pronouncedly so than, for example, that of Charaxes ; the pace is 
sometimes very fast, at other times fairly slow and it never carries 
the insect to any great height above the ground. The males are 
fond of basking on low bushes and even on the ground in the sun. 
The food-plant is Portulaca oleracea, Linn., (Portulacacece), a spread- 
ing weed with succulent branches, thick fleshy leaves, and yellow 
flowers, lying more or less flat on the ground, belonging to the 
botanical family containing the spinach and is itself often used as 
a vegetable in. India. The plant is commoner in the open, drier 
parts of the country -than in the forest-clad hills where there is 
plenty of rain. Like the plant, the insect is naturally more plenti- 
ful in regions of moderate rainfall than where the monsoon is heavy. 
It is, however, found throughout Indian limits, Ceylon, Burma and 
extends to the Malayan subregion and China. 

62. Kallima horsfieldi, Kollar. (PI. D, fig. 21). — Dry-season form. — Male 
and female upperside indigo-blue ; in some specimens with a decided green 
tint. Forewing with a broad, oblique, slightly curved, sinuous-edged, pale 
blue band turning to white on the anterior half ; the distance measured on 
the costa of the outer edge of this band from the base of the wing greater 
than half the length of wing ; its inner margin bordered by short, obliquely 
placed, detached, linear, black markings ; apical area beyond the band jet- 
black with a preapical white spot ; medial hyaline spots, the lower variable 



1 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 293 

in size, in interspaces 2 and 3. Hindwing uniform, the costa and apex 
broadly and the abdominal fold, brown ; vein 1 with long, soft, greyish-brown 
hairs along its length, extending also over the abdominal fold. Fore and 
hindwings with a dark-brown, subterminal, zigzag line commencing below 
vein 3 on the forewing. Underside resembling a dry leaf; ground-colour 
variable but usually some shade of brown (rusty, greyish and ochreous 
brown being the most common), always with scattered dark dots or little 
patches having the appearance of fungous-like or lichenous growths so 
common on dead leaves in the tropics. When the insect closes its wings 
over its back the likeness to a dead leaf is most striking and is heightened 
by a straight, narrow, transverse, dark band running from the apex of the 
forewing to the tornus of the hindwing, often with oblique narrower, similar 
bands or lines given off from it, all simulating the mid-rib and lateral veins 
of a leaf; the hindwing in all specimens has a more or less obsolescent or 
faint series of postdiscal ocelli, traces of which are also apparent on the 
forewing. Antennae dark-brown ; head, thorax and abdomen very dark 
greenish-brown ; beneath, the palpi, thorax and abdomen ochraceous earthy- 
brown. 

Wet-season form.— Male and female similar. Differs in colour of the dis- 
cal band on the upperside of the forewing ; this is of a uniform pale blue of 
a slightly lighter or darker shade, varying individually, but not turning to 
white towards the costal margin as in the dry-season specimens. Under- 
side: ground-colour on the whole darker than in the dry-season form but 
with the same protective colourin°\ 

The apex of the forewing and the tornal angle of hindwing are more 
produced in the female than in the male and much more produced in the 
dry-season form than in the wet-season form ; the hyaline spots on the disc 
of the forewing may be large, small or entirely wanting in both sexes of 
both forms. 

Egg.— Is lengthened dome-shaped, the top hemispherical, the transverse 

ection of the rest circular, smallest at the base, the breadth slightly 

greatest at origin of hemisphere ; twelve thin, distinct, raised meridional 

ndges from base, losing themselves towards apex of egg ; surface smooth ; 

colour exceptionally dark-green. B : 0-9 mm. ; H : 12 mm. 

Larva.-The larva is of the type of Hypolimnas. Head shiny black 

"mounted by two divergent horns pointing up and out at an angle of 135° 

with the plane of the face; their surface rugose with small hair-bearing 

mostly thinly conical, but some cylindrical and longer tubercles, all black 

id shiny; surface of head with some long, cylindrical tubercles on cheeks 
and a few hairs elsewhere ; clypeus rather large, triangular ; the whole head 
snmy black, labrum only whitish. Spiracles small, oval, black. Body 
surface .covered with fine hairs ; the spines are all longly conical, rather 
finer than those of Hypolimnas, all flesh-red, ending in a fine black bristle, 



294 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

rising from a swollen short-conical black base. Segment 2 has, on each 
side of dorsal line, four black, hair-bearing, cylindrical tubercles in a line 
one below the other, two blunt red spines one below the other in front of 
spiracle and two more below them in a line on base of leg ; 3rd segment : 
ane subdorsal bristle-bearing tubercle, one supraspiracular and three sub- 
spiracular in a triangle ; segment 4 is like segment 3 ; segment 5 has one 
subdorsal, one dorsolateral, one supraspiracular, one subspiracular, all alike 
and two where the base of leg would be, one below the other ; segment 

6 has the same, but three on base of leg in a triangle ; segment 7 the same, 
only two in a line under the subspiracular one ; segments 8-10 like segment 

7 ; segment 11 like segment 5 ; segment 12 has two dorsal, one near front 
margin, one near hinder margin, one dorsolateral, one antespiracular, one 
subspiracular and no more ; segments 13 and 14 have one only supraspira- 
cular ; the latter segment is semicircular in outline, the end dull black in a 
dorsal triangular space. Colour is a fine rich reddish brown with a greenish 
tinge ; prolegs with their outer faces shiny black ; true legs shiny black. 
All spines the same length with a few fine black bristles set at an angle of 
45°. L : 43 mm. ; B : 7 mm. ; L of horn : 4 mm. ; of spines : 2 '5 mm. 

Pupa. — The pupa is of the type of that of Hypolimnas bolina. The 
head is produced into two short, conical, stout points, separated narrowly 
by a curved sinus ; the points are directed straight forwards, one in front 
of each eye. Thorax strongly and highly carinated in the dorsal line with 
a strong tooth at shoulder and another immediately behind it on the line 
of wing, i.e., the shoulder is double-toothed. Abdomen as stout in the 
centre of pupa (segments 7 and 8) as pupa at shoulders and as high as at 
apex of thorax, curved rather much at extremity so that the cremaster is 
nearly at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the pupa ; this cremaster 
exceptionally large, slightly hollowed out above and below, consisting of a 
square basal piece followed by a smaller square piece, the attachment 
surface being at the extreme edge-centre. Spiracles of ordinary size, 
yellowish in colour with black central slit, longly oval in shape. Surface of 
pupa somewhat rugose ; on abdomen are rows of conical bosses or tubercles: 
one dorsal, one subdorsal, lateral and spiracular ; the dorsal tubercles large 
on segments 8 and 9 ; the subdorsal ones of segments 7-11 still larger and 
recurved, those on segments 8 and 9 being largest of all ; the tubercles on 
other segments and in other rows are mere little knobs. Wings expanded 
as in H. bolina and the line of expansion is slightly curved. The colour is 
black-brown and yellow-pink ; thorax, segment 8 and the regions of 
segments 11 and 12 being lightest in colour. L : 25 mm. ; B : 9 mm. 

Habits. — The egg is laid, generally single, on the underside of a 
leaf low down near the ground ; the young larva emerges about 
three days after the egg is laid. It is a shiny light brownish- 
green at first with a shiny black head with a stiff, simple, curved 



■ 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 295 

shiny black bristle on the vertex of each lobe ; all the body-spines 
or processes are also simple, shiny black, curved bristles. It is 
5 mm. in length by 1*5 mm. in breadth at the end of the stage. 
An egg laid on the 11th of August produced a larva on the 15th. 
This entered on the 2nd stage on the 19th and was then already 
like it was to be in the later stages, that is, the head was shiny 
black with a tubercled horn on vertex of each lobe and the body 
processes were tubercled and black, each ending in a black hair ; 
the dorsal spines or processes of segments 5 to 12, which are not 
represented at all in the first stage, were now fully developed ; the 
colour of the body was light greenish yellow-brown and shiny all 
over ; the size at the end was 8 mm. by 1*5 mm. ; that was on the 
25th. It was in the 3rd stage on the 29th — had entered on it some 
time before — and the head was black covered with some longish 
spine-like black hairs and some light ones about jaws ; basal antennal 
joint and labrum watery whitish. Colour of body red-chocolate, 
slightly ochreous at anal end with subdorsal spines or processes of 
segments 2-12 bright ochreous and the supraspiracular ones slightly 
ochreous on segment 3-9 ; all the rest shiny black. Spiracles 
oval, flush, black in colour. Surface of body shiny, rather greasy 
looking. L: 17 mm.; B: 3mm. without processes. The larva 
generally sat on the underside of a leaf ; latterly, as often as not, 
on the stem of the plant, generally slightly contracted and straight. 
It is sluggish in its movements and feeds generally in the mornings 
and evenings. It is fond of the shade and does not like the sun. 
The pupation takes place on the underside of a leaf or from a twig 
or against the stem of the plant and generally low down near the 
ground. The pupa is firmly attached though it hangs loosely. 
The butterfly is not likely to be found away from the hills and 
forest, neither will it be met with where the rainfall is scanty ; 
indeed it is an insect of the dampest parts of India. The flight 
is very like that of Hypolimnas holina : fast, somewhat devious 
and of short duration, of the usual up-and-down type where the 
wings are brought together over the back between the strokes ; 
though it is sometimes varied by a short " sail " with the wings 
kept outstretched. Kallima keeps to the thick jungles, rarely visits 
hill-tops or open spaces, but is fond of clear nalla-beds in evergreen 



296 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

forests where it may be met with sitting on a leaf or underside of a 
branch, or on a tree-stem ; occasionally taking a short flight after 
an intruding individual of its own species, that has a beat further 
along, to return to its post. It generally rests low down near the 
ground and very rarely rises far into the air ; when disturbed sud- 
denly from the underside of a leaf or from a plant-stem it will fly 
up some short distance and then drop down into a thicket where it 
speedily disappears from sight among the leaves and twigs. Its 
habit of sitting with its wings closed over its back when at rest, 
added to the colouring and pattern of the underside and their shape 
make this an easy matter. The resemblance of the insect when at 
rest on a stem or twig to a dead leaf, always with head pointing 
downwards as is its habit, has been alluded to more than once already 
in these papers. It is, as has also been before stated, one of the 
Leaf-Butterflies of India and the name is known to nearly every- 
body, if not the insects themselves. The species mentioned here is 
depicted on coloured plate D, figure 21. The picture is very fairly 
good, though the colour is somewhat too reddish and the left-hand 
wing is not green enough. Place your hand over the left wing and 
the resemblance of the sitting insect to a dead leaf will be at once 
apparent ; though the particular type of underside chosen for 
representation is one of the least " dead " of the many types. It 
is taken from a wet-season male and these are always the most 
boldly marked and therefore the least " deceptive." Kallima hors- 
fieldi hardly ever rests on the ground, except when drinking toddy 
under a palm that is being tapped, and is never seen at flowers ; it 
is fond of oozing tree juices and the gums exuding from ripe fruits. 
A whisky and soda in the jungles will often attract more than 
one. A sponge saturated with toddy is a very good bait, but 
it must be placed in spots frequented by them. They are 
difficult to catch with a net because of the sort of places they 
live in ; it is generally impossible to get a sweep with a decent- 
sized net, and they are extremely difficult to capture in a small one 
because of their cpiickness and " deviousness " of flight. So the 
best dodge to secure specimens is a toddy-sponge on the edge of a 
cleared space in an evergreen or nalla-bed and a smallish net. It 
is quite a pleasant occupation on a hot day. 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 297 

Kallima inachus, Boisduval, is the Leaf-Butterfly with the 
broad orange band across the disc of the forewing one sees so 
often in collections ; it conies from the lower elevations in the 
Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim and is found in Orissa, the 
Eastern Ghats, Pachmarhi, Assam, Burma and Tenasserim. Kal- 
lima liorsjieldi is found in Western and Southern India from 
Bombay southwards, Ceylon, Burma and Tenasserim". There are 
two other species within British-Indian limits, more in the Indo- 
Malayan Kegion. 

The foodplants of the larva of Kallima horsjieldi are of the 
botanical family Acanthacece ; it has been found on several species 
of the genus Strobilanthes, the commonest being S. callosus, Nees, 
which covers the jungles on the Western Ghats as an undershrub 
in many places for miles and miles. It is a plant growing to 20' 
in height with a stem that may reach 2" in diameter but is 
generally less, rough, longly elliptical leaves which are pointed 
at one end and pink or bluish flowers with extremely sticky 
bracts that appear every seven years, after which the whole plant 
dies down. The flowers smell rather strongly but the scent is 
not disagreeable, and all the jungle animals are perfumed with 
it at such times from passing through the thickets. The plant 
being so plentiful, it is not to be wondered at that the larvae are 
not easy to find ; indeed, although the butterfly is very fairly 
common, it is rare to meet with more than one or two caterpillars 
during a whole year's wandering in the jungles where it exists. 

The specimen figured in the Plate is a male of the wet-season 
form. The figure is fairly good though not bright enough ; there 
is, as usual in these three-colour reproductions, too much red in it. 

63. Cethosia cyane, Drury. — Male upperside tawny, in fresh specimens a 
rich reddish tawny. Forewing : anterior and apical two-thirds black, the 
margin of this colour waved and irregular, following a line dividing the 
cell longitudinally and circling round to near the posterior angle ; a short, 
broad, oblique, white bar beyond apex of cell, the veins crossing it and a 
spot in interspaces 3 and 4 black ; a transverse, indistinct row of small 
spots and a terminal series of <-shaped lunules white. Hindwing : three or 
four spots just beyond apex of cell, a subterminal row of spots and the 
termen broadly black, the last with a series of white lunules as on the fore- 
wing. Underside variegated with red, white, pale blue, ochraceous and 
black ; the terminal margins of both wings broadly black with white 



298 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY 80CLETY, Vol. XX. 

lunules as on the uppersicle ; in the middle of each lunule a short white 
streak from the margin ; cilia alternately black and white. Forewing : the 
cell with transverse bands of red, blue and black ; the base and disc below 
the cell red, spotted with black followed by pale blue, ochraceous and black; 
the white oblique band as on the uppersicle, beyond it a transverse incom- 
plete row of lanceolate, white marks, with three black spots in each, followed 
by a terminal, ochraceous band paling inwardly. Hindwing : the base and 
cell pale blue and red, crossed by several broken, incomplete, black lines, 
then alternate bands of white and ochraceous, two of each ; the outer 
white band narrow and marked in each interspace with three black spots 
arranged as a triangle. Antennse, head, thorax dusky brown ; abdomen 
above tawny, beneath white. 

Female similar to the male in markings but the tawny ground-colour 
replaced by pale greenish-white, somewhat brownish on the uppersicle of 
forewing, the extent of black on this wing lai-ger. Underside with all the 
markings paler than in the male, the red at the base of the wing replaced 
by brownish yellow on the fore, white on the hindwing. Antennte, head and 
thorax dusky brown ; abdomen dusky above, white beneath. Exp. 
90-100 mm. 

Moore gives the larva as " Cylindrical, purplish-black, segments with 
alternate yellow and crimson bands ; head armed with two long spines, 
segments with dorsal and lateral rows of fine spines. Feeds on Passiflora, 
July." 

The insect is found in the Himalayas, Mussooree to Sikhim, rare towards 
the west, Bengal, Orissa, Assam, Cachar, Arrakan, throughout Burma and 
Tenasserim. 

64. Cethosia mahratta, Moore. (PI. D, fig. 20). — Male upperside tawny 
yellow ; often with a rosy tinge on the basal half of forewing. Forewing : cell 
anteriorly along its length and the outer half of the wing, following an 
irregular line from apex of cell to tornus, black, the black in cell formed of 
coalescent transverse bars ; a broad, discal, oblique white fascia traversed 
by the black veins, followed by a postdiscal series of black-centred, out- 
ward-turned, slender, white lunules, a transverse series of white spots and 
another subterminal series of similar white lunules ; interspaces 1 and 2 
with three or four black spots. Hindwing with broad black costal and 
terminal margins ; interspaces 1 and la with the markings of the under- 
side showing through ; cell with some dull black transverse bars ; inter- 
spaces 1-5 with broad, median, short streaks from bases followed by a large 
spot margined with white, all black ; followed by a postdiscal series of 
black lunules with their points turned inwards, then a subterminal tawny- 
yellow band and a row of slender white, outward-turned lunules beyond. 
Underside variegated with ochraceous red, bluish white, yellow and black: 
the terminal margins of both fore and hindwing broadly black with white 
unules, as on the uppersicle and median white short lines from the margin 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 299 

in each lunule ; cilia alternately black and white. Forewing : basal area 
ochraceous red, cell with transverse short bands of black and bluish white ; 
below the cell : the ochraceous red at base, followed by whitish and then 
yellow, the disc spotted with black ; the oblique white band as on the 
upperside, succeeded by a transverse postdiscal series of large black spots 
ringed narrowly with white with a row of paired black dots beyond and a 
subterminal, broad, yellow band, its inner margin sinuous. Hindwing : 
the basal area bluish crossed by broken transverse, broad, black lines and 
followed by a red, a bluish white, a yellow, a purer white and lastly a sub- 
terminal yellow band with rows of black spots between ; on the white band 
a median series of large black spots. Antennae black, head and thorax 
brownish-black, abdomen ochraceous ; the thorax beneath ochraceous 
banded with black. Female similar, but the tawny yellow on the upper- 
side paler, the markings larger and somewhat diffuse. Exp. 72-100 mm. 

Egg. — The egg is cylindrical, round-topped, with a central, flat-bottomed 
cell surrounded by 7-9 little fossets from each one of which 2 moderately 
coarse " meridians " or ribs run to the base ; each two ribs are connected 
by 7-10 parallel, transverse, finer ribs at right angles to them from top to 
base of the egg. The colour is shiny yellow ; the height considerably more 
than the diameter. 

Larva (PI. I, fig. 9). — The larva is cylindrical, the head is horned, the 
body spined ; the colour black, banded broadly red and yellow. The head 
is square seen from in front, depressed in the centre of vertex with a de- 
pressed line down centre of face ; the vertex of each lobe surmounted by a 
long, fine, cylindrical, very finely spined horn, the two diverging and half 
as long again as the head is high ; the colour of head is black, shiny all 
ovex*, the surface covered sparsely with fine, erect, black hairs. Segment 2 
smaller than head. Body quite cylindrical, the anal segment with dorsal 
slope, nearly perpendicular to longitudinal axis of body. Spiracles oval, 
with raised edges, conspicuous and black. Surface of body velvety, the 
connecting membrane between segments shiny ; each segment with a sub- 
dorsal, long, pointed, very finely-tubercled spine ; those of the 14th seg- 
ment reduced to mere tubercles ; an intersegmental similar, lateral spine 
between segments 2 and 4 and between segments 3 and 4 ; segments 5-13 
with a similar central lateral spine, though somewhat shorter ; segments 5-13 
with a subspiracular similar, still shorter spine ; the subdorsal spines are 
nearly as long as the head-horns, except those of segment 2 which are slightly 
shorter. The colour of body is very dark black-red with broad, central bands 
across the body, transverse to the length, bright red on segments 3-5, 7, 9-13, 
yellow on segments 6 and 8 ; the horns are shiny black as well as the spines. 
L : 42 mm. ; B : 6 mm. 

Pupa (PI. 1, fig. 9a). — The pupa is of the shape of Hypolimnas or Kallima, 
but is abnormal in having some of the abdominal tubercles developed into 
flattened expansions ; the colour is also somewhat similar though more 
6 



300 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

variegated. Head quardrate, square in front with a flattened, spirally 
twisted process proceeding from the front of each eye, diverging one from 
the other at first, then converging towards the tips ; they are not very long 
and are widely separated at their bases, they are toothed on the outer 
edge and have some small tubercles on the somewhat thickened extremities. 
Segment 2 is oval in shape (the dorsal visible portion, that is,) is convex 
transversely and is nearly 2/3 as broad as long. The sides of head and 
segment 2 are parallel, the shoulders have each a small, flattened, short, 
double-toothed process. The wings are suddenly expanded behind the 
shoulders into a short flat process which as suddenly ceases about segment 
4 : this expansion is also double-toothed at extremity. The thorax "hump" 
is hemisphere-shaped and is highly carinated in dorsal line from the front 
margin to apex. The constriction behind the thorax is wide and slight 
dorsally and laterally. Abdomen is circular in transverse section, decreas- 
ing in diameter from the stoutish segment 7 to the thick, broad, hexagonal, 
not very long cremaster which is hollowed out above and below. The wings 
are slightly curved in their ventral line of junction with each other ; the 
ventral line of abdomen is nearly straight. The whole aspect of the pupa 
is slight for its length. On segments 2-12 is a subdorsal, longish, pointed 
tubercle, those on segments 6-9 and segments 11 and 12 have a thin, flat 
wing to each side of them, the plane of this wing being parallel to the dorso- 
ventral plane of pupa, the wings of the tubercles of segment 7 being excep- 
tionaly large, those of segment 8 half the size, those of the other small. 
Segments 6-11 have a lateral pointed tubercle, segments 8-11 a subspira- 
cular one also. There are paired ventral tubercles on the ventrum as also 
one at base of proboscis. Spiracles longly oval, dark in colour, of ordinary 
size. Surface of body finely rugose, transversely aciculate. Colour of pupa 
is brown marbled with white and grey and black, with a subdorsal gold 
patch on segments 2, 4, 5. L : 29 mm. ; B at broadest part which is at the 
expansion of wings : 9*5 mm. ; H at segment 7 : 9'5 mm. ; L of head 
process : 2 mm. 

The figure is that of the male and is good although, as usual, not bright 
enough. 

Habits. — The eggs are laid in groups of 15 to 20 and more on 
the undersides of leaves, generally of fairly fresh leaves. The little 
larvae emerging, live gregariously there and continue the same 
mode of life up to the end, feeding in rows along the edge of a leaf. 
These larvae are very active, eat voraciously and, consequently, 
grow fast ; they are not very subject to insect parasitism ; perhaps 
the vivid colouring makes them look rather dangerous. The 
pupation takes place, in rows very often, along and from a twig or 
stem, not necessarily of the food-plant. The pupa hangs loosely but 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 301 

is very firmly fixed to a pad of black silk. It wriggles when touch- 
ed. The larvas drop to the ground when alarmed, especially when 
they are young. The imago or butterfly is, like the larva, protected 
from enemies by its taste ; it is, consequently, somewhat difficult to 
kill by the ordinary thorax-pressure. Its flight is, as a very general 
rule, slow and, what is called, weak, somewhat like that of a danaine 
butterfly ; it keeps near the ground amongst low jungle, always goes 
straight ahead, though by no means in a straight line and does not 
affect " beats " like Danais and Euploea often do. It does not bask, 
and stays a long time on the wing, resting near the ground in wet 
weather and at nights with wings closed over the back. It visits 
flowers. Its distribution is throughout Southern India in jungly 
places. The larva feeds upon Modecca palmata, Lamk., the wild 
Passion-flower of the family Passiflorece, with grey-green, somewhat 
fleshy, lobed leaves and long, trailing tendrils, a globular, orange 
coloured fruit, about one inch in diameter, and a woody rootstock. 
The leaves and young parts are cooked and eaten as a vegetable by 
the coast people in Kanara. The caterpillar will eat the leaves of 
the cultivated passion-flower also. 

There are six species of Cetliosia found in Indian limits ; others 
frequent the Indo and Austro-Malaj^an Regions. 

65. Atella phalantha, Druvy (PI. C, fig. 10). — Male and female upperside 
bright ochraceous yellow, spotted and marked with black. Forewing : cell 
crossed by three short, sinuous lines and one along the discocellulars, a 
series of spots beyond, bent inwards below interspace 4 and continued 
immediately below the median vein, followed by two transverse series of 
discal spots, a postdiscal series of continuous lunules, a subterminal slender 
line, and a terminal series of spots at the apices of the veins. Hindwing : 
basal half with three or four transverse rows of obscure spots, better defined 
anteriorly, a discal series of four spots, a postdiscal series of slender 
lunules, a subterminal sinuous line, and a row of terminal spots as on the 
forewing. Underside paler ochraceous, the markings much as on the upper- 
side but fainter and paling to reddish-brown ; the terminal spots of the two 
discal rows on the forewing large, conspicuous and black. Forewing stain- 
ed with pale purple between the transverse lines across the cell and beyond 
its apex, also broadly along the terminal margin in the middle of the wing. 
Hindwing : the outer half more or less suffused with pale purple. Antennse, 
head, thorax and abdomen dark ochraceous ; thorax and abdomen beneath 
whitish. Exp. 50-63 mm. 



302 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Larva. — The larva is spined like that of the last species but has the head 
without horns and quite smooth ; the colour is oily brownish-purple with 
black spines. Head dark brown-yellow, with a still darker brown clypeus, 
centred at base by a white triangle ; a large oblique black spot at base of 
each lobe over eyes reaching half way up face in some specimens ; the shape 
is that of a heart, the broadest side being the vertex. The body is cylindri- 
cal, slightly constricted at segment margins ; anal end perpendicular to 
longitudinal axis of larva, rather high ; the head is somewhat broader than 
segment 2, nearly as broad as the body is in middle at segment 7, which 
is the broadest part of the larva. Spiracles black, bordered narrowly with 
white, oval. Surface oily-shiny, with the following spines, themselves set 
with fine setse : segment 2 with one subdorsal, a lateral one on segment 
margin 2/3 ; segment 3 with one subdorsal and one on segment margin 3/4 ; 
segment 4 one subdorsal ; segments 5 to 12 have each a subdorsal, lateral 
(might be called supraspiracular) and subspriracular; the 13th has a subdorsal 
spine and segment 14 a lateral one on margin towards middle of segment. 
All the spines are of nearly equal length, not as long as the body is broad 
in the middle. The colour of the body is purple-brown, oily looking, with 
a subspiracular waved white line ; belly reddish-brown, spines and their 
setae shiny black rising from black tubercles, except the subspiracular 
ones which are whitish and rise from yellow-brown tubercles. L : 30 mm. 
B : 5 mm. 

Pupa. — The pupa is of more or less ordinary shape, bright green, marked 
with black, rose-crimson and mother-of-pearl. The head is square with 
two minutely black-tipped, conical tubercles, one on each eye, directed 
straight forwards ; the eyes bordered with red in front. Segment 2 is 
flattish on top ; thorax is rather square seen from above, convex ; shoulders 
angled ; constriction at segment 5 dorsally little, laterally wide and shal- 
low. Wings expanded latterally slightly from just behind shoulders to 
segment 6. Abdomen stout, curving at end, so that the last segments 
have their axis nearly at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the pupa. 
Cremaster compressed laterally, the extremity being longer than broad, 
and set with suspensory hooklets, so that the pupa hangs horizontal to the 
surface to which it is fixed. Spiracles of ordinary size, oval, slightly raised. 
Surface shiny, smooth except for a pair of small, conical, sharp tubercles 
to each segment, subdorsal, one on each side ; they are hardly visible on 
segments 4, 13, 14 ; small on segments 6, 8, 10, 12 ; larger on segments 
7, 9, 11 ; those on segment 2 are also small ; on thorax there is an addi- 
tional lateral one. The colour is a bright, clear, grass-green ; all the 
tubercles are mother-of-pearl, tipped with black and rose-crimson ; the 
wings have one long mark along the inner margin, mother-of-pearl bordered 
with rose-crimson, reaching from shoulder to near the tornal angle, and 
another, similar, reaching from just behind shoulder to half way towards 






COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 303 

costal margin on the disc. When the pupa is formed away from a sur- 
rounding of green leaves, say in a breeding-cage, then the colour may be 
trey with black patches and marks but no red or mother-of-pearl. 
L : 17 mm. ; B : 6 mm. 

Habits. — The egg is laid upon young shoots ; the trees are gene- 
rally all and wholly a mass of young shoots during the great laying- 
time in March-April. The larva lives on the underside of a leaf, 
is extremely active, running about at a great pace and falls by a silk 
when touched or alarmed at very slight provocation. It turns green 
before pupating but is otherwise always of the colour given in the 
description above. It is very common in most parts of India all 
through the year except in the seasons of heavy rain. In Kanara, 
for example, it is hardly to be found at all in the months of June 
to October and there is little doubt that this off-time is passed in 
the egg state. The growth of the caterpillar is extremely rapid, 
the time from the laying of the egg to the newly-born butterfly 
occupying but the short space of twenty-one days ! Truly a most 
marvellous performance when the number of changes the insect 
goes through is considered ; the egg-stage, five moults during the 
larval life, then the pupal state. The butterflies emerging in the 
cold weather are lighter in colour above and have much more 
purple suffusion beneath than the ones that see the light in April 
and May when the shoots are possibly more succulent than the earlier 
ones ; indeed the latter insects may have hardly any purple at all and 
have, in that case, the black spots much more clearly defined on the 
underside. The flight is powerful and quick, like most of the 
Argynnis tribe, for to that type the present insect belongs. It is not 
long sustained, however. The insect is fond of flowers and basks in 
the sun on leaves of trees and bushes, generally not far from the 
ground, sometimes, though sufficiently seldom, on the earth itself; 
it is an insect of open, sunny places and shuns the shade, being 
more numerously represented, therefore, on the borders of the 
heavier jungle tracts and out in the open plain country than in 
the jungles and hills of India. It rests with its wings closed very 
generally and always on the top of leaves ; but often, when 
sporting in the sun-light, it settles with the wings half open, 
working them towards and away from each other while sitting. 
The flight consists of an exceptionally quick motion of the wings 



304 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

towards and away from each other with very little " skip " up and 
down, though there may be much deviation to either side from the 
straight course. The butterflies are rather pugnacious amongst 
themselves, pursuing each other on the wing with great vigour and 
determination. The food-plants are, as far as is known, all belong- 
ing to the same genus, Flacourtia (Bixinece) ; the two species the 
caterpillar has been found on are F. ramontchi, L'Herit. and F. mon- 
tana, Grah., both common in the Western Ghats, the former spread 
throughout Continental India. The insect is found also nearly 
throughout Continental India, in Ceylon, Assam, Burma and 
Tenasserim, extending to China, Japan and the Malayan Sub- 
region. The Assamese species of the food-plant, Flacourtia 
catajjhracta, Roxb., extends to China and the Malay Islands and 
probably Japan. 

There is another species of Atella, occurring very locally in the 
District of North Kanara, which has been obtained lately in 
Travancore and is known from Ceylon ; it exists also in Sikhim, 
Assam, Cachar, Arrakan, Burma, and extends into the Malayan 
Sub-region. No specimen has ever been got from any part of 
India between Assam and Kanara, nor from anywhere on the East 
Coast. The larva is very like that of A. flialantlia ; so is the pupa. 
The food-plant is Alsodeia zeylanica, Thwaites, belonging to the 
Violacece, a family of plants nearly allied to Bixinece and containing 
most of the food-plants of the Fritillaries (genus Argynnis) at home 
in Europe, which are not far removed from our genus Atella. 
Alsodeia zeylanica is known to exist in Malabar and Cochin and 
Ceylon but was unknown in Kanara until the caterpillars of the 
butterfly were discovered ; and the plant is as locally distributed 
there as the insect. The name of this interesting species is Atella 
alcippe, Cramer. 

66. Cupha erymanthis, Drunj. (placida, Moore),, (fig. 10)— Male and female 
upperside ochraceous light brown. Forewing : some loop-like, slender 
dark, cellular markings ; a broad, somewhat curved, yellow discal band 
from the costa to vein 1, not reaching the termen, broadening posteriorly, 
the margins irregularly sinuous, the inner defined broadly with black and 
produced outwards in interspaces 3 and 4, squarely indented in interspace 
2 inwards and outwardly convex in interspace 1 ; a curved series of three 
black spots, the lowest the largest, in interspaces 1-3 ; apical area beyond 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 305 

the band black with a conspicuous yellow subapical spot in interspace 
5 and a paler ill-defined, similar spot above it in interspace 6 ; posteriorly 
the black area is produced narrowly to the tornus and encircles a yellow 
spot near apex of interspace 2. Hindwing: a transverse, sinuous, very 
slender black line followed by a slender, somewhat lunular line, a transverse 
discal series of five black spots in interspaces 2 to 6, a postdiscal medially 
disjointed series of broad black lunules, a subterminal series of similar but 
straighter lunules, and a narrow terminal black band. The outer subbasal 
transverse line broadens at the costa and is outwardly margined by pale 
spots in the interspaces, these are anteriorly white, well defined, posterior- 
ly obscure and often absent. Underside much paler, the discal band on the 
forewing also much paler ; the black on the apical area replaced by pale 
brownish-ochreous ; some obscure marking in cell of both fore and hind- 
wings. Forewing : a discal, transverse, slender, chestnut-brown, lunular 
line, bent inwards above vein 5 and bordered outwardly by a series of dark 
spots ; the large black spot in interspace 1 as on the upperside and the 
inner and outer transverse subterminal series of small, dentate spots. 
Hindwing : some indistinct cellular markings ; the outer subbasal, dark, 
transverse line as on the upperside but more clearly defined, very sinuous ; 
a transverse discal series of uneven lunules, paler than the ground-colour, 
followed by a series of dark spots, a postdiscal, very obscure, pale lunular 
band and a subterminal series of dentate, dark spots which are often 
obscure or obsolescent. Antennse, head, thorax and abdomen ochraceous 
brown ; beneath, the palpi, thorax and abdomen very pale ochraceous 
white. Exp. 58-74 mm. 

The above description is that of typical Cupha erymanthis, Drury, of 
which C. placida is merely a race. There seem to be certain constant 
differences however ; as for example, on the upperside, the discal band on 
the forewing in C. placida is distinctly darker yellow and its margins much 
less irregular, the black line defining the inner margin more slender ; the 
spots on the band in interspaces 1, 2, 3 much smaller, especially the first, 
which is no smaller than the rest and diffuse ; the subapical yellow spots 
are entirely wanting or very indistinct. On the hindwing the outer sub- 
basal line with outer border of pale spots generally more clearly defined. 
Both wings shaded at base with olivaceous brown. Underside markings 
more heavily defined than in C. erymanthis. 

C. erymanthis is " from along the foot of the Himalayas and up to 5,000 
feet from Mussooree to Sikkim ; hills of Assam ; Burma ; Tenasserim ; the 
Nicobars ; extending to China and the Malayan Sub-region ; Andamans." 

C. placida, Moore, exists in South India and Ceylon. 

The transformations of typical C. erymanthis have not been observed as 
far as is known. Those of the race placida are as under : — 

Larva. — Like that of Atella phalantha except that the spines are some- 



306 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

what longer and look finer from their colouration which is black and 
translucent whitish in bands ; the head also differs. The shape of the 
head is heart-shaped, broadest across vertex, with a depressed line down 
the centre of face ; is light yellow in colour with a large, shiny, black spot 
near vertex of each lobe and another lower down, smaller ; the head is as 
broad as segment 2. The body is cylindrical, slightly constricted at 
segment-margins ; anal segment perpendicular to longitudinal axis of body, 
rather high. Spiracles black oval, large, flush. The surface of the body is 
covered with minute white tubercles, of which there is a more or less dis- 
tinct subdorsal row ; head, base of legs as well as prolegs with moderately 
long, fine hairs ; the body is besides armed with six longitudinal rows of 
cylindrical, finely setiferous, flat-topped spines, one subdorsal, lateral and 
subspiracular to each segment 5-12 ; segments 2-4 and 13 have each a sub- 
dorsal spine and there is a lateral one on the common segment-margins 2/3 
and 3/4 and one, subspiracular (where the spiracle would be where there 
one), half the way between front margin and extremity of segment 14. 
Each spine proceeds from a black swelling or tubercle and is colourless with 
five or six black rings, the last two rings being at the extremity of the spine ; 
from each ring proceeds a whorl of fine sette ; the basal setee shortest ; the 
top ones black ; the basal ones white as a rule. The colour of larva is an 
oily looking rose brownish, the rose colour being more pronounced at the 
two extremities ; anal segment with yellow flap ; there are some black sub- 
dorsal spots between the spine on segment 13 and that on segment 14 on 
each side ; there is a subspiracular, zigzag white line from segments 4-12 ; 
the belly is bluish-green and the legs yellow. L : 30 mm. ; B : 5 mm. 
Spines all of equal length and very nearly as long as body is broad. 

Pupa. — Similar to that of Atella phalantha except that some of the tuber- 
cles have long curved spines from their tips. Head square ; rather flat dor- 
sally ; eyes each with a short conical, porrect tubercle ; segment 2 with a 
slight ascent towards thorax in dorsal line ; thorax square seen from above, 
convex ; the wings slightly expanded from shoulders to about segment 5 ; 
the constriction dorsally little : laterally wide and shallow. The abdomen 
is circular in transverse section after segment 9, short, thick and curved 
down at the end so that the pupa hangs parallel to the surface it is attach- 
ed to, the suspensory surface of the cremaster (the extremity) being longer 
than broad for that purpose ; the cremaster is at right angles to longitudi- 
nal axis of the pupa. Spiracles are the same colour as the body, oval and of 
ordinary size. The surface of the body is shiny and is set with the follow- 
ing tubercles : a lateral one on segments 2, 7, 9, 11, and a laterodorsal one on 
segments 3-6, 8 and 10 ; the lateral ones (segments 2, 7, 9, 11) being pro- 
longed each into a long, thin, curved, conical spine, the pair on segment 7 the 
longest (6 mm), those of segments 9 and 11 shortest (3 mm), being only half 
the length of the longest. The colour of the pupa is generally a bright, light 
or darker blue-green, the colour varying somewhat in different individuals. 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 307 

When green there are two black spots on segment 2, mother-of-pearl spot 
margined with rose-crimson posteriorly on each eye ; all spines and tuber- 
cles surrounded at base with mother-of-pearl, inside which the cones are 
generally crimson ; the spines are yellow tipped with black, the extreme 
point being white ; the tubercles of segments 4, 5, 8, 10 may be green like 
the body ; on segment 12 are two minute tubercles ; anal segment has a 
circle of six black spots round base of cremaster ; wings are slightly 
striated ; a mother-of-pearl blotch at shoulder with two black spots ; a long- 
mother-of-pearl mark bordered by crimson along each inner wing margin 
from near the shoulder to segment 6 ; another similar one, oval in shape, 
starts a little posteriorly to this and runs along inside costal margin of 
wing but does not reach the ventral line of pupa ; the pair of spines of 
segment 7 as also others may have the mother-of-pearl spots surrounding 
their bases coalescing over dorsum of pupa and there is black subdorsal spot 
in front of the coalescing marks on segment 7. L : 17 mm. ; B : 6 mm. 
H : 6 mm. ; L. of spine of segment 7 : 6 mm. 

Habits. — The egg is laid on young shoots. The larva is very- 
active and lives on the underside of a leaf, falling to the ground 
by a silk when disturbed, or rather towards the ground, for it stays 
suspended in the air ; it is of the same excessively quick growth as 
the larva of Atella phalantha taking only 21 days from the depositing 
of the egg to the appearance of the butterfly. The insect is much 
"more a jungle species than Atella pTialantka and is found mostly in 
regions of heavy rainfall, though it is occsionally met with on the 
borders of the Plains. In flight it is somewhat weaker than the 
species just mentioned, is fond of the shade rather than the sun, 
basks occasionally with the wings half opened and is not parti- 
cularly pugnacious. It keeps near the ground as a rule but is found 
flying about the tops of the trees its larva feeds on in the jungles, 
that is at a height of some 50 feet and more, though trees of this 
size are not of common occurrence. The best place to look for the 
butterfly is always the food-plant of its larva. This is also true of the 
last species. The plants are the same for both : Flacourtia montana 
being that most affected by Gupha while F. TLamontclii is the 
favourite of Atella. Gupha placida is much more plentiful in the 
heavy monsoon regions in the months of September, February and 
March than at any other time, whereas Atella is hardly ever seen 
in September as already remarked. 

67. Argynnis hyperbius, Johanssen (PI. A, figs. 1 $ , la $ ).— Male upperside : 
forewing rich orange-yellow, hindwing paler yellow with the following 



308 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

black markings : forewing : cell with a short, basal, transverse streak, a me- 
dial, broad, oval loop, its outer margin waved ; a broad transverse streak 
beyond cell not reaching the median nervure ; a broad streak along the 
discocellulars ; a zigzag discal series of large spots angulated outwards in 
interspace 4, inwardly in interspace 2, a minute spot at base of interspace 
I ; a somewhat diffuse, large postdiscal spot in interspace 6 ; a post- 
discal sinuous series of round spots, those in interspaces 1, 4 small ; an 
inner subterminal, complete series of spots and an outer subterminal line, 
widening on the veins and a terminal line. Hindwing, a basal, transverse, 
obscure, narrow mark in cell, another above it in space 7, a transverse 
lunule across middle of cell ; a small spot outwardly bordering the lower 
discocellular ; a discal series of transverse spots in spaces 1-7, sinuous post- 
eriorly ; a postdiscal series of five spots in spaces 2-6 ; a subterminal series 
of somewhat lunular spots ; finally a narrow band on termen traversed 
posteriorly by a series of blue, anteriorly by a series of ochraceous lunules. 
Underside : forewing pale terra-cotta red, shading into ochraceous towards 
the apex which is broadly suffused with that colour ; markings as on the 
upperside with exceptions as : subcostal spot in space 6, upper two spots of 
postdical series, upper four of inner subterminal series and the anterior 
portions of the outer subterminal and terminal lines olivaceous brown ; the 
upper two postdiscal spots centred white, with a white spot on each side ; 
the upper four spots of the subterminal series touching, forming a short, 
curved band. Hindwing variegated with ochraceous, olivaceous brown and 
silvery-white markings, the last mostly narrowly margined outwardly by 
short, black lines ; the veins clearly pale ochraceous ; the medial silvery 
markings form a well marked, discal, sinuous series followed by a curved, 
postdiscal series of five olivaceous, round spots ; each spot and the oliva- 
ceous, quadrate patch near base of cell each with a minute white centre ; a 
slender, black, subterminal line widening at veins, followed by an ochraceous, 
narrow, lunular band and an outer, slender, black anticiliary line ; the sub- 
terminal, black line margined inside by a series of slender, white lunules, 
bordered inwardly by a series of broad, olivaceous brown markings in the 
interspaces. Antennge brown above, ochraeous red beneath ; head, thorax 
and abdomen olivescent tawny ; beneath, palpi, thorax and abdomen pale 
ochraceous. Female. — Similar, differing from the male in that, on the upper- 
side, the apical half of the forewing from about the middle of the costa to just 
above the tornus is black, inwardly suffused with purple, crossed by a broad, 
white band from costa to the subterminal series of black spots ; four 
preapical white spots, the upper three bordering, on each side and above, 
a very obscure ocellus, scarcely visible on the black back-ground ; an inner 
and an outer subterminal, transverse series of slender white lunules. 
Underside : forewing : markings similar to those on the upperside, but the 
apex of the wing beyond the white band, ochraceous green. Hindwing as 






COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 309 

in the male, but the markings slightly broader. Antennse, head, thorax and 
abdomen as in the male, the abdomen paler beneath. Exp. 80-98 mm. 

X, a rva. — "Head and legs black; body black, the colour, however, obscured 
by orange-tawny markings. A broad orange-tawny dorsal stripe. Four 
straight, horizontal, simple, black spines on head ; spines on pectoral seg- 
ments black ; on abdominal segments pink tipped with black, on caudal 
segments pink faintly black-tipped." 

Pupa. — "Head and wing-cases pale Indian-red; ten pale metallic spots 
on back; abdomen dark pink; spines faintly black-tipped." This is ampli- 
fied as follows : " The head ends in two well-separated blunt points ; there 
are a pair of spines anteriorly, another in the middle, and a third smallest 
pair posteriorly on the thorax, the latter being hunched and keeled : on the 
abdominal segments there are eight pairs of spines, the third anterior 
pair longest." 

Argynnis castetsi, Oberthiir. — This is the Southern Indian form of the insect, 
differing from typical hyperbius which it otherwise closely resembles, differing, 
in the male, in the upperside being of a richer, brighter shade of orange- 
yellow ; the black markings smaller, darker, subterminal transverse lunules 
of black terminal margin of hindwing of the same shade of orange-yellow 
as the ground-colour, no lunules being blue. Underside: the olivaceous 
brown on apex of forewing and variegating the hindwing of a greenish 
golden tint. There is a sex-mark of specialized raised scales along the 
middle of vein 1 on the upperside. It is probably a good species. 

The females seem to be dimorphic locally. The Nilgiri form resembles 
the female of typical hyperbius; it differs on the upperside in the ground- 
colour being pale golden-yellow ; in having the basal half of both wings 
shaded with metallic green, in some specimens olivaceous ; the white oblique 
band of forewing smaller, the purple-blue shading along its inner margin 
less conspicuous, as is also the bluish tint on the white preapical spots and 
subterminal marking ; the blue on subterminal lunules of hindwing also less 
marked. Underside the same as in hyperbius but the ground-colour on fore- 
wing paler terra-cotta red ; the variegating olivaceous brown of hindwing 
distinctly greener. 

As described from Trichinopoly the female is similar to the male, differing 
as follows : — Upperside : ground-colour pale golden-yellow ; basal half of 
wings suffused dark olivaceous green ; black markings larger ; on forewing 
spots of subterminal series very large, coalescent or nearly so with one 
another, dentate spots on veins on inner terminal line ; upper two postdiscal 
spots also very large, coalescent, the upper of the two joining on above and 
below to postdiscal spot in interspace 6, thus enclosing a prominent lunule 
of ground-colour. Underside paler. 

The transformations of Aryynnis castetsi have not been observed as far as 
is known but they are not likely to differ much from those of A. hyperbius 



310 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

though the description of caterpillar and chrysalis of this latter is meagre 
enough as given above. 

Habits. Nothing is to be found as to the habits of either 

species in any books and the writer has never come across the 
insect. It is not likely to differ much from the stronger-flying 
Argynnis at home. They are fast-flying, strong, active insects, 
fond of flowers and sunshine, keeping much to the neighbourhood 
of the ground though they occasionally fly high and far. The 
flight is that of Atella phalantha. The eggs are sure to be laid on 
or near a leaf of some species of Viola of which a few exist even in 
Southern India, though most are of temperate zones. The larva 
would probably eat the leaves of the garden violets or pansies 
readily. The genus Argynnis contains our home Fritillaries and is 
Neararctic as well as Paleearctic and Indo-Malayan in distribution. 
A. hyperbius is found from the Himalayas (Panjab to Sikkim) to 
Assam ; Agra ; Manbhum in Bengal ; Khasi Hills ; Upper Burma 
to China and Formosa; Sumatra and Java. A variety A. tapro- 
bana, Moore, slightly darker, is found in Ceylon. A. castetsi is 
confined to Southern India in the Nilgiris and Palni Hills. Some 
sixteen species are enumerated as occurring in India. The males 
of many of the Argynnis group of butterflies are much smaller 
than the females and this is the case very often with A. hyperbius. 
68. Cirrhochroa mithila, Moore.— Male upperdde is rich fulvous tawny, 
the basal area limited by the transverse, discal, black line, darker on both 
fore and hindwings than the discal and terminal portions of the wings. 
Forewing with a transverse, dusky, obscure, short, narrow band along 
discocellulars ; a transverse dusky black, slightly sinuous, discal line termi- 
nating in an oblique, short, black streak in interspace 7 ; a transverse series 
of very obscure diffuse dark spots ; apex broadly, termen narrowly black ; 
from the former is emitted downwards a subterminal, rather heavily marked, 
zigzag, black line, complete from apex to vein 1, the black at apex some- 
what diffuse. Hindwing with a transverse dark, discal, sinuous line and 
series of black spots in continuation of those on forewing, the spots much 
more clearly defined ; a postdiscal, transverse series of slender, lunular, 
dark markings followed by an inner and an outer dark, subterminal line, 
the inner lunular, the outer straight. The discal transverse line and 
postdiscal series of lunules each bordered by a prominent, white, subcostal 
spot. Underside rather dark, uniform ochraceous, often suffused with purple 
to a more or less degree. Both wings with a common, pinkish white, 
conspicuous transverse, discal fascia, its inner margin highly sinuous, its 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 31] 

outer straight, followed by a transverse series of spots as on the upperside ; 
a common subterminal, transverse, lunular, narrow band and a straight, 
narrow border to the termen, the latter two of darker ochraceous than the 
ground colour. Basal area of both wings with some dark ochraceous, 
transverse, sinuous, short lines ; the subterminal lunular line on hindwing 
bordered inwardly and outwardly by obscure, broad, pinkish white lunules ; 
a distinct shade on middle of terminal half of both fore and hindwings, 
darker than rest of ground colour. Antennse brown ; head, thorax and 
abdomen fulvous brown ; beneath, the palpi white, the thorax and abdomen 
ochraceous. 

Female upperside has the ground colour a rich, bright yellow. Forewing : 
apex and terminal margin somewhat narrowly black ; a subterminal black, 
zigzag line ; a broad, bright yellow, discal, transverse band with somewhat 
irregular, sinuous margins defined by obsolescent blackish lines and 
medially traversed throughout its length by a narrower brown band bearing 
a transverse superposed row of obscure, diffuse, dark spots ; beyond the 
discal band is a transverse series of broad, light, lunular markings. Hind- 
wing : differs little from the forewing in markings. Underside ochraceous 
drab ; the discal band as in the male but lilacine white, inwardly bordered 
by a sinuous, pale brown, narrow band, a transverse, sinuous, narrow, 
subbasal pale, brown band and short, similar bands defining the apices of 
the cell areas in both wings ; beyond the discal band the transverse series 
of spots and the subterminal and terminal markings similar to those in the 
male but the latter much paler. Exp. 63-83 mm. 

The transformations of the species have not been chronicled, but they will 
probably not differ much from those of the next, C. thais. The habits are 
not known either. The distribution is " Sikhim ; Behar ; Assam ; Burma ; 
Tenasserim ; the Andamans ; Malayan Subregion to Java." 

69. Cirrhochroa thais, Fabr. Wet-season form. — The male has the upperside 
rich tawny with the following black markings : — Forewing : a narrow band 
along the discocellulars ; three transverse spots in the interspaces beyond ; 
a spot at the base of interspace 3, short transverse, slender lines in continu- 
ation of it in spaces 1 and 2 ; the three spots beyond the apex of cell in 
echelon forward of the last-mentioned three markings ; a postdiscal 
transverse series of lunules inwardly diffuse in spaces 5 and 6, obsolescent 
in space 1 ; the apex and termen broadly black, the latter coalescing with 
an obscure, transverse, subterminal, lunular line and enclosing a series of 
detached obscure lunules of tawny ground-colour sometimes completely 
wanting. Hindwing : the markings dusky black, very similar to those on 
the hindwing of C. mithila ; the white, subcostal patch on the outer 
margin of the discal line as in that form, but more prominent ; the costal 
margin beyond it to apex fuliginous grey. Underside dark ochraceous 
tawny suffused with purplish ; basal area with some short, slender, traos- 



312 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

verse, dark lines ; the cliscocellular transverse streak on the forewing as on 
the upperside ; a prominent, transverse, discal band across both fore and 
hindwings, very broad at costa of forewing, narrowing to dorsum ; 
similarly, but not quite so broad at costa of hindwing, narrowing to the 
dorsum, its inner margin sinuous, its outer straighter, both obscurely 
defined by dark lines ; faint lunular markings beyond on terminal half of 
both wings ; the black spots in the transverse discal series on the hind- 
wing very small. Antennse brown ; head and abdomen more or less fulvous 
tawny ; thorax with bright pale green pubescence ; beneath pale ochraceous. 
Sex-mark : the veins on the upperside of the disc of the forewing black ; 
veins 5, 6 and apical portion of 7 with very narrow short bands of specializ- 
ed scales on each side ; no such scales on the hindwing. Female upperside 
similar, the black edging to the apex and termen conspicuously broader as 
are all the black markings. Underside similar; ground colour paler, more 
ochraceous, not suffused with purplish, the markings similar to those in the 
male, but the inner margin of the discal band more than sinuous, zigag ; 
Antennae, head, thorax, abdomen as in male. 

Dry-season form.- — Similar to the wet-season form but on the upperside 
the ground colour is a shade duller and paler, the markings more restricted 
and of a dusky black. On the underside the transverse discal band is some- 
times margined outwardly with a diffuse dusky black band, the white 
being sometimes completely obscured by a suffusion of the ground colour. 

Larva. — The larva is similar to that of Cupha in general aspect, the body 
being set with spines in the same way. The head is round and slightly 
bilobed, yellow in colour, shiny, smooth, with two exclamation-marks, half 
the length of face, down each lobe and some markings about the eyes, 
black. Segment 2 is narrower than the head by a good deal and is yellow 
in colour with a dark dorsal line. Spiracles are large, oval, black with a 
light central slit, shiny, the lower half hidden often by a fold near base of 
subspiracular spine. On segments 2 and 3 there is a subdorsal and 
lateral setiferous spine on each side about 7 mm. in length ; on segment 
4 there is a subdorsal one and a- lateral one near front margin ; segments 
5-12 have each a subdorsal, lateral and subspiracular setiferous spine on 
each side ; segment 13 has one subdorsal on each side, the anal segment 
one, lateral, before the hinder margin. The spines are all equal in size and 
black in colour, shiny, except the anal four which are white ; anal segment 
is yellow. Colour of the body is dark-brown with a violet tinge and with 
a subdorsal, lateral and subspiracular white longitudinal line, the spines 
being placed between these lines ; abdomen green. L : 25 mm.; B : 6 mm. 

Pupa. — Is similar in shape to that of Cupha, but is bone-white all over in 
colour and has many more curved processes. Head with very prominent 
eye-balls underneath, rounded moderately at sides, rather bowed ven- 
trally ; a small point in front of each eye curving upwards ; segment 2 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 313 

indented in centre of front margin, flat on dorsum with a subdorsal " boss " 
on each side, each giving rise to a 6 mm. long, stiff, outwards-curved spine ; 
thorax moderately high, convex, slightly carinated in dorsal line, the 
carination splitting into two at centre of segment backwards ; there is a sub- 
dorsal, central spine similar to that of segment 2 on each side ; segment 4 
has similar though slightly shorter spines ; segment 5 has them also, but a 
good deal smaller again ; segment 6 also, twice the length of those of seg- 
ment 5 ; segment 7 has a subdorsal spine twice the length of that of seg- 
ment 6 and a lateral one besides, curved forwards, the same length as the 
thoracic subdorsals ; the surface of the pupa is covered with minute hooked 
hairs and is slightly rugose. The shoulder is produced into a flattened 
point or tooth ; the wings are expanded somewhat along thorax and seg- 
ments 4, 5. Spiracles dull, oval, rather large, black, with a light central 
slit, the hinder ones being half covered by the hinder margin of preceding 
segment. Colour of pupa is whitish grey with the following black spots ; 
segment 2 with two spots in front of each spine, four spots on the flat 
part of each shoulder-tooth, two spots along wing-line on segment 4 ; a 
semicircle of four spots with hinder margin as base on segment 5 ; a 
similar semicircle on segment 6 besides four between wing and spine on 
each side ; segments 7-12 with a similar semicircle of spots, segment 7 
having two spots between the spines on each side and one at junction of 
wing and segment. The size of the pupa is variable, but has much the same 
proportions as that of Cupha, though generally somewhat larger. 

Habits. — The larva feeds upon young leaves, grows fast, eating 
voraciously, sits generally with all the segments contracted on 
the underside of leaves and is very active, running about at a 
great pace ; when suddenly disturbed, it lets itself fall by a thread 
by which it pulls itself up again when the danger is past. The 
larvae are much ichneumoned ; they eat their cast skins after 
moults. The pupa is formed against a perpendicular surface, 
generally low down in a shady situation and hangs parallel to the 
surface, being firmly and rigidly attached. Occasionally, of course, 
it is found suspended from the under-surface of a leaf, horizontal or 
otherwise. The larva objects strongly to the hot sun. The butter- 
fly is found only in the hills but is very plentiful where it occurs, 
and will certainly be met with at Matheran or Mahableshwar, also 
probably in Thana District ; it is quite common further south on 
the Western Ghats and extends thence to Ceylon. It is confined 
to these places. The insect likes the neighbourhood of evergreen 
jungles and damp nallas, and keeps entirely to wooded parts, ven- 



314 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

turing but rarely into the open. It is never seen basking on the 
tops of hills, for, like its larva, it is not partial to the sunlight, except 
when diluted through the dense shade of trees. It is a fast flying- 
active insect, generally, seemingly, on the wing and very busy 
either, in the case of males, looking for females or, in the case of 
the latter, choosing a fit leaf whereon to deposit an egg or two ; 
these are laid generally on the underside, but often, also, on a 
shoot, stem or even, if conveniently situated, on a dead creeper-stem 
or dry twig. The style of flight is that of Gwplia, though stronger 
and faster ; the insects bask on leaves in shady places with their 
wings half open ; they rest with them closed over the back. They 
do not visit flowers much. They may be found in great numbers 
round their food-tree in the monsoon months. This tree is 
Uydjnocarjpus wightiana, Blume, of the botanical family Bixinece, 
common in the evergreen forests of Kanara and the Konkan 
generally, the large wood}?- brown fruit of which yields a yellow 
oil iTsed in native medicine for skin diseases ; it is also xised for 
lighting purposes. 

The genus Cirrhochroa contains seven species, according to 
Bingham, occurring in British India ; others are found in the 
Malayan region. 

70. Byblia ilithyia, Drury. — Wet-season form. — Male upperside: deep orange. 
Forewing : the costa broadly jet-black to within a short distance of apex ; 
cell crossed by three narrow, short, black bands, the inner and the outer 
not reaching the median vein ; a very irregular, black, discal blotch from 
dorsum to vein 4, continued very narrowly along that vein to meet an 
oblique, irregular band, from just beyond the middle of the costa ; a post- 
discal, broad, transverse, black band from dorsum to vein 5, with the 
portions of the veins beyond it defined in black. The apex of the wing 
beyond the broad black edging to the costal border has its upper margin 
and the terminal portions of the veins defined in black ; finally a narrow 
terminal band. Hindwing : an elongate black, subcostal patch near base, 
continued posteriorly across the cell by an inner and outer series of small^ 
transverse spots ; a complete, broad, black, postdiscal band with the 
portions of the veins beyond it lined with black, and a narrow black 
terminal band as on forewing. Cilia of fore and hindwings white, alter- 
nated with brown. Underside : paler orange. Forewing : black markings 
as on the upperside, but the cell and upper discal markings obscurely 
margined on both sides by white ; an oblique, black line from costa to apex 
of postdiscal transverse band, followed by an oblique, preapical series of 






COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 315 

diffuse white spots, the terminal black band as on the upperside but tra- 
versed by a broken white line. Hindwing : a subbasal and a discal, broad, 
transverse, white band, both bordered inwardly by a series of black spots 
and outwardly by a broad black line ; a somewhat narrower, postdiscal, 
transverse, black band traversed by a series of paired white spots, followed 
by a row of cone-shaped marking of the ground colour, the apices of 
the cones turned inwards and broadly white ; finally a black, terminal 
band traversed by a series of white lunules. Antennae black ; head, 
thorax and abdomen dark dusky, fulvous red ; beneath, palpi white, head, 
thorax and abdomen dark ochraceous, variegated with some black lines 
and spots. — Female similar, with similar markings, but on the upperside 
the ground colour is paler, the black markings narrower. Forewing : the 
postdiscal black band nearly complete, interrupted only in interspaces 1 and 4 ; 
the terminal black band traversed by a broken white line. Hindwing with 
no subcostal black patch, instead three series of transverse spots ; a post- 
discal, transverse, broad, black band bordered inwardly by a series of slender 
black loops ; between these and the postdiscal band a series of spots of the 
ground colour ; the terminal black band traversed, as on the forewing, by 
a whitish broken line. Underside : similar to that in the male, but the ground 
colour paler. On the forewing the black markings comparatively narrower, 
less-well defined ; on the hindwing the white on the bands and spots 
replaced by pale yellow. 

Dry-season form. — Male and female upperside : similar to that in the wet- 
season form ; black markings on the whole not so sharply defined. Underside : 
ground colour darker ; on the hindwing dark ochraceous ; the transverse 
subbasal and discal bands in both sexes white. Exp. 50-56 mm. 

Larva and pupa. — In Khandesh and the Deccan the larva has been reared 
along with those of Ergolis on Tragia cannabina, L. It was possible to 
distinguish them only by the fact that the light dorsal line was continued 
the whole length of the body in this species and was comparatively un- 
interrupted. The pupa was undistinguishable. 

Habits. — The habits of the larva and pupa are the same as for 
Ergolis ; those of the imago also, though this species inhabits the 
plains and is not found in the hills in forest country. The butter- 
fly is a weak flier like Ergolis, and is generally found about the 
foodplant of the larva ; it does not fly far and rests with its wing- 
closed over its back and the forewings drawn in between the hind 
wings. It basks low down near the ground on leaves, &c, with 
the wings horizontally expanded. It occurs in Central and 
Southern India and Ceylon. 

This is the only species found within the limits of British India, 
but there are others in Africa. 
s 



316 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

71. Ergolis ariadne, Johanssen. (PI. F, fig. 36). — Male and female : forewing 
truncate at apex ; termen angulatecl at interspace 5 and again at apex of 
vein 3, concave between ; tornus obtusely angulate. Hindwing : termen more 
or less deeply scolloped. Male upperside : ochraceous rufous ; a prominent 
white, small, subcostal spot before apex of forewing; two or three dark brown 
marks in cell of both fore and hindwings, followed by subbasal, discal, two 
postdiscal, subterminal and terminal slender, sinuous, dark brown lines, 
crossing from costa of forewing to vein 1 of hindwing ; discocellular nervules 
of both wings defined by short, dark brown lines ; cilia white, alternated with 
brown. Underside : ground-colour brown with an ochreous tint, and some- 
times a slight greyish suffusion. Fore and hindwings : some dark chestnut- 
brown spots or loop-like marks at base, followed by subbasal, discal and post- 
discal, broad, chestnut-brown, sinuous bands, interniptecl on the forewing by 
the sex-mark of specialized scales (the subcostal vein and veins 6 and 7 on 
the upperside of the hindwing are prominently pale and shining and there 
is a large, discal patch of specialized, very dark, shining scales on the 
underside of the forewing extending to the base of wing, upwards into the 
cell and to vein 4) ; the postdiscal band on the hindwing traversed by series 
of transverse, dark spots in the interspaces. Lastly, both wings crossed by 
a subterminal zigzag and a terminal, irregularly sinuous, dark brown line. 
Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen ochraceous rufous. Female similar, 
slightly paler in colour, of course without the specialized sex-marks. Exp. 
52-56 mm. 

Larva (PI. I, fig. 11). — The larva is like those of Cupha, Atella, except 
that the head is furnished with a pair of long horns ; the colour is black with 
a striated white, broad, dorsal band on segments 6 — 11. Head square from 
front view, rather small, with two very divergent, long, hard, cylindrical 
horns, one from the vertex of each lobe, as long as segments 1 — 4 together, in 
the plane of the face, set with a cluster of short spines at tip and a few 
along the shafts ; they are separated widely at base and more or less squarely ; 
the surface of head is- smooth except for two rows, of spines one slightly an- 
terior to the other, down each cheek ; a few hairs about jaws ; colour of head is 
black. The body is cylindrical with the segments well marked; anal segment 
high, overhanging the anal prolegs or claspers ; neck narrower than head. 
The body spines are all more or less of the same size, except the subspira- 
cular ones which are small ; the pedicels or shafts of the subdorsals of seg- 
ment 4 and segment 12 are thicker than others ; the spines of segment 2 are 
also small ; each spine consists of a shaft from the extremity of which proceed 
three or four fine, sharp, smooth spinelets at an angle of 45° to the shaft ; 
all spines are perpendicular to the surface of body and slightly swollen at 
the origin ; they are arranged as follows : — segment 2 has a subdorsal, simple 
one and a lateral and subspiracular spine branched at extremity into four 
points : the subspiracular spine on base of leg ; segments 3 and 4 have a 



I 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 317 

similar arrangement of spines, all branched at extremity ; segments 5 — 10 
similar; segment 11 has a dorsal, subdorsal and subspiracular one as well as 
another underneath this last; segment 12 is similar to segment 11 except 
that the last spine underneath the subspiracular is wanting ; segment 13 is 
very narrow, a mere strip, and is quite bare ; segment 14 has a lateral spine 
on hinder margin ; there is a small spine on base of prolegs 7 — 10 and one in 
a similar position on segments 5 and 6 ; the lateral spines are really nearly 
supraspiracular. The surface of the body is covered with transverse rows of 
minute setiferous tubercles besides the spines. The spinelets at extremity 
of shafts are nearly as long as the shafts themselves. The spiracles are 
small, oval, flush, black, those of segment 12 conspicuously larger. The 
colour of the larva is dull black with a short, diagonal, subspiracular, white 
band near the hinder margin of each segment and a broad dorsal band 
composed of short lines at right angles to the longitudinal axis of larva on 
segments 6 — 11, besides a transverse row of fine dots just before the hinder 
margin of each segment, all white ; belly red-black ; legs shiny black. L : 22 
mm. ; B: 9*4 mm. with spines ; L of spines : 2 mm. with spinelets : L of head — 
horns : 5 mm. 

Pupa (PI. I, fig. 11a). — The pupa is slender with the wing-cases some- 
what dilated, a dorsal protuberance and two small head-points ; colour 
variable, generally green. Head trapeze-shaped seen from above, with two 
divergent, laterally compressed points, one from each eye, directed forwards, 
ridged on top (dorsally), separated by a sinus in front of head which reaches 
the front margin of segment 2 ; these points are well developed and conical. 
Segment 2 has the front margin curved in a semicircle and a waved hinder 
margin, is flat dorsally and fairly broad between the margins. Thorax is 
carinated in dorsal line on the anterior half which is inclined at an angle 
of 45° to the longitudinal axis ; it runs up into a point and is flat on the 
dorsal decline from this point to hinder margin, this decline being in 
a plane nearly perpendicular to longitudinal axis of pupa : so that 
the point (apex of thorax) is a triangular pyramid of which the lateral 
slopes are also nearly flat. The pupa is a good deal broader at 
shoulders than at segment 2 with a short, low ridge on each shoulder ; 
the wings are expanded from just behind shoulder, first in a little semi- 
circle, the lateral outline of pupa then running concavely to lose itself in 
dorsum of segment 5, to widen out again in a curve at segment 6 which 
, finally runs into the general level of body ventrally about segments 7 and 8 ; 
the constriction between segments 4 and 5 is considerable dorsally because 
of the high thorax-apex and a dorsal tubercular rising on segment 6. The 
body is as broad at segment 7, owing to the wing-expansion at shoulders, 
as at shoulders, perhaps a little broader ; section of abdomen from segment 
8 to anal end is circular ; the cremaster is short, strong, square, with two 
large extensor ridges and with densely disposed suspensory hair-hooklets at 



318 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCLETY, Vol. XX, 

extremity and dorsally ; ventral line of wings convex from segment 8, thence 
to anal end, straight. Spiracular stigma of segment 2 hardly apparent ; rest 
of spiracles oval, not particularly small, nearly the same colour as the body, 
with a central, raised, light brown slit. Surface of pupa dull, irregularly 
transversely aciculate-lined on abdomen. Colour of the body is a dark 
olive-green ; apex of thorax shortly yellow ; a green-black, dorsal, trian- 
gular patch on segment 9 ; the dorsal edges of wings as well as the lateral 
margins of segments 1 and 2, the centre of front dorsal slope of thoracic 
pyramid and a broad dorsal abdominal band speckled densely very light 
green ; antennse whitish. L : 18 mm. ; B at segment 6 — 7 : 7 mm. ; at shoul- 
ders : 6 mm. ; H. at apex of thorax : 5 mm. 

Habits. — -The egg is generally laid on the upper side of a leaf; 
the larva lives on the upper side, making a slight bed of silk, at 
first anywhere, afterwards in the centre along the midrib ; it eats 
much, grows fast and is very active ; it lies full stretched with 
the horns held straight out in front which means that the face is 
bowed down and applied to the leaf-surface. It wriggles when 
touched roughly, but does not, as a rule, leave its resting place. It 
walks fast, moving its head from side to side, spinning silk as it 
goes. The pupa is formed from the underside of a leaf or from a 
twig and hangs perpendicularly down or at an angle, as it is rigidly 
fixed to the' pad of silk woven for the purpose by the copious sus- 
pensory hooklets ; it also wriggles from side to side when touched 
and will stay bent from segments 9 and 10 for a long period after 
being disturbed. The butterfly is a weak flier and keeps generally 
to a circumscribed area in the vicinity of its food-plant ; it flies for 
a short distance at a time only, always low down near the ground 
within easy reach of a net and is easily captured ; the style of 
flight is a series of ups and downs with the wings held horizontally 
open between each ; it basks with them thus held open, though it 
rests with them closed in rainy weather and at nights. The in- i 
sect is common everywhere throughout India in the plains and in i 
the hills, in the open country and in the jungles wherever the i; 
food-plant of the larva is to be found. This plant is a creeper of 
the family Uwphorbiacece, called Tragia involucrata, L. ; the larva also 
feeds upon Tragia cannabina, L., both with nettle-like leaves cover- i; 
ed with little urticating hairs which are not always comfortable to 
touch. The former is more or less confined to regions of heavy 
rainfall and the hills, while the latter grows in the drier parts of 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 319 

the open country. This butterfly is found throughout Continental 
India, east of Mussoorie in the Himalayas and of the Punjab ; also 
in Ceylon, Assam, Burma, Tenasserim, and extends to the Malayan 
Subregion and China. The figure of the butterfly in the coloured 
Plate is too red, and the patch of specialized scales on underside of 
forewing too dark ; interspace 8 on upperside of hindwing should be 
grey as far as it is visible in the picture. 

72. Ergolis merione, Cramer. — Wet-season form. — Male upperside brownish 
ochraceous. Fore and hindwings crossed by slender, somewhat obscure, 
very sinuous or zigzag, dark, basal, two subbasal and two discal lines, 
disposed in pairs, followed by a single, sometimes double, postdiscal and a 
single subterminal, slender line. All these lines more or less interrupted 
anteriorly on the hindwing which has a smooth, unmarked, uniform appear- 
ance from the costa to subcostal vein and vein 5. On the forewing there is 
in addition a series of obscure spots between the postdiscal and subter- 
minal markings and a small, white, subcostal spot before the apex. 
Underside much as in E. ariadne, but the transverse chestnut bands 
broader, more diffuse. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen brownish 
ochraceous. Sex-mark on the underside of forewing as in E. ariadne ; 
no sex-mark on upperside of hindwing. — Female similar, but on upperside 
the transverse lines broader, more diffuse, with a greater tendency to form 
bands ; the postdiscal line always double, forming a band traversed by a 
series of dark ochraceous spots in the interspaces ; these lines and bands 
continuous, not interrupted anteriorly on the hindwing as they are in the 
male. Underside, except for the sex-mark, as in the male. 

Dry-season form. — Male and female upperside : ground-colour much paler, 
the transverse lines more distinctly in pairs, forming bands, the ground- 
colour between each pair more dusky brown. Underside : similar to that in 
the wet-season form, but the ground-colour paler, the bands more diffuse. 
Exp. 52 — 62 mm. 

Larva. — " Cylindrical, slender ; segments armed with two dorsal and two 
lateral rows of short, branched spines ; head with a pair of long, straight, 
branched spines. Colour green with longitudinal dark-brown lines." 
(Moore). 

Pupa. — Moore also gives the pupa as " similar to that of E. ariadne.'''' It 
is not likely that the larva or pupa differ much from those of the next 
insect, Ergolis taprobana, which Bingham treats as a race of the present one, 
but which has here been kept as a separate species. 

This species is not likely to differ in any important particular as regards 
the habits in any stage from the next to which it is so closely allied. It is 
found in the northern half of Continental India, in the Himalayas from 
Simla to Sikhim and has been recorded from Rajputana and Bengal, Assam, 



320 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Burma, Tenasserim and the Malayan Subregion. The Tenasserim speci- 
mens are dark and often without the white subcostal spot on the fore- 
wing, approximating thus to the Southern Indian and Ceylon E. taprobana 
according to Bingham. The food-plant is nearly certainly Tragia cannabina, 
L., though it is nowhere recorded as far as is known. 

73. Ergolis taprobana, Moore. — This differs as follows from the last : — 
Wet-season form. — Male upperside with the ground-colour dark ferruginous ; 
white subcostal spot on forewing rarely present ; the transverse lines black, 
more clearly defined ; the anterior half of the hindwing as in E. merione 
smooth, uniform, unmarked. Underside : with the ground colour darker than 
in merione, the markings on the anterior half of the forewing and in the 
centre of the hindwing obscured by a superposed, very dark chestnut 
shading ; on the forewing this dark shading does not extend to the base, 
apex or termen ; on the hindwing it does not extend quite to the costa. 
Sex-mark as in merione. Female similar to the female of merione but differs 
as follows : — upperside : the ground-colour lighter ferruginous than in the 
male ; the transverse lines and markings very distinctly defined ; the two 
postdiscal lines formed into more or less broad cordate marks in the 
interspaces. Underside : ground colour darker than in merione female, 
sometimes a sort of purplish brown ; the chestnut transverse bands well 
defined and continuous on both fore and hindwings. 

Dry -season form. — Male and female similar to the wet-season form but 
the ground-colour paler. Exp. 49 — 56 mm. 

Larva. — The caterpillar is exactly the same as that of E. ariadne in shape 
of body, arrangements of the spines, their shape and size and the shape of 
head. Surface of body covered with transverse rows of minute yellow 
tubercles, each bearing a little seta. Spiracles rather large, oval, the 
colour of the body, bordered thinly with black. The colour of the body is 
o-reen with a broad, subdorsal, yellow stripe flanked by a double, interrup- 
ted, yellow line; segments 7 and 11 suffused dorsally with dark-brown; 
bases of subdorsal spines of segment 4 brown ; belly light green ; the spines 
all blue-green and shiny. L; 27 mm.; B: 4 mm. without spines; L of 
head-horns : 5 mm. 

Pupa. — The pupa is similar to that of E. ariadne in shape and size. It 
can be separated from that species by the outer margins of the wings being 
straight instead of slightly waved as it is in ariadne. Surface very slightly 
shiny, smooth. Spiracular stigmata of segment 2 hardly accentuated ; 
other spiracles oval, not small, colour of the body. The colour is generally 
light green, veined densely on wings with brown ; head points, carination of I 
thorax, lateral wing outlines also brown ; Suspensory hooklets bright golden- 
brown. L : 18 mm. ; B : 6 mm. at segment 7 ; 5 -25 mm. at shoulders ; 2 mm. 
between head points ; H : 5 mm. at thorax ; 6 mm. at segment 6. 

Habits. — The habits of oviposition are similar to those of E. 



COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 321 

a/riadne ; also the habits of the larva and pupa and the imago or 
perfect insect. This last inhabits the hills and jungles in regions 
of heavy rainfall generally, although it encroaches on the Plains 
along the borders where the climate is comparatively fairly dry. 
It is confined to Southern India and Ceylon. The plant it has 
been reared on in the caterpillar stage is Tragia involucrata, L., 
mentioned already as one of the species upon which the caterpillar 
of E. ariadne feeds. 

JErgolis contains only the above three species in British India 
but there are others in the Ethiopian and Malayan Regions. 

SUB-FAMILY ACR&INJE. 

Only one genus . . . . . . . . Telchinia. 

GENUS TELCHINIA. 

Only one species. Exp. 2 - l" — 2 - 53" . . . . violoe.. 

The species will be found figured on coloured Plate E, figures 31, male, 

31a, female. The figures are good ; in the female, however, the spots left in 

the coalescing basal black markings on the hindwing are not light enough. 

The sub-family is chiefly African, very few species existing in South 

America and only two in British India. There are, however, a few in the 

Malayan Subregion nearly related to our Indian ones. Pareba vesta occurs 

in the Himalayas and extends in the hills eastwards to China and south into 

Burma. Telchinia violce is confined to Peninsular India but is found every 

where in the area, even in the dry region of Sind where it is not uncommon. 

There are 200 species in the group and they are all protected insects, 

exuding a yellow oily, disagreeably smelling liquid from the joints of the 

legs in self-defence, shamming death when handled, and as regards 

Telchinia and Pareba resembling Danaince in shape and colour as well. The 

colour of the two Indian species is yellow, or tawny suffused with reddish, 

marked with black spots ; the hindwing with a black, yellow spotted border ; 

the whole somewhat oily looking. The flight is weak, slow, fluttering, the 

' wings never being moved far from horizontal ; the insects keep near the 

: ground and go straight ahead ; they do not bask and rest with their 

. wings closed over the back. They frequent flowers. The larvae and pupse 

; are very similar. 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES OF ACILEIN^E. 

Telchinis violae, Fab. (PI. E., figs. 31 J, 31a $ ).— Male upperdde tawny, 
with a roseate tinge. Forewing : a transverse spot in centre of cell, another 
larger along discocellulars, a discal series in interspaces 1, 3 — 6, 10, the apex 
and termen, the latter narrowing posteriorly with projections inwards along 



322 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

veins, all black. Hindwing : a basal series of four or five spots, one in 
middle of cell, a subcostal one above it, a discal series of obscure spots, a 
postdiscal dot in interspaces 8 — 6, and a broad terminal band including a 
series of spots of ground-colour, all black or blackish showing through from 
underside. Underside : ochraceous yellow or paler tawny, forewing paling 
to apex with the markings as on the upperside. Hindwing with the same 
markings as upperside but with the spots more clearly defin'ed, the spots 
on terminal band large and yellowish white, tie band bordered diffused 
whitish, the roseate tinge stronger, the basal black spots coalescing, leaving 
whitish spots between, antennae black ; head and thorax black, spotted 
with ochraceous and white ; abdomen black at base, yellowish, with narrow 
black bands ; beneath : the palpi, thorax and abdomen ochraceous, thorax 
spotted black, abdomen with black longitudinal line at base. — Female similar; 
Upperside : ground-colour somewhat oily looking, duller ; black spots on both 
wings larger, upper discal ones often coalescing ; the spots in terminal band 
of hindwing larger and whitish. Underside : ground-colour much paler and 
duller, markings same as upperside but better defined. Exp. 53 — 64 mm. 
Female the larger. 

Egg. — Is echinoid in shape, a little higher than broad with 17 raised, 
transversely striated, longitudinal ridges not meeting on top, the top being 
shallowly reticulate. Colour shiny yellow. 

Larva. — The body is cylindrical in shape with the segments well marked, 
anal segment high, flap rounded at extremity, not overhanging the claspers, 
in a plane perpendicular to longitudinal axis of larva ; the prolegs are long 
and moth-like. Head small, round, set with erect hairs, brownish orange, 
with a triangular clypeus which has the apex black ; a black spot at base of 
each cheek. Segment 2 has a subdorsal spine and a lateral tubercular ris- 
ing ; on the common margin of segments 2 and 3 is a lateral spine ; segment 3 
has a subdorsal spine with a lateral one on the common margin of it and 
segment 4 ; segment 4 has a subdorsal spine ; 5 — 12 have each a subdorsal, 
supra and subspiracular spine ; segment 13 a subdorsal one and 14 a dorso- 
lateral one; there is also a small chitinous surface or spot on segments 
3 — 10, under the subspiracular spine with bristles from it. All spines are 
shiny black set with erect, stiff, black hairs arising from thickened bases; 
all are about the same length except those of segments 2, 3, 13 and 14 
which are slightly shorter. Colour is greasy claret brown with segments 
2 and 14 yellow reddish ; dorsal portions of segments 3, 4, 11 and 12 are 
yellow ; ventrum greeny yellow ; legs shiny black ; the feet of pseudolegs 
green ; a shiny black shield on base of pseudolegs. L : 21 mm. ; B : 10 mm. 
with spines ; 4 mm. without spines ; L of spines : 8 mm. 

Pupa. — Elongate, slight, head with two blunt points, anal end bluntly 
rounded. Head quadrate, the front margin straight between two conical 
short, stout teeth or points directed straight forwards ; convex above and 
below, parallel sided. Segment 2 is the same breadth as head being a 




COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 323 

broad band with dorsum in same plane as head vertex. Segment 3 same 
breadth as segment 2 in front, broader about middle because of the 
prominent shoulders ; the dorsal line of segment rises at nearly a 
right angle to plane of segment 2, then rounds off suddenly to become 
nearly parallel to longitudinal axis of pupa, rising only slightly to the apex 
which is nearly over the posterior margin. Segment 4 forms part of the 
hinder slope of the thorax, so that segment 5 is the lowest point of the 
dorsum after which the transverse section of abdomen is a slightly increas- 
ing circle up to segment 8, afterwards decreasing continually to anal end 
which is bluntly rounded, the last two segments forming a nearly perfect 
hemisphere bearing a short stout cremaster. The surface of the pupa is 
dull, very slightly wrinked and set with minute erect hairs. The colour is 
white with a pink and yellow shade in it ; segments 2 — 5 have a subdorsal 
broad interrupted black line coalescing at the hinder margin of the last 
segment, the extremities in front being joined by a straight line on the 
vertex of head ; the dorsal space between these lines on segments 3 and 4 
is reddish yellow ; the abdomen has a broad subdorsal line, a similar 
spiracular line and a central ventral one : all black ; each of these lines or 
bands enclose a reddish yellow circular spot near front margins of segments, 
these spots being the scars left by the larval spines (except the ventral 
spots) ; last segment and cremaster are black ; tips of head points, sides of 
head, shoulders, antennae and greater part of proboscis also black ; wings 
margined black with a central bifurcated black mark to each and a short 
subapical line ; all the black markings are dull, not shiny. L : 17 mm. 
B : 6 mm. at broadest part. 

Habits. — The eggs are laid in a batch, up to 15 or so in number, 
on a young shoot or tendril ; the larvse are gregarious at first but 
separate in the third stage ; they are extremely lively and moth- 
like in their movements and grow very fast ; they generally sit on 
the underside of a leaf though by no means always, pupate 
generally on or near the food-plant, the pupa hanging perpendi- 
cularly down by the tail like all nymphaline pupae, freely, though 
firmly, attached. The larva, pupa and imago have a disagreeable 
odour. In Bombay the butterfly is to be found at all seasons, in 
the mountains and plains, forests and open country, even in the 
region of least rainfall — Sind. The flight is that given for the 
sub-family. The food-plant is Modecca palmata, Lam., in the 
clamper parts, the wild Passionflower, but the larva will also 
teed on cultivated kinds, perhaps even on certain Cucurbitacece, 
these being near allies of the Passionflowers. The butterfly is 



324 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

confined to Peninsular India and Ceylon, and is fairly plentiful 
everywhere, in these places. 

SUB-FAMILY Libytheinoe. 

Only one genus Libythea. 

GENUS Libythea. 

Only one species, Exp. l - 8" — 2-3" myrrha. 

This sub-family is composed of the single genus containing some score of 
species spread throughout the world in Europe, Africa, India, the Malay 
Archipelago, N. and S. America, Mauritius and the Antilles. In India 
Colonel Bingham records 5 species and 3 races and of these only the one 
species is of interest to us ; and it is nowhere plentiful. The libytheine 
butterflies are all very like each other, somewhat like some of the Vanessce 
in shape and are brown with yellow or white markings on the upperside ; 
the underside shaded and striate-punctate grey ; they are fond of water 
and damp places and of the sun, basking generally on the upper end of a 
dead twig or bit of stick with the wings closed over the back and the fore- 
wings sunk between the hinder pair so as to show nothing but the protec- 
tively coloured grey parts. They are then very difficult to see. They fly 
veil but not for long, going fast in a jerky, skipping way, and dodging from 
side to side. They are insects of woodlands and the hills. The egg 
according to Doherty, is shaped like a bottle and is ribbed longitudinally ; 
in fact, resembles that of the Pieridce ; the larvee may be said to resemble 
those of the Pieridce also ; those of two species known certainly do so ; the 
pupa is nymphaline in aspect and character of suspension ; more particu- 
larly, like that of Apatura, Euripus : rigid, with the body parallel to the 
surface on which it is fixed. The food-plant of two species, one spreading 
west to Europe, the other east to China and Malay, is Celtis, a genus, 
composed of trees belonging to the family Urticacece. 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES OF LIBYTHEINE. 

Libythea myrrha, Godart (fig. 5)." — Male and female upperside : ground-colour 
dark-brown. Forewing : a streak from base along median vein, extending 
narrowly on each side of it and continued beyond as a large oval spot in 
interspace 2, two preapical double spots placed obliquely towards costa : 
orange-yellow. Hindwing : a slight, oblique, narrrow, medial band from 
vein 1 to vein 5 of the same colour. Underside forewing : ground-colour 
brown ; orange-yellow markings as on upperside, but broader and more 
diffuse ; apex and dorsal margin broadly shaded pale grey irrorated with 
minute dark spots and transverse short strite. Hindwing greyish-brown 
irrorated with minute dark spots and transverse short strise, shaded in the 
cell, on the middle of costal margin and on middle of termen with diffuse 
brown ; the lower half of cell in hindwing darker in the male ; the whole 




COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 325 

hindwing much more concolorous in the female. Antennse, head, thorax 
and abdomen dark-brown ; beneath : palpi, thorax and abdomen greyish- 
brown. Exp. 46 — 58 mm. 

This is a variable insect in the extent and breadth of the orange-yellow 
markings and in the mottling and ground-colour of the underside. The 
variety sanguinalis, chiefly Himalayan and Eastern, has the orange-yellow 
markings very broad. Variety rama, the variety occurring in South India 
and Ceylon, is smaller with the markings much narrower and shorter, the 
preapical spots white or yellowish-white. 

Larva. — In general facies the larva recalls that of Catopsilia of the Pieridce, 
It is dark-green in colour, cylindrical in shape, narrowing somewhat to both 
ends ; the head is small, about half as broad as the larva at centre : and is 
about the same breadth as segment 2. The head is round in shape, with a 
shallow broad depression on vertex ; the surface is smooth and dull, sparse- 
ly set with minute dark bristles and some light hairs about jaws ; it is 
green in colour, with brown markings seen under the lens, the antennae red- 
dish, labrum green, eyes black. Segment 2 is broader behind than in front 
and has the front margin very slightly triangularly produced in dorsal line;, 
the anal flap is rounded behind, with the curve of its dorsal line nearly a 
quarter-circle, the extremity nearly touching the resting surface ; and there 
is a depressed dorsal surface, oval in shape, two-thirds the width of seg- 
ment, reaching from hinder extremity towards front margin : this surface 
is hairless and covered with brown streaks. The rest of the larva is covered 
with transverse rows of minute, black bristles, four to each segment ; there 
are also some bristles on ventrum ; the rows are separated by depressed 
lines, one between each. The prolegs are rather long. The spiracles are 
light yellow, black-rimmed, oval, flush with the surface and of ordinary size. 
The colour is dark-green, sometimes with a brownish tinge, with a thin, 
light yellow, dorsal line from segment 4 to segment 12 and a narrow, yel- 
low, supraspiracular band from head to anal end. L : 26 mm.; B : 4*5 mm. 
at middle ; B at head : 2*25 mm. 

Pupa. — This is most like that of Ergolis but has no head-points. It has 
the part formed by the head and segment 2 straight in front (front of pupa), 
parallel-sided, convex on dorsum transversely to pupa ; the shoulders are the 
broadest part, widening out suddenly at an angle of 135° with the side of 
head-piece ; the dorsal outline seen from the side is, for the thorax, 
a carination starting from front margin in a straight line at an angle 
of 45° to longitudinal axis of pupa, culminating in a rounded apex 
just over the hinder margin to which the outline descends abruptly ; 
thence the line ascends again to the apex of a small, sharp peak at 
the common margin of segments 5 and 6, to descend again in a slight 
carination to the hinder margin of segment S after which the outline 
curves in a quarter-circle to end of cremaster ; the ventral outline is 



4326 JOURNAL BOMBAY, NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

nearly straight from head to segment 12, then nearly at right angles ; 
the lateral outline after the shoulders is formed by the wings being 
•expanded very slightly for a short distance, after which the sides con- 
verge to meet at the cremaster ; the transverse section of abdomen after 
segment 8 is circular ; the abdominal peak is somewhat higher in appear- 
ance than the thoracic peak ; the cremaster is triangular seen from above 
and embraces the last segment somewhat, its attachment surface being 
considerably longer, in the sense of the pupal length, than broad. Surface 
of pupa is smooth and somewhat shiny, a thin line or carination connects 
the shoulder with the abdominal peak. Colour is light green with the tops 
of carinations yellow, and a black speck on abdominal peak. L : 12'5 mm.; 
B : 5 mm. at shoulders ; 3 mm. at front of head ; H : 6 mm. at abdominal 
peak, 5 mm. at thoracic peak. 

Habits. — The eggs are laid on the shoots and young leaves, 
generally of a small tree or shrub near a water-course or in some 
damp place open to the sunlight, though in forest. The larvse 
generally live on the undersides of the leaves, eating all but 
the ribs or veins in a moth-like way, and on these ribs and veins 
they may generally be found sitting. They emit much silk or web 
and fall to the ground by a thread when disturbed, but only when 
actually touched or otherwise violently molested ; they rest with 
the true legs off the surface, in the air, bunched, the head curved 
■down and often turned to one side. The pupa is formed on the 
underside of a leaf and the body lies quite parallel to the surface 
like the pupa of JElymnias. The imago is not often seen except in 
the neighbourhood of the food-plant and, even then, but rarely. 
This is probably a good deal due to its way of resting and the 
colouration of its under parts which blends so well with the colour 
of the grey and brown barks of dead sticks and twigs (see the 
method of resting above under genus.) Its distribution is through- 
out the Himalayas from Kulu to Sikkim ; Western India ; 
Bombay • Southern India ; Ceylon ; Assam ; Burma to the Malayan 
Subregion and China. It is not a butterfly of the plains at all. It 
is found in Kanara and may probably turn up at Matheran or 
Mahableshwar where the food-plant Geltis tetranclra, Koxb., surely 
occurs. 

FAMILY NEMEOBIID^:. 
Only one genus . . . . . . . . . . Abisara. 






COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA, 327 

GENUS ABISARA. 

Only one species. Exp. 1*6" — 2" .. .. .. eclierius. 

This species is figured on coloured plate F, figures 40, male, and 40^, 
female. The colouring of both figures is not brown enough, there is too^ 
much red in it. The violet gloss on the upperside of male is very good. 

The greater number of the relations of Abisara are found in Tropical 
America, some 960 or 970 species. There are 30 or 40 Eastern species, 20 
of which occur in British India. One single species occurs in Europe, in- 
cluding England : Nemeobius lucina, the Duke of Burgundy Fritillary, 
These insects are evidently closely related to the Lyccenidce, at least they 
are nearer to them than to any other division of butterflies in all their 
stages, to judge by Indian representatives and Nemeobius. The egg, accord- 
ing to Doherty, is lower than wide, smooth, granulate or prickly, but not 
reticulate or radiate in the genera examined by him. The larvge of three 
out of five Indian genera and of Nemeobius are distinctly lycsenine in shade, 
except that the head is not hidden ; and the pupee are certainly more like 
those of the ' Blues ' than anything else. Finally the facies of the imagines 
is also lycsenine. Nemeobius and Dodona, a Himalayan genus, both contaia 
butterflies that rest with their wings closed over their backs while Abisara 
always keeps them half open, indeed cannot completely close them as the 
hindwing is not all in one plane, being somewhat warped as it were. The 
Duke of Burgundy Fritillary is said not to affect flowers and to be fond of 
shady places. The same is the case with Abisara. 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES OF NEMEOBIIDA?. 

Abisara echerius, Stoll. (PL F., figs. 40 d\ 40a $). — Hindwing suddenly 
lengthened at vein 4, thence gradually decreasing to its ordinary length at 
anal angle. In the wet-season form the upperside of male is a rich purple- 
brown or maroon-brown with a blue gloss. Forewing with discal and 
postdiscal transverse fasciae very obscure and only slightly paler than the 
ground-colour. Hindwing uniform ; two triangular, small, black spots near 
apex of interspace 1, one larger black spot in each of the interspaces 5 and 
6 ; spots bordered outwardly with white slenderly and obscurely. Underside : 
dull maroon-brown. Forewing with a broad, slightly curved discal, narrower 
postdiscal and subterminal, transverse, pale fascia, the discal one broader 
anteriorly. Hindwing : a slightly curved, narrow, discal, pale fascia ; black 
spots as on upperside but bordered inwards and outwards by an obscure 
pale lunular line. Antennae black with scattered pale specks ; head, thorax 
and abdomen maroon-brown ; beneath : all pale-brown. Female upperside 
hazel brown, terminal halves of wings paler. Forewing : discal and post- 
discal broad, obscure, pale transverse fasciae, the former or both sometimes 
white in the upper part ; followed by an obscure, double, subterminal pale 
line. Hindwing with a series of subterminal, pale, lunular spots, the black 



328 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

spots as in the male, the anterior two superposed on the pale spots ; 
terminal margin below vein 4 with double, above vein 4 with single, sub- 
terminal line. Underside : ground-colour paler on the basal, very much paler 
■on the terminal half ; markings as on upperside but fascke on fore and 
hindwings broader, more diffuse. Exp. 41 — 52 mm. 

A variable insect. In the dry season the purple gloss on the upperside of 
male is hardly present, the fascise are more diffuse, the black spots smaller 
■or rarely quite wanting ; the underside is paler. In the female the colour is 
also paler, the contrast between base and outer half of wings more pronoun- 
ced, the discal fascia on underside very broad, often nearly white : indeed 
1 it is often white even on the upperside. 

Larva (PI. I, fig. 12). — The shape of the larva is onisciform, depressed-, 
looking, highest at middle or a little anteriorly to it, broadest at middle, 
•considerably narrowing towards both ends, segment 2 and segment 12 being 
about the same width ; ventrum fiat. The larva is distinctly lycoenid in 
type. Head only semi-hidden, roundish, flattened on face with some few 
dark, erect hairs ; light green in colour. Segment 3 a little wider than, and 
■embracing slightly, segment 2 at the sides ; anal segment very convex and 
narrow (in sense of larval width), rounded at extremity. Segments all well 
marked and very slightly flanged dorsoventrally. Surface of body covered 
with tiny, transparent tubercles all over, circular and looking like drops of 
liquid ; segment 2 fringed along margin with long, porrect, light hairs some- 
what densely ; segments 3 and 4 with a subdorsal and lateral bunch of 4 
■dark, long, erect hairs ; segments 5 — 12 with a similar subdorsal bunch to 
segment 3, but with a single hair instead of the lateral bunch ; each segment 
has, besides, a subspiracular line of long, light, straight hairs ; anal segment 
has many white and brown singly disposed hairs. Spiracles are whitish, 
oval in shape and of ordinary size. Colour of body is light olive-green with 
the dorsum of each segment, except segment 2, between dark-green, lateral 
lines reaching the whole length of larva, white ; a dark-green dorsal line, 
along the edges of which the white is suffused with green ; a lateral dark 
green, roundish depression on segments 5 — 12 ; the dorsoventral line 
whitish ; ventrum green. L: 18 - 5 mm. ; B: 5 mm. ; H: 4 mm. 

Pupa. (PL I, fig. 12ft.) — Shape rhomboid, equilateral ; a diamond in fact, 
the breadth at middle, the broadest part, being a little more than ^rd the 
total length. Head square, running out into a flat ledge in front, the 
•contour of which is rounded with a square piece cut out of centre to the 
•depth of the ledge, i.e., there is a point in front of each eye somewhat 
flattened on top, rounded on outer side and straight on inner side. The 
anal end is sharply pointed : really minutely truncated at extremity of 
cremaster. The two lateral angles of the diamond are rounded. Segment 
2 and front slope of segment 3 are in the same plane ; the latter segment 
•or thorax is somewhat humped, evenly convex from shoulder to shoulder, 




COMMON BUTTERFLIES OF THE PLAINS OF INDIA. 329 

apex slightly the highest part of pupa ; the wings are slightly expanded 
behind shoulders in a semi-cylindrical fold. Constriction is slight dorsally, 
laterally it is nil. Abdomen dorsally gently convex from thorax to anal 
end ; belly flattish. Spiracle of segment 2 indicated by a small, circular, 
flush, white space ; other spiracles oval, light in colour, on the very dorso- 
ventral line. Surface of body covered densely with colourless, short- 
pedicelled, star-topped hairs, the pedicels being longer on the anal seg- 
ment ; a fringe of sparse, long, light hairs round dorso-ventral margin, 
denser on head and segment 2 ; ventrum and wings glabrous. Colour of 
pupa grass green, spotted finely with darker green in squares, a whitish 
dorsal line, four small black spots on front margin of thorax, the two outer 
ones the most distinct ; a lateral row of distinct black spots and a subdorsal 
row of obsolescent ones on abdomen ; belly whitish. L: 16 mm. B: 6*5 mm. 
at middle ; H: 4 # o mm. at apex of thorax. 

Habits. — The egg is laid anywhere on stalks, leaves, &c., of any- 
surrounding small plant, on the food-plant itself, very often on a 
blade of grass ; and nearly always in the evenings in dark, cool 
places in the hills or heavy jungle country where the imago is 
found. The larva lives on the underside of the leaves but is found 
sometimes on the upperside, stalks, &c. It wanders to pupate but 
not far ; consequently the pupa is not often to be found on its 
own plant and is formed on the underside of a leaf, attached by the 
tail and a tight body-band and is generally on a bed of white 
powder. Very often the larva slightly draws the part of the leaf, 
where it rests together by silks and the pupa may be formed in 
such a half cell. The imago is a shade-loving butterfly, somewhat 
lyceenid in appearance and in its ways ; it, however, never quite 
closes its wings over its back and has the habit of resting on a leaf 
at no great height from the ground where it first turns this way, 
then that, rarely remaining quite quiet, taking a short, rapid, jerky 
and dodging flight every now and then to return to the same 
place ; it is most active in the late afternoons. It is never seen 
at flowers. The distribution of this insect is in the Himalayas 
from Chumba to Kumaon, Nepal and Bhutan, in Umballa, Fyza- 
bad, Malda, Calcutta, Ganjam ; in Bombay south of Poona and 
Bombay ; Ceylon, Burma, Tenasserim and China. 



(To be continued.) 



330 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

ERRATA. 

In Part IV of this Paper (No. 1, Vol. XIX.) the following additional 
errata occurred : — 



ige 17, 


line 


11, 


for Niceville 


read 


Niceville. 


„ 23 


it 


1, 


omit comma after . . 




" horny." 


„ 23 


„ 


8, 


for pensils 


read 


pencils. 


„ 23 


ii 


32 


„ Tarsolepes 


read 


Tarsdlepis. 


n 24 


ii 


32 


„ affected 


read 


affect. 


„ 26 


ii 


31 


„ twelve month . . 


read 


twelve months. 


„ 26 


ii 


34 


„ seem 


read 


seems. 


27 


ii 


15 


„ fortnight 


read 


three weeks. 


„ 29 


ii 


16, 


omit comma after 




" those." 


n 36 


ii 


20, 


read comma instead of full stop 


after "form. " 






331 

A COLLECTION OF THE OPHLDIA FROM 
THE CHIN HILLS, 

(with Notes on the same by Major F. Wall, I. M.S., C.M.Z.S.) 

BY 

F. E. W. Venning. 

The collection, with the exception of one or two specimens, was 
made during the latter portion of 1908 and the first few months 
of 1909 in the neighbourhood of Haka, a small outpost in a remote 
part of the Chin Hills. This very out-of-the-wayness has its com- 
pensations from a naturalist's point of view, for it offers him a rich 
and practically virgin field for his energies and in the case of the 
Chin Hills one of special interest in that it is placed between two 
portions of the Empire which are better known to science but are 
probably very different in physical characters from the Chin Hills. 
The "Imperial Gazetteer of India'' describes the Chin Hills as " a 
' tract of mountainous country inhabited by hill tribes on the N.-W. 
'border of Burma, lying between 21° 45' and 24° N, and 93° 20' 
8 and 94° 5' E, with an area of about 8,000 square miles. It forms 
1 a parallelogram about 150 miles in length N. and S., and varying 
' in breadth from 100 to 150 miles.* It is bounded on the North 
'by Manipur; on the West by portions of the Lushai Hills, and by 
' the unadministered Chin area that lies to the North and East of 
' the Northern Arakan District ; on the South by unadministered 
' country and by the Pakokku Chin Hills ; and on the East it 
'borders on the Upper Chindwin and Pakokku Districts. The 
' tract consists from end to end of a mass of mountains much broken 
' and contorted and intersected by deep valleys, and is practically 
8 devoid of plains and tablelands. Its main ranges run generally 
'North and South and vary in height from 5,000 to 9,000 feet." 

The whole district forms a portion of the great broken system 
( ? systems) of mountains which divides the Brahmaputra or Assam 
Valley from that of the Irrawadcly and which reaches its highest 
points on the Burmese side. 



A curious error as the Chin Hills' Gazetteer, I believe, gives a length of 250 
miles and a breadth of 100 to 150 miles by road. The area does not much, if at all. 
exceed 50 miles in breadth " as the crow flies." 
10 



332 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol XX. 

Geologically the chain is believed to belong to the Tertiary epoch 
and consists chiefly of shales of a soft nature, which easily disintegrate 
to form a stiff clayey soil, and a fair proportion of sandstones. 
Limestone is uncommon and igneous rocks are perhaps nowhere 
found near the surface, at any rate in the Haka Sub-division. 

The area consists, then, of a chain of mountains of moderate 
height situated just within the tropics, and as might be inferred a 
•semitropical vegetation exists, changing into tropical in the deeper 
valleys where teak, palms, and such trees as the papaya are to be 
found, and into quite a temperate form on the tops of the higher 
mountains. 

Haka Sub-division is the most Southern of the three Sub-divisions 
into which the Chin Hills District is divided, and Haka station is 
situated some 6,500 feet above sea-level on the North-Western 
slopes of a mountain near the Northern boundary of the Sub-divi- 
sion. The point of the mountain range which is immediately 
above the station is known as Haka peak and is supposed to be 
7,500 feet high. A neck of open grassland, about half a mile to the 
west of the station, connects the range with another running 
parallel to the Haka range and of about the same general elevation. 
This neck throws off its waters from one side into the Boinu river, 
which after flowing in a gigantic S. reaches the sea at Akyab, and 
from the other into the Manipur river, a tributary with the Myittha 
river of the Chindwin. On either side of the station a spur runs 
down from the peak, and the water collected between the two spurs 
into a marshy hollow between the Civil station and the Military 
police lines forms 'the supply of the community. The face of the 
hill between the two spurs is clothed with dense jungle, practically 
impenetrable in the rains but easily entered in most places in the 
dry weather. This jungle stretches rather more than half way 
down to the station and provides one of the loveliest views from 
Haka. At one season it is tinged with the rich hues of autumn, a 
species of Virginia Creeper contributing largely to the effect, at 
another it is outlined by the brilliant flowers of Rhododendron ar- 
boreum. In the cold weather the soft pink of the Cherry (Prunus 
■puddum) is shown in exquisite relief against the dark-green of the 
forest, only to give place to the hardly less vivid contrast afforded 



I 



COLLECTION OF OPIIIDIA FROM THE CHIN HILLS. 333 

toy the young shoots of the elm. In February the lower edges of 
the jungle and the entire hillside to far below the station is 
whitened by the snowy blossoms of the wild pear (Pyrus 'pashia) 
.and a little later the wild rose (Rosa longicuspis) begins to produce 
its spring flowers, and almost throughout the year covers many a 
bush and tree with its sweet scented sprays. 

Below this jungle are a few scattered trees on slopes of coarse 
grass mingled with gigantic thistles (Onicus sp. ? wallichii) 
toracken and other herbaceous plants, and the jungle stretches its 
long fingers down one or two watercourses. Below the grassland 
.a more or less open woodland begins, consisting for the most 
part of shrubs, small alders, pears, oaks and chestnuts and other 
similar trees with occasional groves of pine (Pinus Jchasia), and 
this jungle, broken by patches of short grass having very much 
the appearance of English commons, spreads down to the valley 
some 2,000 feet below. The more open nature of this woodland 
and its stunted character is due, it is believed, to clearance by the 
Chins at some previous date for their extravagant form of cultiva- 
tion (Taungya) and to their custom of burning to which refer- 
ence will be made when dealing with the climate. Below the 
station, is a collection of Chin villages and in the valley a small 
.stream, the Trongvar, flows. The hillside is intersected everywhere 
toy little rivulets, some of which disappear in the dry weather, 
while in the rains they all become foaming torrents and carve their 
channels deeper and deeper into the surface the lower they descend. 
Wherever a suitable hollow occurs a small marsh is formed, and in 
the cold weather streams and marshes are the haunts of woodcock 
■and two or three species of snipe. The hillsides are generally very 
steep but a pleasant exception to this rule is the so-called " golf- 
course" on the neck about half a mile west of the station, where 
there is open grassland throwing off some delightful undulating- 
downs. 

The climate consists of three well-marked seasons. The rains, 
during which most of the snakes emerge, last from the middle of 
May to the middle of November, roughly speaking, but this year 
(1909) the previous Christmas rains having failed a very short hot 
season was experienced, the rainy season setting in early in April. 



334 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

The greater part of the total rainfall is registered during the wet 
season, a few showers at Christmas and an occasional thunderstorm 
in March bringing the total to about 90 inches or probably more. 
It is in the rains that the frogs, toads and lizards on which per- 
haps the snakes chiefly feed make their appearance, together with 
leeches, bloodsuckers and a host of small insect life. At the end 
of the rains a cold season ensues and in January and February 
and even well into March a thick white frost covers the ground m 
the mornings. Ice is formed up to a quarter of an inch thick in 
midwinter, while in December 1908 heavy snow fell on all the 
higher mountains including Haka peak. The cold weather is fol- 
lowed by a hot dry season during which the atmosphere is render- 
ed almost unendurable owing to the Chin habit of burning not 
only where they wish to cultivate but wherever there is grass or 
undergrowth to burn. Like many other Chin customs this is one 
which, in the opinion of the writer, cannot be too strongly condemn- 
ed. In a few cases it is done for the purpose of procuring game, 
which is slaughtered as it flees in terror, but in the majority it is 
done from pure wantonness, for the Chins keep no cattle for which 
grazing has to be found. Indeed it is very questionable in the 
writer's opinion whether the burning, though it makes the green 
of the new grass more quickly obvious to the eye, does not destroy 
the more tender and succulent grasses and allow only the coarser 
kinds to flourish. The question has been well discussed in connec- 
tion with its effect on teak forests, and there seems to be no doubt 
that a large amount of the valuable nitrogenous products of the 
vegetation is lost -to the soil by the process. Innumerable young 
trees are either killed or their growth suddenly checked so that the)* 
become stunted and deformed. 

After the burning, ferns, thistles and grasses appear and the 
ground is beautified with the colours of violets (Viola patrinii), 
Primulas (Primula denticulata) and other flowers. 

Such are the conditions prevailing where the collection was made, 
but it is not to be supposed that it is in any way representative- 
even of the Haka Sub-division, still less of the Chin Hills as it was 
made within very narrow limits. Nearer the plains it is said that 
the pretty tree-snakes, Dryopliis, etc., abound, while in the valleys 



COLLECTION OF OPHIDIA FROII THE CHIN HILLS. 33o 

King Cobras are reported to be not uncommon. A King Cobra 
has since been obtained by the writer from near Haka. 

As regards the collection itself Major F. Wall, I. M.S., has very 
kindly examined the writer's notes and some of the specimens as the 
writer did not feel qualified to offer his opinions without having 
them corroborated or, if necessary, corrected by some competent 
authority. Major Wall's remarks will be found incorporated in the 
text and followed by his initials so as to be easily recognisable, and 
the writer wishes to express his gratitude to him for his notes 
which naturally form the more interesting portion of the account, 
as well as for the instruction and encouragement given by him. 

Vernacular names have not been given as the Chins recoo-nise 
very few snakes and regard them all with horror. The mere display 
of some specimens in a bottle caused one Chin chief to leave the 
writer's house precipitately and return to his village. " Rail " 
(pronounced like the word "rule" but with a tendency not to 
sound the final " 1 " ) is the Chin for a snake in the Haka or Lai 
dialect. The most usually recognised snake of those collected was 
the green Pit- viper which was called " rul harr " (harr meaning 
difficult, sharp, rough). " Rul pi " (pi means big or female) was 
the name applied to the rat-snake (Zamenis mucosus), while " Sar 
vut saw," the meaning of which is not obvious, was applied 
i indiscriminately to the snakes Gallophis macclellandi, Ahlabes 
porjphyraceus, and Simotes albocinctus. "Ngan" is understood by 
most Chins for the Python or possibly for the Hamadryad, and 
I" Tina kan " for the Cobra. 

Of snake bite no records exist, but a few cases came to the writer's 
(notice. Three military police sepoys were bitten at different times, 
one in the thumb and two in the toe. In the case of the man bitten 
in the thumb he immediately put on a ligature and on his return 
;to the lines had the wound cauterized and suffered no ill-effects. 
Of the other two one put on a ligature of sorts and suffered little, 
the other did nothing till his leg began to swell when he went to 
hospital and was treated. He had some fever, twenty-four hours' 
pain and a leg swollen up to the groin but nothing more. All these 
| three men were bitten by Lachesis gramineus or perhaps jerdoni as 
far as could be judged from their descriptions coupled with the 



LIB 



336 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX, 

fact that these species are about the commonest snakes found near 
here. Two cases were attended to by the American baptist mis- 
sionary, a medical man. These were Chins who came in on the 
day after they were bitten in each case. They were treated to no 
less than five incisions one above the other from the thumb to the- 
shoulder into which permanganate of potash was rubbed ! One 
of these Chins was bitten by a Lachesis monticola, identified by the 
body, the head having been reduced to powder, cooked and applied 
to the wound by the victim ! The other was also bitten hj a 
Pit-viper to judge from the rather vague description given by the- 
missionary. 

A few odds and ends were thrown in with the snakes. 

Family— TYPHLOPID^F. 

None represented in the collection but one was found in April 1907 on. 
the road near Taungtek (altitude 4,500 ft.) on the Burma side of the 
Manipur river. The species was not identified and the specimen could not. 
be preserved for lack of any kind of spirits. 

Family— COLUBRID^] . 
Sub-family — Colubrin^e . 
Blythia reticulata. 

Seven specimens. 

No. I. — Length 14 in. Tail 2 in. Ventrals 137. Subcaudals 27 pairs.. 
Postoculars on the right one, on the left two. 

No. II. —Length 16J in. Tail 1-7 in. Ventrals 141. Subcaudals 21 pairs. 
Postoculars as in No. I, the lower one on the left very minute. 

No. III.— Length 14^ in. Tail 1-85 in. Ventrals 138. Subcaudals 27 
pairs, the 9th from the anal orifice being entire. Postoculars on the right 
two, on the left one. 

No. IV. — Length 14 in. Tail 1-9 in. Ventrals 141. Subcaudals 28 pairs. 
Postoculars two on each side, the lower minute. This specimen appears to 
have a very minute prreocular on either side between the prefrontal 
shield and the 3rd supralabial. 

No. V.— Had to be thrown away, its characteristics were : length llf in. 
Tail 1-4 in. Ventrals 140. Subcaudals 25 pairs. 

No. VI.— Length 13 in. Tail 1-7 in. Ventrals 140. Subcaudals 27 pairs. 
Postoculars one on each side. 

No. 18 of 1909.— Length 18 in. Tail 1\ in. Ventrals 140. Subcaudals 
27 pairs. 

These specimens were all obtained in Haka on the roads and towards 
dusk. 

No. 3 of 1909.— Length 41 in. Tails % in. Ventrals 155. Subcaudals 22 



Length. 


Tail. 


Ventrals. 


Subc 


audals. 


12 i/; 


i)ii 


215 


75 


pairs. 


39" 


6|" 


202 


63 


» 


23|" 


41" 


210 


74 


» 


20i" 


31" 


214 


66 


?? 


36i" 


4" 


210 


60 


w 


14|" 


03« 
Z 8 


204 


65 




17A" 


O 3 .7 

^4 


213 


66 


ft 



COLLECTION OF OPHIDIA FROM THE CHIN HILLS. 337 

pairs, whitish beneath. This is an immature specimen of some snake which 
I placed here as I could not decide what else it might be. It was obtained 
at Fort White (7.500 ft.) in April 1909 by Mr. Angelo, Superintendent of 
Post Offices, who kindly brought and presented it to me. The anal shield 
was incorrectly noted by me, vide note. 

[I examined one of these specimens, viz., the one marked "No. 3 of 1909.''' 
It is without doubt a Blythia reticulata. The occurrence of this species in 
the Chin Hills extends its previously known habitat. It has hitherto 
never been recorded except from the Khasi Hills in Assam. The anal is- 
reported entire, but I find it divided. — F. W.] 

Ablabes porphyraceus. 
Seven specimens. 

No. VII. 
No. VIII. 
No. IX. 
No. X. 
No. XI. 
No.- XIa, 
No. 16 of 
1909. 
The dorsal scales counted 19 anteriorly and at midbody, and 17 posterior- 
ly in all the specimens, the reduction being due to the 4th and 5th rows- 
above the ventrals coalescing. 

In two specimens Nos. IX and XI the frontal touches eight shields being, 
in contact with the preeocular shields in addition to the normal ones. 

In No. X the 26th, 27th, and 28th subcaudals counting from the vent are 
single. 

The colour of the small (apparently immature) specimens, Nos. VII, X and 
1 XIa was a pale dove-colour (a kind of dirty white), while that of the large 
I ones was a rich red exactly answering to Major Wall's description of " raw 
beef colour,'' but this colour rapidly disappears in spirit. No. 16 of 1909 was 
a yellowish colour, possibly an intermediate stage between the other two. 
The colour within the annulations was the same in all the specimens, i.e., 
a deep mahogany red. The number of annulations varied little, but the- 
marks themselves were often very irregiuar and sometimes were broken up 
into two or three small circles. 

Coluber prasinus. 

One specimen, No. XXXVII. 

The head only was preserved much bleached by strong spirit, the rest of 
the specimen had to be thrown away. 

Length 42 inches. Dorsal scales 19 anteriorly and at midbody, 15 
posteriorly. Ventrals 202. Anal entire. Subcaudals 109 pairs. The hori- 



338 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

zontal diameter of the eye slightly less than its distance from the nostril. 
Frontal shield not as long as its distance from the point of the snout ; in 
contact with eight other shields. Supralabials 9, of which Nos. 4, 5 and 6 
enter the orbit of the eye. Preeocular one on either side. Loreal one. 
Postoculars two. Temporals two anterior ones on the right, one on the 
left. Infralabials 10, five of them touching the anterior and two the pos- 
terior sublinguals. The posterior sublinguals longer than the anterior. The 
specimen came from Nabwel village near Haka, altitude about 5,000 feet. 

Coluber tceniurus. 

A single specimen, No. 10 of 1909. 

Length 5 It. 6 ins. Tail 12-| ins. The dorsal scales numbered 23 — 21 
— 17. Ventrals 250. Anal divided. Subcaudals 98 pairs doubtfully. It 
was caught in the military police lines and apparently taken for a King 
Cobra to judge from the way it was knocked about. 

Simotes albocinctus. 
[Var. — typica — F. W.] 

Two specimens were obtained. 

No. XII was killed by my wife about half a mile from Haka on the 
Haka-Falam road in September 1907, and is now much bleached. Length 
20 ins. Tail 4 ins. Dorsal scales 19 — 19 — 15. Ventrals 181. Anal entire. 
Subcaudals 61 pairs. Supralabials on right side seven, of which 3rd and 
4th enter the eye ; on left eight, 4th and 5th entering the eye. 

No. XIII was brought from Nerlon village just below Haka, altitude about 
6,000 ft. or perhaps less. Length 29 ins, Tail 4| in. Dorsals 19—19—15. 
Ventrals 191, Nos. 75 and 76 from the head having a small division near one 
side, possibly the result of an accident. Subcaudals 52 pairs. The suture 
between the internasal shields is greater than that between the prsefrontal 
pair. The supralabials present the same abnormality as in No. XII. Colour 
mahogany red above, coral red below with large squarish black spots near 
the ends of the ventrals. There are 27 white dorsal cross bands about two 
scales wide, edged with black. On the nape the white cross band is dis- 
torted forwards to the parietal shields where it disappears, its black margin 
ending in a circular black spot on the parietals. A black or dark-brown 
mark curves across the head through the eyes to the labial margin. There 
are some small black lateral spots. 

Oligodon dorsalis. 

Four specimens all captured on roads in the station. 

Length. Tail. Ventrals. Subcaudals. 

No. XIV.. .. 20" 2f" 179 35 pairs. 

No. XV .. .. 16" li" 170 27 „ 

No. 9 of 1909 . . 17i" 2f" 176 42 „ 

.No. 11 of 1909 .. 7" I" 179 38 „ 



COLLECTION OF OPHIDIA FROM THE CHIN HILLS. 339 

The dorsals in all four specimens were 15 — 15 — 13, the step occurring at 
midbody. I have noted under No. XIV the remark "nasal undivided, i.e., 
nostril pierced in centre of a single nasal shield" and under No. XV "nasal 
and nostril as in No. XIV." If these remarks are correct the characteristic, 
though of minor importance, is interesting in view of Major Wall's remarks 
on the affinities of this species on pages 327 and 328 of Vol. XVIII of the 
Society's Journal, where the shield is depicted in the illustration as 
undivided though in the "Fauna of British India" it is described as 
"divided." Alight-coloured vertebral band with a series of black spots 
(XIV) or a black line (XV) on either side and the bright red colour beneath 
the tail as described by Major Wall in Vol. XVIII, page 328. 

[This species has only once before been recorded from the Burmese 
Province, viz., from Mansi, Katha District, this specimen being in our 
Society's collection. Its occurrence in the Chin Hills was to be expected, 
though never previously reported. — F. W.] 

Zamenis mucosus. 

One specimen, No. XVI, brought to me from below Nerlon village, 
altitude about 6,000 ft. or less. Length 6 ft. 6| ins. Tail 18 ins. 
Greatest girth 5 ins. Ventrals 192. Anal entire. Subcaudals 92 pairs, 
the 16th from the tip of the tail being entire. — Dorsals. The disposition of 
these scales I made out to be as follows : — At two heads-lengths behind 
head 19, immediately behind this 17, at midbody 17, and at two heads- 
lengths from vent 10. The steps occurred as below : — : 

From 17 to 16. — Vertebral and adjacent row on the left unite, after 
two scales they separate again for one scale's length, 
then unite, divide again and unite again. 
From 16 to 14. — The 2nd and 3rd rows on the left, and the 3rd and 4th 

rows on the right are absorbed. 
From 14 to 13. — The vertebral and adjacent row on the right unite, the 
scales thus formed being doubly keeled for a con- 
siderable distance. 
From 13 to 12. — The 2nd and 3rd rows on the left unite. 
From 12 to 11. — The 2nd and 3rd rows on the right unite. 
From 11 to 10. — The vertebral row unites with the adjoining row on the 
left and the following scales are again doubly keeled. 
The distance "two heads-lengths from the vent" was only roughly taken 
in this instance. On the right the 7th supralabial is much produced upwards 
causing a distortion of the temporal shields on that side. There were three 
loreal shields on the left and four on the right arranged as follows : — ante- 
riorly one large shield followed by three small ones. There was a small 
subocular, or it might be considered a lower prseocular, on either side, 
The colour is uniform dark-brown, 
U 



340 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX, 

Pseudoxenodon maerops. 

Two specimens, Nos. 18 and 14 of 1909. 

No. 13 of 1909 has a length of 30 ins. of which the tail is 6f ins. 
Ventrals 173. Subcaudals 82 pairs. 

No. 14 of 1909.— Length 42| ins. Tail 9 ins. Ventrals 168. Subcaudals 
81 pairs. 

I should here remark that the identification of these two specimens as well 
as that of the following ones was worked out by Major Wall. The two 
Pseudoxenodon specimens were originally included by me in my remarks on 
the Tropidonoti, of which I wrote that I found the identification of the 
species from the literature at my disposal so difficult that I decided to 
leave it to others ; but the return of my manuscript with Major WalFs 
remarks has enabled me to re-arrange the notes so as to accord with the 
identification of the specimens and to add the names to the numbers 
which were given alone before. 

Genus Tropidonotus . 

Two of the specimens I obtained, Nos. XXXV and XXXVI, I thought, 
at first, must be some new kind, but afterwards thought they might belong 
to the species modestus or the genus Polyodontophis . They appeared to me 
sufficiently interesting to describe at length, but as they have now been 
given specific rank and are described by Major Wall in a note which will 
appear in this Journal, it will only be necessary to give a few details here 
which are not mentioned by him, and to express my appreciation of the 
honour accorded me. 

The two specimens were obtained from close to the station, and I have 
since obtained a third. No. XXXV was taken on the 8th October 1908 
and No. XXXVI on the 26th September 1908. 

There is no doubt that these two specimens (XXXV and XXXVI) con- 
stitute a species which has hitherto never been described, and I venture to 
name it after its discoverer. I think there can be no doubt that it should 
be classified as a Tropidonotus, its resemblance to the species of this genus 
being very striking except in one important particular, viz., the costal rows, 
which number 17 and remain the same in the whole body length. 

Only one other of the Indian Tropidonoti has 17 costal rows, viz., punctlatus 
which is also a Burmese snake. In this [punctlatus) the rows fall to 15 
posteriorly, agreeing with the fall from 19 to 17 which occurs in all other 
Tropidonoti. The subcaudal shields are more numerous in (yenningi) than 
in any other Indian species, and in fact than in any other world species 
excepting two from Madagascar and one from America, still I think it 
should be considered Tropidonotus on the teeth. — F. W.] 

The other Tropidonoti sent were eleven specimens besides two immature 
ones. These were supposed all to be either himalayanus or subminiatus, but 



COLLECTION OF 0PH1DIA FROM THE CHIN HILLS. 341 

two of them turned out to be Pseudoxenodon macrops and have already been 
referred to. Major Wall's note, which I place here, gives the identity of 
the others. 

[I have examined the eleven specimens referred to by Mr. Venning and 
find that his Nos. XVIII, XX, 2 of 1909, and 15 of 1909 are himalayanus, his 
XIX, XXI, 1, 4, and 8 of 1909 are subminiatus, and his 13 and 14 of 1909 are 
Pseudoxenodon macrops. The two immature ones referred to marked XLff 
and XL£, are himalayanus. 

Some of the Tropidonoti are difficult to identify from one another, and 
this is specially the case when a specimen is abnormal. It frequently 
happens that the supralabials and the number of the anterior temporal 
shields are abnormal, and as these shields are of much assistance in dis- 
tinguishing between some closely allied species the difficulty will be readily 
appreciated. No. XIX of Mr. Venning's list from the lepidosis might well 
be stolatus, but the colour negatived the idea. No buff stripes were to be 
seen, and no black chequering anteriorly, and no supralabials showed black 
at the sutures. It is in reality subminiatus, abnormal in having but one tem- 
poral, but the colour of the body did not assist the identification, the usual 
brilliant vermilion of the neck being totally absent. 

The single broad subocular black blotch gave me the clue to its identity, 
and in comparing it carefully with other subminiatus specimens I was able 
to satisfy myself that it was one of this species. — F. W.] 

The following table is reconstructed on the above notes : — 

Tropidonotus himalayanus. 



No. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Ventrals. 


Subcaudals. 


Date of capture 


XV1I1 


. . 26" 


H" 


160 


92 pairs 


2-7 -08. 


XX 


. . 27" 


7h.n 

' 4 


165 


89 „ 


10-10-08. 


2 of 1909 


25" 


71" 

' 4 


159 


93 „ 


28- 4-09. 


15 of 1909 


9Q3// 


9i" 


161 


1± „ 


Tail imperfect. 
9- 7-09. 






Ti -opidono tus subminia tus . 




XIX 


. . 23i" 


6^" 


163 


96 pairs 


10- 8-08. 


XXI 


. . 30|" 


8|" 


174 


91 „ 


14-10-08. 


1 of 1909 


. . 33i" 


8" 


167 


85 „ 


11- 4-09. 


4 of 1909 


. . 18" 


4.1" 


169 


94 „ 


9- 5-09. 


8 of 1909 


. . 39" 


n" 


163 


82 „ 


24- 5-09. 



No. XVII, which I think must have been a subminiatus, had to be thrown 
away. It was taken on 11th June 1908 and contained about 9 eggs, and it 
had swallowed a frog. Its length was 29f inches of which the imperfect 
tail accounted for 5 inches. It had 8 supralabials with 4th and 5th entering 
the eye. It had the vermilion tinge on its neck and the single black 



342 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

triangular spot on the 6th and 7th labials. Its ventrals were 142, and sub- 

caudals 47. In two cases frogs and in one cage the remains of a lizard 

were found in the abdominal cavity. None of the specimens which were 

brought to me alive ever showed any temper nor could I induce them to 

bite. When teased they nearly invariably arched their necks slightly so as 

to depress their noses to the ground and remained in that position. In no 

specimen did I note a black nuchal spot although one or two had a distinct 

orange collar. No. 4 of 1909 has a dark spot in front of the orange collar. 

Sub-family — Dipsadin^;. 

DipsadomoipJms hexagonotus. 

Two specimens. 

No. XXVI. — Length 26 ins. Tail 4| ins. Dorsals 19—19 — 14. The steps 
take place as follows : — First the 3rd and 4th rows above the ventrals 
on the left unite making 18 rows, next the 3rd and 4th on both sides unite 
and the next row to the vertebral on the left is absorbed into the vertebral 
row making thus 15 rows. After this the vertebral and adjacent rows 
become very much mixed up and at last at two heads-lengths from the 
vent 14 rows are left. The ventrals are 242 and the subcaudals 86 (?). 
The anal is entire. 

No. XXVII.— Length 16| ins. Tail 3£ ins. Dorsals 19—19—13, the 

absorptions occurring in the vertebral rows chiefly. The ventrals are 222 (?). 

Psa mmodynas tes pulvei -ulen tus . 

One small specimen, No. XXVIII, was obtained. Dorsals 17—17—15. 

Ventrals 161. Anal entire. One anterior temporal. One prseocular and 

two postoculars. 

Sub-family ElapinjE. 
Callophis macclellandi. 
Var A. 
Four specimens. 



No. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Ventrals. 


Subcaudals. 


Date of capture 


XXII 


. . 25" 


9 in 

■"8 


195 


33 pairs 


10-9-08. 


XXIII 


. . 25i" 


3" 


192 


34 „ 


15-9-08. 


XXIV 


. . 25" 


3" 


197 


35 „ 


17-9-08. 


XXV 


. . 29f" 


3J" 


194 


34 „ 


4-10-08. 



No. XXIII had the 4th subcaudals from the vent entire, and No. XXV 
the 12th from the vent on the left very large and distorted. The black annula- 
tions numbered in No. XXII thirty-one, in No. XXIII twenty-nine, the 6th 
from the head being in two parts, in No. XXIV thirty-one and in No. XXV. 
thirty-two with 4 on the tail in each case. All the specimens had the 
ivory cross bar on the head. I could never provoke any of them to bite or: 
show any temper. i 



COLLECTION OF OPHIDIA FROM THE CHIN HILLS. 343 

Family— VIPERID^E . 

Sub-family — CROTALiNiE . 
Lacliesis gramineus. 
Two specimens. 

No. XXIX.— Length 20 ins. Tail 3| ins. Dorsals 21—21—15. Ven- 
trals 166. Subcaudals 63. Colour grass green above with a series of white 
vertebral spots and a white line on the outer rows of scales with a red line 
below it, extending from the gape to half way along the tail. Tail reddish 
above. Beneath greenish white. 

No. XXX.— Length 25 in. Tail 4 in. Dorsals 21—21—15. Ventrals 159. 
Subcaudals 55. Colour as in the last but without the vertebral spots. 
Taken on the 10th October 1908. 

Lacliesis mon ticola . 
No. XXXI.— Length 19f ins. Tail 2 1 ins. Dorsals 25—23—21. Ven- 
trals 151. Subcaudals 36. Three rows of scales between the eye and the 
labials. Postoculars two small ones. Supralabials 7 on the right, but 8 on 
the left. 

No. XXXII.— Length 21$ ins. Tail 3^ ins. Dorsals 25—25—19. Ven- 
trals 151. Subcaudals 47. 

No. 17 of 1909. — An immature specimen, 10J ins. in length. Tail 1-| ins. 
Dorsals 25—23—? Ventrals 144. Subcaudals 40. 

Two immature specimens, Nos. XXXIo and XXXI6 were brought in with 
No. XXXI and said to be its young. 

Lacliesis jerdoni. 
Five mature specimens. 

No. XXXIII, a female kept in captivity by me, gave birth on the 12th 
September 1908 to four young ones two of which, Nos. XXXIII« and 
XXXIII6 survived. The dorsals counted 21 anteriorly (except in one 
specimen, No. 6 of 1909 in which they numbered 23), 21 at midbody and 17 
posteriorly. Three specimens were captured by me on the rifle range one 
morning, viz., Nos. 5, 6 and 7 of 1909. No. 5 had subsequently to be 
thrown away. Nos. 6 and 7 of which 6 is a male and 7, I presume, a female, 
were caught "in copula", I think, as they were found together under a 
large fallen thistle on 15th May 1909. 

A great many of the specimens collected had to be thrown away as will 
be seen from the following table of the numbers of commoner snakes 
received : — 

Tropidonotus . . .. .. 19 specimens (may include also 

Pseudoxenodon) . 
Oliyodon dorsalis . . . . 4 specimens. 

Lachesis gramineus .. . . 16 specimens. 

„ jerdoni . . . . 8 specimens, 

„ monticola . . . . 6 specimens. 



344 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

It maj- be remarked that where "lengths" are given they include the 
tail length which is given under "tail", and that unless otherwise stated 
such measurements are in inches. In speaking of the number of rows of 
dorsal scales " anterior " means at two heads-lengths from the head, and 
" posterior" at two heads-lengths in front of the vent. 

In addition to the ophidia, two specimens, out of about one dozen, 
Ophisaurus gracilis were sent. Also an embryo lizard, Calotes jerdoni 
extracted by me from an egg. The remaining eggs of the brood, ten in 
number, hatched out in a box of earth on 20th August 1908. This is a very 
common lizard in Haka. 

The nomenclature followed is that given by Mr. Boulenger in the "Fauna 
< if British India. Rejjtilia and Batrachia", 



345 
A NEW TROPIDONOTUS FROM THE CHIN HILLS. 

BY 

Major F. Wall, I.M.S. 
TROPIDONOTUS VENNINGI (spec. nov.). 

Three specimens were received which from the maxillary denti- 
tion I place with the genus Tropidonotus. The maxillary teeth are 
29, the last two or three gradually enlarging ; with no gap sepa- 
rating the enlarged from the preceding teeth. The enlarged teeth 
are not twice as long as the median teeth. The dentition thus 
accords with the type of Nerodia. 

No. 1. — Length 2 feet and k\ inches, the tail 9 inches. 

Rostral touches 6 shields, all the sutures being subequal. Inter- 
nasals. — A pair; the suture between them f that between the 
prefrontal fellows, f the internaso-pras frontal. Prcefrontals. — A 
pair ; the suture between them equals the presfronto-f 'rontal ; touch- 
ing the internasal, postnasal, loreal, upper prseocular and supraocular. 
Frontal. — The supraocular sutures rather longer than the rest. 
Supraoculars. — Length rather less than frontal, breadth less than 
half frontal. Nasals divided, in contact with the 1st and 2nd 
supralabials. Loreal. — One. Prceoculars. — Two. Postoculars. — 
Three.- Temporal. — One. Supralabials. — 9, the 5th and 6th 
touching the eye on the left side, 8 with the 4th and 5th touching 
the eye on the right side. Infralabials . — The 7th is the last of the 
series, and in contact with three scales behind. Sublinguals. — Two 
pairs, the posterior longer than the anterior, and in contact with the 
5th, 6th and 7th infralabials. Gostals, in 19 rows in the whole body 
length : rather faintly keeled except in the last 3 rows where 
keels are absent. Ventrals 167. Anal divided. Subcaudals 124 
divided except the last four which are entire. Colour. — Dark 
blackish-brown with an indistinct chequering of black streaks. 
A pale collar incomplete mesially. Head marbled with black and 
grey, all the labial sutures blackish. Belly black beneath the tail. 
and hind body, becoming more and more mottled with greyish 
towards the throat which is mostly a dirty white. 

The second specimen agrees except in the following particulars :— 
J. he costals are 16 posteriorly owing to a confluence of the 3rd and 



346 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

4th rows on the right side. The supralabials are 9 on both sides, 
the 5th and 6th touching the eye. The ventrals and subcaudals 
are 172 and 135, the latter all divided. The length is 2 feet 
3 inches and the tail 9 inches. 

Habitat. — Haka Chin Hills. Type is in the British Museum 
(Natural History) and co.-type in the Bombay Natural History 
Society's Collection. 

A third specimen has since been obtained in which the ventrals 
and sub-caudals are 165 -f- 119. 

One juv- sent to the British Museum. 



347 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON, 
INDIGENOUS AND INTRODUCED. 

BY 

E. Blatter, S. J. 

Part II. 

( With Plates II, III, IV & V.) 

(Continued from page 6 % of this Volume.) 

I.— CORYPHIKZE. 

Spadix loosely branched, often a prolix panicle. Flowers diclinous, 
polygamous or hermaphrodite, single or in long rows flowering 
from above ; carpels 3 (Thrinax 1), free or loosely united, always 
separating after fertilisation and developing into 1 — 3 smooth 
berries. Fan or feather leaves ; leaflets induplicate. 

1. Phoenice^e. 

Spadix surrounded by a large complete spathe, remaining 
closed up to the time of pollination. Flowers dicecious, dimorphic. 
Ovary of 3 free carpels, one only ripening. Seed ventrally 
grooved; embryo usually dorsal. Leaves imparipinnate ; leaflets 
with induplicate sides. 

Distribution. — The whole of Africa (except the palmless regions, 
the South-African floral region and the East-African islands) ; 
Arabia ; Western Asia in the region of the Euphrates and Tigris, 
through India to the Sunda Islands and Cochin-China. 

The only genns is : 

PHOENIX, L. GEN. NAT. 1224, 

(From the Greek " Phoinix, " which was originally the name 
for " purple colour ; " later on the name was given to the Date 
Palm on account of the colour of the dates, which is somewhat 
between yellow and purple red.) 

Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. III. 257, 320, t. 120, 124, 136, 164.— Gaerfcn. 
1'ruct. I. t. 9.— Lam. 111. t. 893.— Roxb. Corom. PI. I. t. 74 ; III. t. 
12 



348 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Hook. Gen. PL III, II., 921, 80.— Trim. Journ. of Bot. 1885, XXIII, 
No. 273, p. 266. 

Tall trees or low shrubs, the entire stem or the upper portion 
only closely covered by the more or less rhomboid bases of the 
petioles ; stems occasionally branched. The first leaf of the seed- 
ling, and sometimes the first leaf of root-suckers is lanceolate, 
entire. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets entire, linear, folded longitudi- 
nally and attached obliquely with their folded base to the common 
woody petiole, the lowest pinnae usually transformed into spines ; 
no midrib, but a slender nerve on either side of the fold ; nerves 
longitudinal, parallel, stout and slender, the slender nerves often 
obscure ; transverse veinlets present, but usually only visible under 
the microscope in thin sections, cut parallel with the surface of 
the leaf. In the majority of species the leaflets in the lower 
portion of the petiole stand in fascicles of 4 or 6, 2 or 3 on each 
side of the petiole, while the upper leaflets are usually alternate or 
opposite ; common petiole semiterete or flat, often widening at the 
base into a sheath, which frequently expands into a mass of tough, 
reticulate fibres. Flowers dioecious, small, yellowish, coriaceous, 
sessile on the bends of long, glabrous, undulating spikelets, 
usually supported by 1 or 2 minute, subulate, or triangular bracts, 
the female flowers often approximate in pairs. The spikelets are 
inserted in horizontal or oblique lines on both sides of a flat, 
woody peduncle. Male flowers : Sepals 3, connate in a cupular 
3-toothed calyx. Petals 3, obliquely ovate, valvate. Stamens 6 ; 
filaments short, subulate ; anthers erect, dorsifixed ; pistillode minute 
or absent. Female flowers - : Sepals 3, connate in a globose, accre- 
scent calyx. Petals 3, rounded, imbricate, staminodes 6, free or 
connate in a 6-toothed cup. Carpels 3, free ; ovules erect ; 
stigmas sessile, hooked. Peduncle often lengthening after flower- 
ing. Fruit a single, oblong, 1 -seeded berry, with a terminal stigma, 
a fleshy pericarp, and a membranous endocarp ; seed oblong, ventral- 
ly grooved ; albumen uniform or subruminate ; embryo small. 

Species about 12. — Africa, Asia. 
273.— Griff. Palms Brit. Ind. 136 t. 128A, 129A, B.— Jacq. Fragm. t. 24.— 
KunthEnum. PL III. 254.— Miq. FL Ind. Bat. III. 62.— T. Anders. Journ. 
Lin. Soo. XI. 13.— Drude Bot. Zeitg. 1877, 638, t. vi. fig. 27-33.— Benth. & 



\ 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 349 

Sir Joseph Hooker calls his attempt at diagnosing the Indian 
species of Phoenix tentative and says that it awaits much further 
knowledge of the living plants before it can be accepted as trust- 
worthy. The same applies to the African species whose classifica- 
tion and distribution is still subject to discussion in spite of the 
investigations of Schweinfurth, Beccari, Engler, and Drude. 1 

Cultivation in Europe. — All the species are stove or green- 
house palms ; they are readily raised from imported seeds, sown in 
sandy soil, in a mild hotbed. When the seedlings have reached a 
sufficient size, they are potted off singly into small pots with the 
same kind of soil in which the seeds were sown. Later on, good 
turfy loam will be better. In the South of France, many of the 
species are largely grown in the open air, to supply the demand 
for well grown specimens for the decoration of apartments in Paris 
and other places. The method adopted is this : " The plants are 
taken up, the soil shaken from the roots, the palms packed in 
bundles, and forwarded to Paris, where each one is firmly placed 
in as small a pot as possible ; t\\ej are then plunged in a mild 
hotbed in a warm house which is kept shaded and syringed until 
new roots have formed, when shading is gradually removed, and 
the plants hardened off. ■ By these means, much better specimens 
are more rapidly and cheaply obtained than would be possible 
under a system of pot-culture from the seedling stage onwards.'" 
(Nich. Diet, of Gard.) 

1 Those who wish to get an insight into the difficulties of the Phoenix-question 
care referred to the following authors : — 
Martius, Historia Naturalis Palmarum, vol. III. 
Jacquin, Fragmenta botanica 1809, p. 27. 
Kirk, On the Palms of Eastern Tropical Africa, in the Journal of the Linn. Soc, 

London IX (1865). 
Schweinfurth, Im Herzen von Africa. 
Beccari. Mitteilungen fiber die Colonia Eritrea, in " Verhandl. Ges. fur 

Erdkunde " (1892), p. 347. 
Engler, Hochgebirgsflora des tropischen Africa in Berliner Akad., Physik. 

Abt. II. 153. 
Beccarri, Malesia, vol. III. 3f off. 
Drude, Die Palmenflora des tropischen Africa in Engler's Bot. Jahrb. vol. XXI 

(1895). 
Drude, Paling (echte Palmen) in Nat. Pflanzenf. II. 3. 



350 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 
* Indigenous species. 

PHQINIX SYLVESTRIS, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 73; PI. Intl. III. 787; 
Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. III. 276 (excl. syn. Linn, et Ksempf.) 326, t. 
136. Kunth Emmi. III. 255 ; Wall. Cat. 8602 ; Griff, in Calc. Journ. Nat. 
Hist. V. 350; Palms Brit. Ind. 141, t. 228, A; Brandis For. Fl. 554; 
Ind. Trees 645; Kurz For. Fl. II. 535; Becc. Males. III. 347, 364, t. 
43, f. 3 ; Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. VI. 425 ; Cooke, Fl. Bomb. Pres. II. 801.— 
Elate sylvestris, L. Spec. PI. 1189 (partim). — Katu Pindel, Ham. in Trans. 
Linn. Soe. XV. 86.— Rheede Hort. Mal. III. t. 22, 25. 

Names. — Wild Date Palm, .Date-sugar Palm ; Sendhi", Kejur, 
Khajur, Khaji, Salma, Thalma, Thakil, (Hind.) ; Kajar, Kejur, 
(Beng.) ; lyhejuri, (Uriya) ; Khajur, (Kol.) ; Khijur, (Santal) ; 
Sindi, (Goncl) ; Khajur, Khaji, (Panj.) ; Seindi, (Berar) ; Sendi, 
Khajura, Khajuri, (Bomb.) ; Boichand, Sendri, Shindi (Mar.) ; 
Kharak, (Guz.) ; Sandole.-ka-nar, (Dec.) ; Itchumpannay, Peria- 
itcham, Itcham-nar, Itham pannay, (Tarn.) ; Ita, Pedda-ita, Ita- 
nara, Ishan-chedi, (Tel.): Ichal, Kullu, Ichalu mara, (Kan.); 
Khurjjuri, Kharjura, Madhukshir, (Sans.). 

-Description. — A very graceful palm, when not injured by ex- 
tracting toddy, 30-50 feet high. Trunk rough from the persistent 
bases of the leaf-stalks. Crown hemispherical, very large and 
thick, leaves 10-15 feet long, greyish-green, quite glabrous, pin- 
nate ; petioles compressed only towards the apex, at the base 
bearing a few channelled triangular short spines reaching 4 inches. 
Pinnules very numerous, densely fascicled, 6-18 by f-1 inch long, 
glaucous, rigid, ensiform, conduplicate at the base, then canali- 
culate, subulately acuminated, almost spinous pointed, 2-4 farious, 
some intermediately' spreading, others crossing these above and 
below in an ascending direction. Male flowers white, scented ; 
spadix 2-3 feet long, erect ; peduncle highly compressed. Spathes 
of about the same length, very coriaceous, almost woody, scurfy, 
separating into two boat-shaped valves. Spikes very numerous 
towards the apex of the peduncle, especially on its anterior face, 
generally in fascicles and simple, 4-6 inches long, slender, flexuose. 
Flowers £-^ inch long, very numerous, angular, oblique. Calyx 
cup-shaped, with 3 short rounded teeth. Petals three or four times 
lunger than the sepals, concave, warty on the outside, on the inside 



Joukx. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate II. 




Phoenix sylvestris, Eoxb. 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 351 

deeply ridged and furrowed. Filaments scarcely any, or very short, 
free. Anthers linear, adnate, shorter than the petals. Female 
flowers : Spadix and spathe much the same as in the male. 
Spikes arranged in distinct groups, l-l-|*foot long, the lower 4 — G 
inches not bearing any flowers, fiexuose. Flowers distant, 
roundish. Calyx cup-shaped, obsoletely 3-toothed. Petals 3, 
very broad, convolutely imbricate, having a small opening at the 
apex. Staminodes 3-4. Carpels 3, free, erect ; ovules solitary ; 
style recurved, inwardly papillose. Fruiting spadix 3 feet long, 
nodding at the apex from the weight of the fruit, much compressed, 
of a golden orange colour. Fruit scattered on long pendulous 
similarly coloured spikes, 1-1 \ inch long, oblong-ellipsoid, orange- 
yellow, with a terminal stigma, surrounded at the base by the 
perianth. Pericarp fleshy, yellow, moderate, very astringent, lined 
by irregular cellular white tissue, part of which adheres to the thin 
envelope that separates with the Seed. Seeds § inch long, rounded 
at the ends, deeply grooved along its whole length on one side, 
with a slight incomplete furrow on the other side, in the centre of 
which is a depression with a mammillate fundus, indicating the 
position of the embryo. Albumen on a transverse section horse- 
shoe-shaped. 

Habitat. — Tolerably common throughout India, wild or more 
often cultivated. Forms extensive forests in Rohilkhand, on the 
low ground along the Ramganga river, and on the plateau of 
Mysore, between Shimoga and Tumkur, in moister stretches of low 
ground which intersect and drain the rocky undulating granite 
hills. Not uncommon in the Siwalik tract and the outer Hima- 
laya, often associated with Pinus longifolia, reaching up to 5,000 
feet in Kumaon, with stems 40 — 50 feet high. Ghiaunla in Ghar- 
wal at 3,500 feet. Banks of the Bias above Mandi. In the Jamu 
hills at 2,000 feet elevation. Salt range. Commonly planted and 
self-sown in most parts of India and Ceylon, except in Sind and 
South Punjab, where P. dactylif&ra takes its place. Most abundant 
in Bengal, Behar, on the Coromandel Coast, and in Guzerat. In 
the Bombay Presidency it is common in moist ground throughout 
the dry districts, usually along banks and in the beds of streams and 
watercourses. 



352 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

Flowers at the beginning of the hot season. Fruit ripens in 
September and October. 

Uses. — In many localities, especially in Jessore and other districts 
of Bengal, this species is* of considerable importance, owing to the 
extensive use of its sap in making sugar. According to Sir 
George Watt, there were in 1889, 168,262 acres of this palm 
under cultivation connected with the sugar supply. Sir James 
Westland has given a full account of the process of tapping the 
trees and of the manufacture of sugar from the crude sap in his 
" Eeport on the District of Jessore, 1874." When the tree is 
ripe the process of tapping begins, and it is continued each year 
thereafter. There are in the Date-palm two series or stories as it 
were, of leaves ; the crown leaves, which rise straight out from the 
top of the trunk, being, so to speak, a continuation of it ; and the 
lateral leaves, which spring out of the side of the top part of the 
trunk. When the rainy season has completely passed, and there 
is no more fear of rain, the cultivator cuts off the lateral leaves for 
one-half of the circumference, and thus leaves bare a surface 
measuring about 10 or 12 inches each way. This surface is at 
first a brilliant white, but becomes by exposure quite brown, and 
puts on the appearance of coarse matting. The surface thus laid 
bare is not the woody fibre of the tree, but is a bark formed of 
many thin layers, and it is these layers which thus change their 
colour and texture. 

" After the tree has remained for a few days thus exposed, the 
tapping is performed by making a cut into this exposed surface, in 
the shape of a very broad V, about three inches across and a 
quarter or half inch deep. Then the surface inside the angle of 
the V is cut down, so that a triangular surface is cut into the tree. 
From this surface exudation of the sap takes place, and caught by 
the sides of the V, it runs down to the angle, where a bamboo of 
the size of a lead pencil is inserted in the tree to catch the dropping 
sap and carry it out as by a spout. 

" The tapping is arranged, throughout the season, by periods of 
six days each. On the first evening a cut is made as just described, 
and the juice is allowed to run during the night. The juice so 
flowing is the strongest and best, and is called jiran juice. In the 



Jouen. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 



Plate III. 




Group op Wild Date Palms (Phoenix sylvestris) 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 353 

morning the juice collected in a pot hanging beneath the bamboo 
spoilt is removed, and the heat of the sun causes the exuding 
juice to ferment over and shut up the pores in the tree. So in the 
evening the new cut is made, not nearly so deep as the last, but 
rather a mere paring, and for the second night the juice is allowed 
to run. This juice is termed do-kat and is not quite so abundant 
or so good as the jiran. The third night no new cutting is made, 
but the exuding surface is merely made quite clean, and the juice 
which then runs is called jarra. It is still less abundant and less 
rich than the do-kat, and towards the end of the season, when it is 
getting hot, it is unfit even for sugar manufacture, the gur 
(molasses) made from it being sold simply as " droppings." These 
three nights are the periods of activity in the tree, and after these 
three it is allowed to remain for three nights at rest, when the 
same process again begins. Of course, every tree in the same grove 
does not run in the same cycle, some are at their first, some 
at their second night, and so on ; and thus the owner is always 
busy. 

" Since every sixth day a new cut is made over the previous one, 
it follows that the tree gets more and more hewed into as the 
season progresses, and towards the end of the season the exuding 
surface may be, and often is, as much as four inches below the 
surface above and below. The cuts are during the whole of one 
season made about the same place, but in alternate seasons alter- 
nate sides of the tree are used for the tapping ; and as each 
season's cutting is thus above the previous season's and on the 
opposite side, the stem of the tree has a curious zigzag appearance. 
The age of a tree can of course be at once counted up by 
enumerating the notches and adding six or seven, the number of 
years passed before the first year's notch. I have counted more 
than forty- notches on a tree, but one rarely sees them so old as 
that and when they are forty-six years old they are worth little as 
produce bearing trees. It is somewhat remarkable that the notches 
are almost always on the east and west sides of the tree and very 
rarely on the north and south sides ; also, the first notch appears 
to be made in by far the majority of instances on the east 
side. 



354 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

" As to the produce of one tree, one may expect from a good 
tree a regular average of five seers per night (excluding the 
quiescent nights). The colder and clearer the weather, the more 
copious and rich the produce. In the beginning of November 
tapping has begun. In December and January the juice flows 
best, beginning sometimes as early as 3 p.m., anddAvindles away as 
the warm days of March come. If the cultivator begins too early, 
or carries on too late, he will lose in quality and quantity as 
much as he will gain by extending the tapping season. 

" The next processs is the boiling, and this every rayat does for 
himself, and usually within the limits of the grove. Without 
boiling, the juice speedily ferments and becomes useless ; but once 
boiled down into gur, it may be kept for very long periods. The 
juice which was at first brilliant and limpid, becomes now a dark 
brown, half-viscid, half-solid mass, and when it is still warm, it is 
easily poured from the boiling pan into the earthenware pots in 
which it is ordinarily kept. As it takes from seven to ten seers of 
juice to produce one seer of gur or molasses, we can calculate the 
amount of gur which one ordinarily good tree can produce in a 
season. We may count four and a half months for the tapping 
season, or about sixty-seven tapping nights. These, at five seers 
each, produce 335 seers of juice, which will give about forty seers, 
or one maund of gur, the value of which, at present rates, is from 
Es. 2 to Es. 2-4-0." 

After the juice is boiled down into gur it is then sold to the 
sugar-refiners and by them is manufactured in various ways into 
different grades of sugar. The best known is called dhulva, a soft 
moist, powdery sugar, used largely in the manufacture of native 
sweetmeats. Another kind, termed pucka, is a purer, granular, 
and more expensive sugar. The waste molasses, collected during 
the preparation of sugar, is called chitiya gur, when boiled for a 
longer time, it becomes a black, stickj^ treacle, which is largely 
utilised for mixing with the tobacco for the Native hookah, and 
also for making cheap sweets. A small proportion of the juice is 
consumed as a drink either fermented or unfermented, under the 
name of tari, or is converted into vinegar. 

Sir George Watt mentions that in recent vears an endeavour 



THE PALMS OF BRITISH INDIA AND CEYLON. 355 

has been made to promote the manufacture of sugar in the Central 
Provinces ; a company has already been formed under the name of 
the " Khandwa Sugar Manufacturing Company." 

From the leaves bags, basket-work, brooms, fans, etc., are made. 
The footstalks, after being beaten, are converted into ropes 
for drawing water from wells. The fibres are plentiful, soft, 
bleach well, and are very well adapted for the use of paper- 
makers. 

From the tree a gum is obtained, of which very little is known. 
The fruit is of an inferior kind and only eaten by the poorer 
classes, or used as medicine. Pounded and mixed with almonds, 
quince seeds, pistachio nuts, spices, and sugar it forms a restora- 
tive. A paste formed of the kernels and the root of Aclvyrantlies 
aspera, is eaten with betel leaves as a remedy for ague. 

Cultivation in India. — " The soil required for this palm is rich 
alluvial or black with moving water at about 10 feet from the sur- 
face or with irrigation and thorough under-ground drainage from 
a bed of gravel not less than 6 feet below the surface. The seeds 
should be sown when quite fresh, without removing the pulp, on 
a bed of rich loam dressed heavily with leaf-mould. When 
G inches high the little plants should be put out 18 inches apart 
in carefully prepared nursery beds, and grown carefully till 4 feet 
high, then transplanted to their permanent quarters, which may 
be in lines 30 feet apart, with 20 feet between each tree in the 
line. The ground should then be kept under irrigated crops for 
two years to get the young trees established." (WoodroAv). 

Illustration. — Plate II. The photograph, supplied by Mr. 
Phipson, shows a fine specimen of Phoenix sylvestris growing on 
the Hanging Gardens, Malabar Hill, Bombay. The dense, almost 
spherical crown, with the gracefully bending leaves at once 
distinguishes this species from the real Date Palm (P. dactylifera). 
The lower part of the stem is covered with ferns and other vegeta- 
tion. As the stem, however, is the same throughout, i.e., covered 
by the persistent bases of the leaf-stalks, the imagination can 
easily supply the hidden part of the trunk. 

Plate III. The photograph shows a small group of Wild Date 
Palms with their natural surroundings. It is a scene on the 
13 



356 JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY, Vol. XX. 

seashore on the East side of Malabar Hill, Bombay, characteristic 
of man}' parts of India. 

PHOENIX ZEYLANICA, Trimen in Journ. Bot, XXIII, 267 (1885) ; 
Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. VI. 425 ; Trimen PL Ceylon IV. 326.— Phoenix 
seylanica, Hort ; Hook, f . in Kew Report, 1882, 63. — Phoenix sylvestris, 
Thw. Enum. 329 (non Eoxb.) .— Elate